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"Musician and satirist Allie Goertz wrote a song about the "The Simpsons" character Milhouse, who Matt Groening named after who? The Simpsons is an American animated television sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical parody of a middle class American lifestyle epitomized by its eponymous family, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie. It is set in the fictional town of Springfield, and lampoons American culture, society and television, and many aspects of the human condition. The family was conceived by Groening shortly before a pitch for a series of animated shorts with producer James L. Brooks. Groening created a dysfunctional family and named the characters after members of his own family, substituting Bart for his own name. The shorts became a part of The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987 and after a three-season run, the sketch was developed into a half-hour prime time show and became a hit series for Fox. The growing popularity of the series motivated video game developers to create video games based on the series. Two pinball machines have also been produced; one self-titled, that was only made available for a limited time after the first season finale (1990) and The Simpsons Pinball Party (2003). Additionally, several handheld device games have been released, such as Bartman: Avenger of Evil (1990) and Bart Simpson's Cupcake Crisis (1991).Video games based on the series have reached multiple platforms since their debut in 1991. The Simpsons' first video game release, The Simpsons, developed and published by Konami, saw a release on the Commodore 64 and DOS, while Bart vs. the Space Mutants (1991), developed by Imagineering, expanded the franchise into new platforms, including the Amstrad CPC, NES and Master System. Over the next few years, the franchise would continue to expand, releasing system-exclusive games, such as the PC's Cartoon Studio (1996) and the PlayStation's The Simpsons Wrestling (2001). The release of The Simpsons Game (2007), developed by EA Redwood Shores (Visceral Games), further expanded the franchise, appearing on new platforms including the Wii, Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3. Due to the series' longevity, The Simpsons video games have also spanned across many genres, such as the puzzle game Krusty's Fun House (1992), the sports game Itchy & Scratchy in Miniature Golf Madness (1994) and racing game Road Rage (2001). The Simpsons is also one of the franchises spotlighted in the toys-to-life video game Lego Dimensions (2015).== Video games ==As of October 2020, 27 video games focused on The Simpsons series have been released. The following table showcases the correspondent title, release date, publisher, developer and the platforms on which each game was released along with any other relevant information. A detailed overview of each game can be found in their corresponding articles, with the exception of games without articles, which instead have a brief overview in a footnote.== See also ==List of video game franchises== Notes ==== References == Milhouse Mussolini Van Houten is a recurring character in the animated television series The Simpsons, voiced by Pamela Hayden, and created by Matt Groening who named the character after President Richard Nixon's middle name. Later in the series, it is revealed about Milhouse that both his middle name and his maternal family name is "Mussolini". Milhouse is Bart Simpson's best friend in Mrs. Krabappel's fourth grade class at Springfield Elementary School, and is insecure, gullible, and less popular than Bart. Milhouse is often led into trouble by Bart, who takes advantage of his friend's naïveté, and he is also a regular target for school bullies Nelson Muntz and his friends Jimbo Jones, Dolph Starbeam and Kearney Zzyzwicz. He also has a crush on Bart's sister, Lisa, which is used as a plot element in many episodes. Milhouse and his family members are among the few residents in Springfield with visible, in fact rather thick, eyebrows.== Profile ==Milhouse is of Italian, Greek, Danish and Dutch descent, based on comments and characters introduced throughout the series. He shares the same physical features as both his parents, and his father's primary personality features (which include disappointment, insecurity, and generally depressed demeanor). He has none of his mother's confidence, except when specific storylines demand it. Milhouse is constantly bullied by Nelson Muntz, Jimbo Jones, Dolph Starbeam, and Kearney Zzyzwicz, to the point that when Bart questions Milhouse by saying "Milhouse! I thought you had a three o'clock wedgie with Nelson", in the episode "Little Orphan Millie", Milhouse simply responds "I had to reschedule". They do often inflict violence upon the geeky Milhouse, who wears thick eyeglasses, without which he cannot see.Although not disliked and having a moderate number of friends among other kids from school aside from Bart himself, Milhouse has made a career of getting victimized, although his overall true antagonists are the schoolyard bullies of Springfield Elementary (Nelson, Jimbo, Dolph, and Kearney). In "Sideshow Bob Roberts", Jimbo, Dolph, and Kearney wrapped Milhouse in bumper stickers and placed him in a shopping cart. After Jimbo claimed that "the mummy's ready for his mystical journey!", the bullies pushed the cart with Milhouse down a very steep hill. He is harmed frequently, and on some occasions is injured by dangerous hazards, e.g., being run over by a train, falling down a waterfall, receiving electrical shocks, having his head polished to bone, and having his teeth knocked out by a hockey puck. As a lead character he always survives and recovers, often with no further mention of any injuries. He frequently visited a female psychiatrist until even she could not deal with his constant calling and blocked his number.On one occasion, Bart got Milhouse placed on the FBI's Most Wanted List even though they are friends, and tried to lure Milhouse into a cactus. Milhouse is not always subservient to Bart; in "Bart Sells His Soul", Milhouse toyed with Bart's anxiety after Bart sold his soul for $5, and Milhouse demanded $50 to return it. On another occasion, Bart introduced Milhouse to his girlfriend and had to explain why he and Milhouse are friends, but could not come up with a good answer and admitted it was due to geographical convenience. Bart did admit in "Little Orphan Millie" that he loves Milhouse.Homer also sometimes makes fun of Milhouse (once referring to Milhouse in the boy's presence as "that little wiener"). In "Burns, Baby Burns", Larry, Mr. Burns' son, brings Homer to eat at his house. Mr. Burns was angry and he asks Homer if his son "brings home nitwits and make you talk to them", to which Homer answers "Oh, all the time! Have you ever heard of this kid Milhouse? He's a little wiener who...", before being interrupted by Burns. In an attempt to purposefully enrage his father, Bart once stated that he felt "a little attracted to Milhouse", sending Homer into a rage. Bart and Milhouse appear to be the same height, but in the episode "Radioactive Man", it is revealed that Milhouse is at least an inch taller than Bart.Milhouse is frequently the butt of a variety of jokes, such as being beaten up by Nelson for delivering a love note from Lisa (which Nelson thought was from Milhouse himself), having the door slammed in his face while playing Pin the Tail on the Donkey, having his possible budding homosexuality given away by his school counselor to Homer and Marge by accidentally picking up the wrong folder while discussing Bart, making him a wanted fugitive (see above), inadvertently inheriting Bart's dismal permanent record at school through a side deal arranged between Bart, Edna Krabappel and Principal Skinner, which will disqualify Milhouse from "all but the hottest and noisiest jobs".He is fluent in Italian ("The Last of the Red Hat Mamas") due to visiting his maternal grandmother in Tuscany for two weeks every year. She hates the English language and would beat him whenever he spoke English, thus he was forced to learn Italian. He also began bed-wetting that summer. He helps Lisa learn Italian, but there is no reference to his Italian background or language skills in any other episode. Milhouse's personality drastically changes when speaking Italian, becoming a suave, confident ladies' man popular with Springfield's Italian community in the episode.The show's opening sequence, and various scenes of band practice suggests that Milhouse plays a brass or woodwind instrument, possibly clarinet or trumpet, but all the Springfield Elementary band members, besides Lisa, are very poor musicians.Milhouse is allergic to honey, wheat, dairy, mistletoe, holly, the red parts of candy canes, and his own tears.=== Romance ===Milhouse harbors a crush on Lisa, but they remain close friends, as shown in "Lisa's Date with Density", when she admits she liked Nelson. At the end of that episode, after she has stopped liking Nelson, Milhouse asks Lisa who will be her next crush; Lisa coyly answers that it could be anybody and Milhouse rejoices.Lisa has always opposed the idea of going out with Milhouse (e.g. "Lisa's Date With Density" and "Future-Drama"), however in the episode "The Last of the Red Hat Mamas", after Milhouse starts tutoring Lisa in Italian and takes her to Springfield's Little Italy, she begins to develop feelings for him, until she catches him with a girl named Angelica, and began hitting him and cursing in Italian just like his grandmother had done.Milhouse's first real girlfriend was Samantha Stanky, a new student who had moved to Springfield from Phoenix, Arizona in the episode "Bart's Friend Falls in Love". After her father who responds to Bart's call caught her and Milhouse kissing, he sent her to a Catholic girls' school run by French-Canadian nuns. While Milhouse's official first kiss was with Samantha Stanky in the aforementioned episode, it was contradicted in the episode "The Way We Weren't", where Milhouse accidentally kisses Homer, during a game of spin the bottle that Homer interrupted. In the episode "Homer Scissorhands", Milhouse dated a 5th grader, Taffy. The relationship ended when Milhouse and Taffy caught Lisa spying on them in the bushes. Taffy told Lisa that Milhouse still loves her, and Lisa kisses Milhouse. Lisa told Milhouse that he should not give up searching for other girls and that life has unexpected things to offer.Milhouse and Lisa's relationship has been used in episodes set in the show's future, outside of the show's canon. In the episode "Lisa's Wedding," set 15 years into the future, Milhouse is Homer's boss at the nuclear plant, and after learning of Lisa's impending marriage, Milhouse recalls an earlier date with Lisa in which she said she might never marry, then angrily prepares Homer's annual review. Later in the episode, Lisa wonders if it is acceptable to wear a white wedding dress, suggesting that she had already lost her virginity; Marge, tells her "Milhouse doesn't count". In the episode "Holidays of Future Passed" (2011), set 30 years into the future, Lisa and Milhouse are married and have a daughter, Zia.== Creation ==Milhouse was designed by Matt Groening for a planned series on NBC, which was abandoned. The design was then used for a Butterfinger commercial, and it was decided to use the character in the series. Milhouse was named after U.S. president Richard Nixon, whose middle name was Milhous. The name was the most "unfortunate name Matt Groening could think of for a kid". Years earlier, in a 1986 Life in Hell comic entitled "What to Name the Baby", Groening listed Milhouse as a name "no longer recommended". Milhouse is a favorite among the staff as Al Jean noted "most of the writers are more like Milhouse than Bart". His last name was given to him by Howard Gewirtz, a freelance writer who wrote the episode "Homer Defined". Gewirtz got the name from one of his wife's friends. According to Arden Myrin and Dana Gould (former writer and co-executive producer of The Simpsons), Rob Cohen (Simpsons writer) inspired Milhouse's look.== See also ==== References ==== External links ==The Milhouse FileMilhouse Van Houten on IMDbMilhouse Van Houten on Simpsons Wiki Los Angeles Reader was a weekly paper established in 1978 and distributed in Los Angeles, United States. It followed the format of the (still-active) Chicago Reader. The paper was known for having lengthy, thoughtful reviews of movies, plays and concerts in the L.A. area. James Vowell was its founding editor. Among its writers were Keith Fitzgerald, Nigey Lennon, Lionel Rolfe, Lawrence Wechsler, Mick Farren, Richard Meltzer, Heidi Dvorak, Chris Morris, Jerry Stahl, Steven Kane, Andy Klein, Allen Levy, Jim Goad, Kirk Silsbee, Henry Sheehan, Samantha Dunn, Natalie Nichols, Steve Appleford, Eric Mankin (also editor), Paul Birchall, Eddie Rivera (who wrote the paper's first cover story), Amy Steinberg, Henry Sheehan, Dan Sallitt, Myron Meisel, David Ehrenstein, Tom Davis, Dave McCombs, Bruce Bebb, Stuart Goldman, Ernest Hardy, Kevin Uhrich, Erik Himmelsbach, David L. Ulin, Lance Loud, J. Michael Straczynski, and Laurence Vittes (Classical Music Critic, 1991–1998). It is famous for being the first newspaper to publish Matt Groening's cartoon strip Life in Hell, on April 25, 1980. James Vowell hired Groening as his assistant editor in 1979. Groening was also originally a Reader music critic. It also ran a cartoon strip by David Lynch (director of Blue Velvet) called The Angriest Dog in the World, a strip notable for having exactly the same drawing panels for its entire run. James Vowell and his wife Codette Wallace bought the Reader from the Chicago Reader in February 1989. They sold the Reader to New Times Media in 1996, which merged it with the Los Angeles View to form New Times LA.== References ==== External links ==An archived article from the L.A. Reader Lisa Marie Simpson is a fictional character in the animated television series The Simpsons. She is the middle child and most accomplished of the Simpson family. Voiced by Yeardley Smith, Lisa was born as a character in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Cartoonist Matt Groening created and designed her while waiting to meet James L. Brooks. Groening had been invited to pitch a series of shorts based on his comic Life in Hell, but instead decided to create a new set of characters. He named the elder Simpson daughter after his younger sister Lisa Groening Bartlett. After appearing on The Tracey Ullman Show for three years, the Simpson family were moved to their own series on Fox, which debuted on December 17, 1989.Intelligent, kind and passionate about the planet and all living things, Lisa Simpson, at eight years old, is the second child of Homer and Marge, the younger sister of Bart, and the older sister of Maggie. Lisa's high intellect and left-wing political stance creates a barrier between her and other children her age; therefore she is a bit of a loner and social outcast. Lisa is a vegetarian, a strong environmentalist, a feminist, and a Buddhist. Lisa's character develops many times over the course of the show: she becomes a vegetarian in season 7 and converts to Buddhism in season 13. A strong liberal and activist for peace, equality and the environment, Lisa advocates for a variety of political causes (e.g. standing with the Tibetan independence movement) which usually sets her against most of the people in Springfield. However, she can also be somewhat intolerant of opinions that differ from her own, often refusing to consider alternative perspectives and showing a feeling of self-righteousness. In her free time, Lisa enjoys many hobbies such as reading and playing the baritone saxophone, despite her father's annoyance regarding the latter. She has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons – including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride, commercials and comic books – and inspired a line of merchandise.Yeardley Smith originally tried out for the role of Bart, while Nancy Cartwright (who was later cast as the voice for Bart) tried out for Lisa. Producers considered Smith's voice too high for a boy, so she was given the role of Lisa. In the Tracey Ullman Show shorts, Lisa was something of a "female Bart" who mirrored her brother's mischief, but as the series progressed she became a liberal voice of reason which has drawn both praise and criticism from fans of the show. Because of her unusual pointed hairstyle, many animators consider Lisa the most difficult Simpsons character to draw.TV Guide ranked her 11th (tied with Bart) on their list of the "Top 50 Greatest Cartoon Characters of All Time". Her environmentalism has been especially well-received; several episodes featuring her have won Genesis and Environmental Media Awards, including a special "board of directors Ongoing Commitment Award" in 2001. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals included Lisa on their list of the "Most Animal-Friendly TV Characters of All Time". Yeardley Smith won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992 and Lisa and her family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2000.== Role in The Simpsons ==The Simpsons uses a floating timeline in which the characters do not have physical ages; as such, Lisa is always depicted as 7–8 years old. The show itself is perpetually set in the year of broadcast (except for occasional flashbacks and flashforwards). In several episodes, events have been linked to specific time periods, although this timeline has been contradicted in subsequent episodes. Lisa's year of birth is given in "Lisa's First Word" (season 4, 1992) as 1984, during the Summer Olympics. The episode "That '90s Show" (season 19, 2008), however, contradicts much of the established backstory; for example, it presents Homer and Marge as being childless in the late 1990s. Lisa is a lover of music, with jazz as her favorite genre; she specifically singles out Miles Davis's 1957 album Birth of the Cool as her favorite album. She enjoys and excels at playing the saxophone and became friends with jazz musician Bleeding Gums Murphy, whom she regards as an idol. Murphy helps pull Lisa out of her depression in "Moaning Lisa" (season 1, 1990). She is later deeply saddened by Murphy's death in "'Round Springfield" (season 6, 1995).Lisa has had a few brief relationships with boys, including Ralph Wiggum in "I Love Lisa" (the fifteenth episode of season 4, 1993), Nelson Muntz in "Lisa's Date with Density" (season 8, 1996) and Colin in The Simpsons Movie (2007). Bart's best friend Milhouse Van Houten has a crush on her, but despite dropping unsubtle hints about his feelings, he has been unsuccessful in winning her affection. Her voice actor Yeardley Smith said Muntz would make a good match for Lisa. In 2019, Simpsons showrunner Al Jean said he saw Lisa as being "possibly polyamorous" in the future. In the 2011 Season 23 episode 9 episode Holidays of Future Passed Lisa is shown holding hands with an unnamed dark-haired woman in a photo, and then shown in a second photo where she is holding hands with two different women at once, suggesting polyamory; she later ends up with Milhouse. However, this episode is non-canon.Lisa is the most intellectual member of the Simpson family (she has an IQ of 159), and many episodes of the series focus on her fighting for various causes. Lisa is often the focus of episodes with "a real moral or philosophical point", which according to former writer David S. Cohen is because "you really buy her as caring about it." Lisa's political convictions are generally liberal and she often contests other's views. She is a vegetarian, feminist, environmentalist and a supporter of gay rights and the Free Tibet movement. In a special Christmas message for the UK in 2004 Lisa showed her support for Cornish nationalism, even speaking the Cornish language to get her message across. While supportive of the general ideals of the Christian church in which she was raised, Lisa became a practicing Buddhist in the episode "She of Little Faith" (season 13, 2001) after she learned about the Noble Eightfold Path. An "End Apartheid Now" poster can be seen on her bedroom door during earlier seasons. She is extremely controlled by her ideals and noble, and she undergoes drastic changes when she or anyone else is immoral, such as renouncing Homer's last name and taking Marge's when she discovers that Homer bet against her in a crossword puzzle competition.== Character ===== Creation ===Matt Groening conceived Lisa and the rest of the Simpson family in 1986 in the lobby of producer James L. Brooks's office. Groening had been called in to pitch a series of animated shorts for The Tracey Ullman Show and had intended to present an adaptation of his Life in Hell comic strip. When he realized that animating Life in Hell would require him to rescind publication rights, Groening went in another direction, hurriedly sketching his version of a dysfunctional family, named after members of his own family. Lisa was named after Groening's younger sister, but little else was based on her. In The Tracey Ullman Show shorts, Lisa displayed little of the intelligence for which she later became known. She was more of a "female Bart" and was originally described as simply the "middle child", without much personality.Lisa made her debut with the rest of the Simpson family on April 19, 1987, in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night". In 1989, the shorts were adapted into The Simpsons, a half-hour series on the Fox Broadcasting Company.=== Design ===The entire Simpson family was designed to be easily recognized in silhouette. The family was crudely drawn, because Groening had submitted basic sketches to the animators, assuming they would clean them up; instead, they just traced over his drawings. Lisa's physical features are generally unique. In some early episodes, minor background characters occasionally had a similar hairline. However, in the later seasons, no character other than Maggie shares her hairline. While designing Lisa, Groening "couldn't be bothered to even think about girls' hairstyles". At the time, Groening was primarily drawing in black and white; when designing Lisa and Maggie, he "just gave them this kind of spiky starfish hair style, not thinking that they would eventually be drawn in color".To draw Lisa's head and hair, most of the show's animators use what they call the "three-three-two arrangement". It begins with a circle, with two curving lines (one vertical, one horizontal) intersecting in the middle to indicate her eyeline. The vertical line continues outside of the circle to create one hair point, with two more added towards the back of her head. Three more points are then added in front (in the direction Lisa is facing), with two more behind it. Several Simpsons animators, including Pete Michels and David Silverman, consider Lisa the most difficult Simpsons character to draw. Silverman explains that "her head is so abstract" due to her hairstyle.=== Voice ===While the roles of Homer and Marge were given to Dan Castellaneta and Julie Kavner because they were already a part of the Tracey Ullman Show cast, the producers decided to hold casting for the roles of Bart and Lisa. Nancy Cartwright intended to audition for the role of Lisa, but disliked the character's bland description—Lisa was described simply as the "middle child"—and read for the role of Bart instead. Casting director Bonita Pietila brought Yeardley Smith in for an audition after seeing her performing in the play Living on Salvation Street. Smith was hesitant to audition for an animated series, but her agent had persuaded her to give it a try. Smith originally auditioned for the role of Bart but Pietila believed her voice was too high. Smith later recalled: "I always sounded too much like a girl, I read two lines as Bart and they said, 'Thanks for coming!'" Pietila offered Smith the role of Lisa instead.Smith and the show's writers worked to give Lisa a more defined personality, and she has developed greatly during the series. In her 2000 memoir My Life as a 10-Year-Old Boy, Cartwright wrote: "with the brilliant wit of the writers and the wry, in-your-eye, honest-to-a-fault interpretation, Yeardley Smith has made Lisa a bright light of leadership, full of compassion and competence beyond her years. Lisa Simpson is the kind of child we not only want our children to be but also the kind of child we want all children to be. But, at the time, on The Tracey Ullman Show, she was just an animated eight-year-old kid who had no personality."Lisa is the only regular character voiced by Smith, who raises the pitch of her voice slightly for the role. In some earlier episodes she provided some of Maggie's squeaks and occasional speaking parts, and has voiced other characters on very rare occasions. Usually they are derivative of Lisa, such as Lisa Bella in "Last Tap Dance in Springfield" (season 11, 2000) and Lisa, Jr. in "Missionary: Impossible". (season 11, 2000)Despite the fame of Lisa Simpson, Smith is rarely recognized in public, which she does not mind. She said, "it's wonderful to be in the midst of all this hype about the show, and people enjoying the show so much, and to be totally a fly on the wall; people never recognize me solely from my voice." In a 2009 interview with The Guardian she commented that "It's the best job ever. I have nothing but gratitude for the amount of freedom The Simpsons has bought me in my life." Although Smith received a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992, she considers it unimportant, saying "there's part of me that feels it wasn't even a real Emmy." The award is a Creative Arts prize not awarded during the primetime telecast and, at the time, a juried award without nominations. Still, Smith considers her work on the show a success. "If I had to be associated with one character in fiction," she said, "I will always be thrilled that it was Lisa Simpson." Matt Groening has described Smith as being very similar to Lisa: "Yeardley has strong moral views about her character. Some lines are written for Lisa that Yeardley reads and says, 'No, I wouldn't say that.'" Former Simpsons writer Jay Kogen praised her performance on the show, particularly in the episode "Lisa's Substitute", as able "to move past comedy to something really strong and serious and dramatic."Until 1998, Smith was paid $30,000 per episode. A pay dispute erupted in 1998, during which Fox threatened to replace the six main voice actors with new actors, going as far as preparing for casting of new voices. The dispute was soon resolved, and Smith received $125,000 per episode until 2004 when the voice actors sought an increase to $360,000 per episode. The issue was resolved a month later, and Smith earned $250,000 per episode. New salary negotiations took place in 2008, and the voice actors currently receive approximately $400,000 per episode. Three years later, with Fox threatening to cancel the series unless production costs were cut, Smith and the other cast members accepted a 30 percent pay cut, down to just over $300,000 per episode.=== Development ===In The Tracey Ullman Show shorts, Lisa was something of a "female Bart": equally mischievous but lacking unique traits. As the series progressed, Lisa began to develop into a more intelligent and more emotional character. She demonstrates her intellect in the 1990 episode "Krusty Gets Busted" (season one), by helping Bart reveal Sideshow Bob's plot to frame Krusty the Clown for armed robbery. Many episodes focusing on Lisa have an emotional nature, such as "Moaning Lisa" (season one, 1990). The idea for the episode was pitched by James L. Brooks, who wanted to do an emotional episode involving Lisa's sadness, to complement the many "jokey episodes" in the first season.In the seventh-season episode "Lisa the Vegetarian" (1995), Lisa permanently becomes a vegetarian, distinguishing her as one of the first primetime television characters to make such a choice. The episode was written by David S. Cohen (in his first solo writing credit), who jotted down the idea one day while eating lunch. Then-executive producer David Mirkin, who had recently become a vegetarian himself, quickly approved the idea. Several of Lisa's experiences in the episode are based on Mirkin's own experiences. The episode guest stars musician Paul McCartney, a committed vegetarian and animal rights activist. McCartney's condition for appearing was that Lisa would remain a vegetarian for the rest of the series and would not revert the next week (as is common on situation comedies). The trait stayed and is one of the few permanent character changes made in the show. In the season 13 episode "She of Little Faith" (2001), Lisa underwent another permanent character change when she converted to Buddhism.Lisa plays the baritone saxophone, and some episodes use that as a plot device. According to Matt Groening, the baritone saxophone was chosen because he found the thought of an eight-year-old girl playing it amusing. He added, "But she doesn't always play a baritone sax because the animators don't know what it looks like, so it changes shape and color from show to show." One of the hallmarks of the show's opening sequence is a brief solo Lisa plays on her saxophone after being thrown out of music class. The Simpsons composer Alf Clausen said that the session musicians who perform her solos do not try to play at the second-grade level and instead "think of Lisa as a really good player."=== Personality ===Lisa, despite being a child prodigy, often sees herself as a misfit within the Simpson family and other children due to possessing an unusually high level of intelligence. She shows characteristics rarely seen in Springfield, including spirituality and commitment to peaceful ways, and is notably more concerned with world affairs than her life in Springfield, with her rebellion against social norms being depicted as constructive and heroic, yet she can be self-righteous at times. In "Lisa the Vegetarian", an increasing sense of moral righteousness leads her to disrupt her father's roast-pig barbecue, an act for which she later apologizes. Like most children her age, she thinks in images rather than words. Episodes often take shots at Lisa's idealism. In "Bart Star" (season nine, 1997), Lisa, who is departing from her typically more genuine nature and apparently looking for a new cause to crusade over, defiantly declares that she, a girl, would like to join the football team. In the 1990s, it was considered odd to allow a girl to play football. However, when coach Ned Flanders reveals that several girls already play for the team, she hesitates and claims football is "not really [her] thing". She then expresses distaste about a ball made of pig's skin, but one of the girls informs her that their footballs are synthetic and that proceeds are donated to Amnesty International. Upset by being unable to gain moral superiority, Lisa runs off. In "She of Little Faith," Lisa permanently becomes a Buddhist after being appalled at how the First Church of Springfield allowed Mr. Burns to rebuild the church, which burned after being hit with Bart and Homer's rockets, with commercialism. Despite no longer following the Christian faith, she still is seen attending church in later episodes.Lisa is said to have an IQ of 159, and in "They Saved Lisa's Brain" (season ten, 1999) she becomes a member of the Springfield chapter of Mensa. When unable to attend school due to a teachers' strike in "The PTA Disbands", (season six, 1995) she suffers withdrawal symptoms because of the sudden lack of praise. She even demands that her mother grade her for no obvious reason. In Planet Simpson, Chris Turner writes that these traits make Lisa more realistic because "No character can aspire to realism without a few all-too-human flaws."Although she is wise beyond her years, Lisa has typical childhood issues, sometimes requiring adult intervention. One episode to show this is "See Homer Run" (season seventeen, 2005) where she goes through a developmental condition which causes her to get into trouble at school. In "Lost Our Lisa" (season nine, 1998), she tricks Homer into allowing her to ride the bus alone, only to become hopelessly lost and in need of aid from her father. Chris Turner writes in Planet Simpson that incidents like this illustrate that "Even when Lisa's lecturing like a college professor or mounting yet another protest, she never becomes a full-grown adult trapped in a child's body." In The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer, Aeon J. Skoble states that although Lisa is an intellectual, she is still portrayed as a character who enjoys normal childhood and girl activities, plays with Malibu Stacy dolls, loves ponies, obsesses over teenage heartthrobs such as Corey, and watches The Itchy & Scratchy Show along with Bart. He writes, "One might argue that this is typical childhood behavior, but since in so many cases Lisa is presented not simply as a prodigy but as preternaturally wise, the fondness for Itchy & Scratchy and Corey seem to be highlighted, taking on greater significance. Lisa is portrayed as the avatar of logic and wisdom, but then she also worships Corey so she's 'no better [than the rest of us]'." When she became depressed over being unable to pursue her dream as a musician due to inheriting her father's fingers and having to spend her time with Marge in being a homemaker, Lisa gives up on school and becomes a juvenile delinquent in Separate Vocations. She is stopped by Bart who encourages her to keep proving people wrong and pursue her dreams as a musician.Lisa occasionally worries that her family's dull habits will rub off on her, such as in "Lisa the Simpson" (season nine, 1998) she worries that the "Simpson gene" will make her a dimwit later finding out the gene only goes through the male side. She is often embarrassed and disapproving of her eccentric family: of her father's poor parenting skills and buffoonish personality; her mother's stereotypical image and social ineptitude; and her brother's delinquent and low-brow nature. Despite this, she has good relationships with all of her immediate family members; despite their many differences, Homer and Lisa maintain an affectionate relationship, with episodes like "Lisa the Greek" and "Bart on the Road" depicting the bond between them often being cited as fan favorites. She is also concerned that Maggie may grow up to be like the rest of the family and tries to teach her complex ideas. Chris Turner writes in Planet Simpson that "Lisa embarks on quests to find solace for her yearning spirit ... but the most reliable source of truth she finds is the one she always believed in: her family. It is from the other Simpsons that Lisa draws stability, meaning, contentment." Her loyalty to her family is most clearly seen in the flashforward "Lisa's Wedding" (season six, 1995), in which she must reconcile her love for them with the distaste of her cultured fiancé. In the episode "Mother Simpson" (season seven, 1995) she meets her paternal grandmother Mona Simpson for the first time. Mona is also well-read and articulate, and the writers used the character as a way to explain the origins of Lisa's intelligence.=== Sexuality ===Lisa's sexuality has become the subject of speculation amongst viewers of the show.Lisa is shown to have heterosexual crushes on Nelson Muntz and Langdon Alger in "Lisa's Date with Density" and "Bart on the Road" respectively. In some episodes Lisa is shown to have a boyfriend, such as Edmund Dracula in "Treehouse of Horror XXI" or Colin in "The Simpsons Movie". Lisa becomes engaged to, and later almost marries, Hugh Parkfield in "Lisa's Wedding" and the episodes "Bart to the Future" and "Holidays of Future Passed" suggest that Lisa will go on to marry Milhouse Van Houten. However, "Holidays of Future Passed" also show Lisa being in both a monogamous, and later polyamorous, lesbian relationships. However, all future episodes and scenes such as these are ultimately considered non-canon.Although Lisa's sexuality has never been confirmed on screen, showrunner Al Jean said in a 2019 interview with The Metro that he had always envisaged for Lisa to grow up to become bisexual and polyamorous. In a 2020 interview with the Stryker & Klein show on KROQ Radio, Yeardley Smith said that she believed that Lisa was "still exploring her sexuality". Smith also asked fans to stop speculating on Lisa's sexuality, as she was "ultimately an eight-year old girl".== Reception ===== Commendations ===Lisa has been a popular character since the show's inception. She was listed at number 11 (tied with Bart) in TV Guide's "Top 50 Greatest Cartoon Characters of All Time." She appeared in Comcast's list of TV's Most Intriguing Characters and was also included in's Top 50 Favorite Female TV Characters. On a less positive note, she was ranked third in AskMen's top 10 of the most irritating '90s cartoon characters. Yeardley Smith has won several awards for voicing Lisa, including a Primetime Emmy Award for "Outstanding Voice-Over Performance" in 1992 for "Lisa the Greek". Various episodes in which Lisa stars have won Emmy Awards for Outstanding Animated Program, including "Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment" in 1991, "Lisa's Wedding" in 1995 and "HOMR" in 2001. In 2000, Lisa and the rest of the Simpson family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7021 Hollywood Boulevard.Lisa's environmentalism has been especially well received. In 2001, Lisa received a special "board of directors Ongoing Commitment Award" at the Environmental Media Awards. "Lisa the Vegetarian" won both an Environmental Media Award for "Best Television Episodic Comedy" and a Genesis Award for "Best Television Comedy Series, Ongoing Commitment". Several other episodes that feature Lisa speaking out in favor of animal rights have won Genesis Awards, including "Whacking Day" in 1994, "Bart Gets an Elephant" in 1995, "Million Dollar Abie" in 2007 and "Apocalypse Cow" in 2009.=== Cultural influence ===Jonathan Gray, author of the book Watching The Simpsons, feels that Lisa "is probably the best and certainly longest-running feminist character that television has had. She's the heart of the show and she quite often questions gender politics." Christopher Borrelli of The Toledo Blade wrote, "Has there ever been a female TV character as complex, intelligent, and, ahem, as emotionally well-drawn as Lisa Simpson? Meet her once and she comes off priggish and one-note – a know-it-all. Get to know her and Lisa is as well-rounded as anyone you may ever meet in the real world."According to PETA, Lisa was one of the first vegetarian characters on primetime television. In 2004 the organization included Lisa on its list of the "Most Animal-Friendly TV Characters of All Time". In 2008, environmentalist website The Daily Green honored Lisa's role in The Simpsons Movie with one of its inaugural "Heart of Green" awards, which "recognize those who have helped green go mainstream." They wrote "young Lisa Simpson has inspired a generation to wear their hearts on their sleeves and get educated, and involved, about global issues, from justice to feminism and the environment." Japanese broadcasters reversed viewer dislike of the series by focusing marketing of the show on Lisa. Lisa's well-intended but ill-fated struggles to be a voice of reason and a force of good in her family and community struck a chord with Japanese audiences. Mario D'Amato, a specialist in Buddhist studies at Rollins College in Florida, described Lisa as "open-minded, reflective, ethical, and interested in improving herself in various ways, while still preserving a childlike sense of innocence. These are all excellent qualities, ones which are espoused by many Buddhist traditions."Lisa and the rest of the Simpsons have had a significant influence on English-language idioms. The dismissive term "meh"—used by Lisa and popularized by the show— entered the Collins English Dictionary in 2008. In 1996, The New York Times published an article saying that Lisa was inspiring children, especially young girls, to learn to play the saxophone.Lisa Simpson was mentioned at the 2018 Conservative Political Action Conference when Senator Ted Cruz called the Democratic Party "The Party of Lisa Simpson", as opposed to the Republican Party being the party of the rest of the family.=== Merchandising ===Lisa has been included in many The Simpsons publications, toys, and other merchandise. The Lisa Book, describing Lisa's personality and attributes, was released in 2006. Other merchandise includes dolls, posters, figurines, bobblehead dolls, mugs, and clothing such as slippers, T-shirts, baseball caps, and boxer shorts. Lisa has appeared in commercials for Burger King, C.C. Lemon, Church's Chicken, Domino's Pizza, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Ramada Inn, Ritz Crackers, Subway and Butterfinger.On April 9, 2009, the United States Postal Service unveiled a series of five 44-cent stamps featuring Lisa and the four other members of the nuclear Simpson family. They are the first characters from a television series to receive this recognition while still in production. The stamps, designed by Matt Groening, went on sale in May 2009.Lisa has also appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons. She has appeared in each Simpsons video game, including The Simpsons Game, released in 2007. In addition to the television series, Lisa regularly appeared in issues of Simpsons Comics, which were published from 1993 until 2018. The comics focus on the sweeter, more naive incarnation from the early seasons. Lisa also plays a role in The Simpsons Ride, launched in 2008 at Universal Studios Florida and Hollywood.== References ==SourcesCartwright, Nancy (2000). My Life as a 10-Year-Old Boy. New York City: Hyperion Books. ISBN 978-0-7868-8600-5.Groening, Matt (1997). Richmond, Ray; Coffman, Antonia (eds.). The Simpsons: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family (1st ed.). New York: HarperPerennial. ISBN 978-0-06-095252-5. LCCN 98141857. OCLC 37796735. OL 433519M.Ortved, John (2009). The Simpsons: An Uncensored, Unauthorized History. Greystone Books. ISBN 978-1-55365-503-9.Pinsky, Mark I (2001). The Gospel According to The Simpsons: The Spiritual Life of the World's Most Animated Family. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22419-6.Pinsky, Mark I (2007). The Gospel According to The Simpsons, Bigger and Possibly Even Better! Edition. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-23265-8.Skoble, Aeon J. (1999). "Lisa and American anti-intellectualism". In Irwin, William; Conrad, Mark T.; Skoble, Aeon (eds.). The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer. Chicago: Open Court. ISBN 978-0-8126-9433-8.Turner, Chris (2004). Planet Simpson: How a Cartoon Masterpiece Documented an Era and Defined a Generation. Foreword by Douglas Coupland. (1st ed.). Toronto: Random House Canada. ISBN 978-0-679-31318-2. OCLC 55682258.== Further reading ==Alberti, John, ed. (2003). Leaving Springfield: The Simpsons and the Possibility of Oppositional Culture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-2849-1.Brown, Alan; Chris Logan (2006). The Psychology of The Simpsons. BenBella Books. ISBN 978-1-932100-70-9.Groening, Matt (1991). The Simpsons Uncensored Family Album. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-096582-2.Groening, Matt; Bill Morrison (2006). The Lisa Book. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-074823-4.== External links == Media related to Lisa Simpson at Wikimedia CommonsLisa Simpson on IMDb Marjorie "Marge" Simpson (née Bouvier) is a character in the American animated sitcom The Simpsons and part of the eponymous family. Voiced by Julie Kavner, she first appeared on television in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Marge was created and designed by cartoonist Matt Groening while he was waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on Life in Hell but instead decided to create a new set of characters. He named the character after his mother Margaret Groening. After appearing on The Tracey Ullman Show for three seasons, the Simpson family received their own series on Fox, which debuted December 17, 1989.Marge is the matriarch of the Simpson family. With her husband Homer, she has three children: Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. Marge is the moralistic force in her family and often provides a grounding voice in the midst of her family's antics by trying to maintain order in the Simpson household. She is often portrayed as a stereotypical television mother and is often included on lists of top "TV moms". She has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons—including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride, commercials, and comic books—and inspired an entire line of merchandise.Marge's distinctive blue beehive hairstyle was inspired by a combination of the Bride's in Bride of Frankenstein and the style that Margaret Groening wore in the 1960s. Julie Kavner, who was a member of the original cast of The Tracey Ullman Show, was asked to voice Marge so that more voice actors would not be needed. Kavner has won several awards for voicing Marge, including a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992. She was also nominated for an Annie Award for Best Voice Acting in an Animated Feature for her performance in The Simpsons Movie. In 2000, Marge, along with the rest of her family, was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.== Role in The Simpsons ==The Simpsons uses a floating timeline (the characters do not physically age), and as such the show is generally assumed to be set in the current year. In several episodes, events have been linked to specific time periods, although this timeline has been contradicted in subsequent episodes. Marge Simpson is married to Homer and mother of Bart, Lisa and Maggie Simpson. She was raised by her parents, Jacqueline and Clancy Bouvier. She has a pair of sisters, the joyless Patty and Selma, both of whom vocally disapprove of Homer. In "The Way We Was" (season two, 1991), it is revealed via flashback that Marge attended Springfield High School, and in her final year met Homer Simpson, after they both were sent to detention—Homer for smoking in the bathroom with Barney, and Marge for burning her bra in a feminist protest. She was at first wary of Homer, but agreed to go to the prom with him, although she ended up going with Artie Ziff after Homer received tutoring lessons as a means to get to know her better, while knowing that she needed to sleep for a school meet. However, she regretted going with Artie when he started to pressure her to have sex after prom. At the end of the evening, while Artie drove her home after receiving a slap, she spied Homer walking along the side of the road with the corsage meant for her. After hearing her parents voicing their negative opinions about Homer, she took her own car and went back to give him a ride. She then told Homer she should've gone to the prom with him and he fixes her snapped shoulder strap with the corsage. During the ride, he tells her he will hug her and kiss her and never be able to let her go. After the two had been dating for several years, Marge discovered she was pregnant with Bart, and she and Homer were married in a small wedding chapel across the state line. Bart was born soon after, and the couple bought their first house. The episode "That '90s Show" (season 19, 2008) contradicted much of the established back-story; for example, it was revealed that Marge and Homer were childless in the early 1990s although past episodes had suggested Bart and Lisa were born in the 1980s.As with many Simpsons characters, Marge's age and birthday changes to serve the story. In season one (1990) episodes "Life on the Fast Lane" and "Some Enchanted Evening", Marge was said to be 34. In "Homer's Paternity Coot" (season 17, 2006), Marge states that Emerald would have been her birthstone if she had been born three months later, placing her birthday sometime in February. In "Regarding Margie" (season 17, 2006), Homer mentioned that Marge was his age, meaning she could have been anywhere between 36 and 40. During this episode (Kiss Kiss Bang Bangalore), Lisa questions Homer's memory of Marge's birthday. When he cannot remember, Marge yells that it is in May. In the season eighteen episode "Marge Gamer" she states that she and actor Randy Quaid share the same birthdate (October 1).Marge has been nonworking for most of the series, choosing to be a homemaker and take care of her family. However, she has held several one-episode jobs in the course of the series. These include working as a nuclear technician alongside Homer at Springfield Nuclear Power Plant in "Marge Gets a Job" (season four, 1992); selling houses in "Realty Bites" (season nine, 1997); owning her own pretzel business in "The Twisted World of Marge Simpson" (season eight, 1997), and working at an erotic bakery in "Sex, Pies and Idiot Scrapes" (season 20, 2008). While Marge has never expressed discontent with her role as a homemaker, she has become bored with it. In "The Springfield Connection" (season six, 1995), Marge decided that she needed more excitement in her life and became a police officer. However, by the end of the episode, she became upset with the corruption in the force and quit.== Character ===== Creation ===Matt Groening first conceived Marge and the rest of the Simpson family in 1987 in the lobby of producer James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of animated shorts for The Tracey Ullman Show, and had intended to present an adaptation of his Life in Hell comic strip. When he realized that animating Life in Hell would require him to rescind publication rights, Groening decided to go in another direction and hurriedly sketched out his version of a dysfunctional family, naming the characters after members of his own family. Marge was named after Groening's mother Margaret "Marge" Groening, who has said she bears little similarity to the character, stating, "It's really weird to have people think you're a cartoon." Marge's beehive hairstyle was inspired by the titular Bride in Bride of Frankenstein and the style that Margaret Groening wore during the 1960s, although her hair was never blue.Marge debuted with the rest of the Simpson family on April 19, 1987, in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night". In 1989, the shorts were adapted into The Simpsons, a half-hour series airing on the Fox Network. Marge and the Simpson family remained the main characters on this new show.Matt Groening believes that episodes featuring Marge are among the most difficult episodes to write. Bill Oakley believes that the "junior" writers are usually given Marge episodes because he and writing partner Josh Weinstein were given several to write during their first season. During the third season of the show, most of the writers focused on Bart and Homer, so David M. Stern decided to write a Marge episode, which became "Homer Alone" (season three, 1992). He felt that they could achieve a "deeper vein" of comedy in an episode where Marge has a nervous breakdown, and James L. Brooks quickly approved.=== Design ===The entire Simpson family was designed so that they would be recognizable in silhouette. The family was crudely drawn, because Groening had submitted basic sketches to the animators, assuming they would clean them up; instead, they just traced over his drawings. To draw Marge, the animators generally start off with a sphere, similar to the way Lisa and Maggie are drawn. The eyes are then drawn, with one roughly in the middle of the sphere, and the other to the front side of the head. Then, the nose and lip are drawn. Her hair is then drawn on top as a long tube coming out of the sphere. An original idea the animators had for when Marge walked through doorways was that her hair would be forced down as she walked through, then once clear of the door, it would spring back and forth. This was never used. Groening's original plan for Marge's hair was that it would conceal large, Life in Hell-esque rabbit ears. The gag was intended to be revealed in the final episode of the series, but was scrapped early on due to inconsistencies, and also to the fact that rabbit ears would be too fictitious even for The Simpsons.=== Voice ===Marge's voice is performed by Julie Kavner, who also does the voices of Marge's mother Jacqueline and her sisters Patty and Selma. Kavner had been part of the regular cast of The Tracey Ullman Show. Voices were needed for the shorts, so the producers decided to ask Kavner and fellow cast member Dan Castellaneta to voice Marge and Homer rather than hire more actors. Part of Kavner's contract says that she will never have to promote The Simpsons on video and she rarely performs Marge's voice in public because she believes it "destroys the illusion. People feel these are real people." Kavner takes recording sessions seriously and feels that voice acting is "a little more limiting than live acting. And I have nothing to do with my character's movement."Marge's raspy voice is only slightly different from Kavner's, who has a "honeyed gravel voice" which she says is due to "a bump on [her] vocal cords." While Marge is her most famous character, Kavner's favorite characters to voice are Patty and Selma because "they're really funny and sad at the same time." In The Simpsons Movie, some scenes, such as Marge's video message to Homer, were recorded over one hundred times, leaving Kavner exhausted.Until 1998, Kavner was paid $30,000 per episode. During a pay dispute in 1998, Fox threatened to replace the six main voice actors with new actors, going as far as preparing to cast new voices. However, the dispute was soon resolved and she received $125,000 per episode until 2004 when the voice actors demanded that they be paid $360,000 an episode. The issue was resolved a month later, and Kavner earned $250,000 per episode. After salary re-negotiations in 2008, the voice actors receive approximately $400,000 per episode. Three years later, with Fox threatening to cancel the series unless production costs were cut, Kavner and the other cast members accepted a 30 percent pay cut, down to just over $300,000 per episode.=== Personality ===Marge is generally a stereotypical sitcom mother, and she also plays the "long-suffering wife" who puts up with the antics of her children and her oafish husband. While she usually takes her family's problems with good humor, in "Homer Alone" (season three, 1992), her workload and resultant stress caused her to have a mental breakdown. After spending time at "Rancho Relaxo", during which her family barely coped with her absence, she returned refreshed and everyone promised to help out more often. Marge often provides a grounding opinion for Homer and their marriage has often been shaky. Marge admits that she "put[s] up with a lot in [their] marriage," and has left Homer or thrown him out of the house on several occasions. One of the first such episodes to depict this is "Secrets of a Successful Marriage" (season five, 1994), where Homer starts teaching an education class on how to build a successful marriage. He is at first unsuccessful, but gains the interest of the class when he starts giving away family secrets, many of which concern Marge. Upon finding this out, Marge is incensed and throws him out of the house. The next day, Homer is dirty and disheveled, and begs Marge to take him back, saying the one thing he can offer her that nobody else can is "complete and utter dependence." At first, Marge does not see that as a benefit, but eventually admits that he "really [does] make a gal feel needed." Episodes that depict marital problems have become more frequent in recent seasons of the show. Through it all, Marge has remained faithful to Homer, despite temptations to the contrary such as the one in "Life on the Fast Lane" (season one, 1990), where she resists the charming Frenchman Jacques and instead chooses to remain with Homer.Marge is more caring, understanding, and nurturing toward Bart than Homer, but she refers to him as "a handful" and is often embarrassed by his antics. In "Marge Be Not Proud" (season seven, 1995), she felt she was mothering Bart too much and started acting more distant towards him after he was caught shoplifting. In the beginning of the episode, Bart protested her "over-mothering", but as she started acting more distant towards him, he felt guilty about it and made up with her. Marge has expressed understanding for her "special little guy" and has defended him on many occasions. She once said "I know Bart can be a handful, but I also know what he's like inside. He's got a spark. It's not a bad thing ... Of course, it makes him do bad things." Marge has a good relationship with Lisa and the two are shown to get along quite well. Marge over-mothers Maggie, which causes her to become too clingy and dependent on Marge.Marge maintains a good relationship with her mother Jacqueline and her sisters Patty and Selma, though they disapprove of Homer and are vocal about it. Marge has tolerated their criticism, but has occasionally lost patience with them, once referring to them as "ghouls." Marge's late father Clancy is rarely referred to in the series and has had speaking parts in only two episodes. It was revealed in "Fear of Flying" (season six, 1994) that Clancy told Marge that he was a pilot, but in reality, he was a flight attendant. Marge discovered this one day and developed aerophobia. In "Jazzy and the Pussycats" (season 18, 2006), Homer casually mentions that they once attended his funeral. It was finally revealed that Clancy died of lung cancer in season 27 episode "Puffless".Marge believes she has higher morals than most other characters, once leading a family values crusade against the violent The Itchy & Scratchy Show and being a prominent member of the "Citizens' Committee on Moral Hygiene." She often provides a voice of reason for the town itself, but many of the townspeople are frustrated or contemptuous of her failure to recognize or react correctly to breaches of social norms. Marge is the only member of the family who encourages, and often forces, church attendance. In "Homer the Heretic" (season four, 1992), Homer starts skipping church and Marge tells him "don't make me choose between my man and my God, because you just can't win.". Yet, in some episodes, Marge's stereotypical attitude seems to affect her relationship with her daughter, Lisa, who is a feminist.In "Lisa the Skeptic" (season nine, 1997), an "angel skeleton" is discovered, much to the skepticism of Lisa. As Lisa rants about the people who believe it is an angel, Marge informs her that she also believes it is an angel. She tells Lisa, "There has to be more to life than just what we see, everyone needs something to believe in." In spite of her highly debatable moral stances, Marge struggles with vices, such as a gambling addiction. While Marge has learned to cope with her addiction, it has never completely disappeared and remains an underlying problem that is referenced occasionally on the show. Marge also has a bit of a drinking problem with wine, though not nearly as problematic as her husband Homer's drunkenness, it is still a prevalent topic in quite a few episodes.Politically, Marge generally aligns with the Democratic Party, having supported the candidacy of her state's progressive governor Mary Bailey, and voted for Jimmy Carter in both of his presidential elections. She was also deeply affected by the death of Lyndon B. Johnson, to the point where she wanted him to be alive so badly that she kept seeing him everywhere she looked.== Reception ==At the 44th Primetime Emmy Awards, Kavner received a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance for voicing Marge in the season three episode "I Married Marge". In 2004, Kavner and Dan Castellaneta (the voice of Homer) won a Young Artist Award for "Most Popular Mom & Dad in a TV Series". For her performance in The Simpsons Movie, Kavner was nominated for "Best Voice Acting in an Animated Feature" at the 2007 Annie Awards, but lost to Ian Holm from Ratatouille. Kavner's emotional performance in the movie got positive reviews and one critic said she "gave what must be the most heartfelt performance ever." Various episodes in which Marge is prominently featured have been nominated for Emmy Awards for Outstanding Animated Program, including "The Way We Weren't" in 2004 and "Life on the Fast Lane", which won the award in 1990. In 2000, Marge and the rest of the Simpson family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame located at 7021 Hollywood Boulevard.Marge has been ranked highly in lists of the top television mothers of all time. She was ranked first on Entertainment Weekly's list in 1994; first on Fox News' list in 2005; eighth on CityNews' list in 2008; and was included in Time's list of the "10 Best Moms Ever". In a 2004 poll in the United Kingdom, Marge was named the "most respected mother" by respondents. Still in 2004, Marge was ranked third in a poll conducted by the Opinion Research Company. In May 2012, Marge was one of the 12 moms chosen by users of iVillage on their list of "Mommy Dearest: The TV Moms You Love". AOL has named Marge the 24th "Most Memorable Female TV Character". Her relationship with Homer was included in TV Guide's list of "The Best TV Couples of All Time".Religious writer Kenneth Briggs has written that "Marge is my candidate for sainthood ... She lives in the real world, she lives with crises, with flawed people. She forgives and she makes her own mistakes. She is a forgiving, loving person ... absolutely saintly."== Cultural influence ==The edition of October 1, 1990 of People included an interview with then-First Lady of the United States Barbara Bush. The article included the following passage: "She loves America's Funniest Home Videos but remains baffled after sampling The Simpsons. "It was the dumbest thing I had ever seen," she says, "but it's a family thing, and I guess it's clean." The writers decided to respond by privately sending a polite letter on September 28 to Bush where they posed as Marge Simpson. On October 9, Bush sent a reply: "Dear Marge, How kind of you to write. I'm glad you spoke your mind ... I foolishly didn't know you had one. I am looking at a picture of you ... depicted on a plastic cup ... with your blue hair filled with pink birds peeking out all over. Evidently, you and your charming family — Lisa, Homer, Bart and Maggie — are camping out. It's a nice family scene. Clearly you are setting a good example for the rest of the country. Please forgive a loose tongue."In 2002, opponents of the Seattle Monorail Project planned on showing the episode "Marge vs. the Monorail" at a protest event. Following complaints, 20th Century Fox sent a letter to the event organizers ordering that the episode not be shown due to copyright laws. In 2004, Marge appeared on Channel 4 in the United Kingdom for the Alternative Christmas message, which is annually broadcast at the same time that Queen Elizabeth II gives her Christmas message.On April 9, 2009, the United States Postal Service unveiled a series of five 44-cent stamps featuring Marge and the four other members of the Simpson family. They are the first characters from a television series to receive this recognition while the show is still in production. The stamps, designed by Matt Groening, were made available for purchase on May 7, 2009.=== Merchandising ===Marge is depicted in much The Simpsons-related merchandise, including T-shirts, baseball caps, bumper stickers, cardboard stand-ups, refrigerator magnets, key rings, buttons, dolls, posters and figurines. She has appeared in each of The Simpsons video games. Besides the television series, Marge regularly appears in issues of Simpsons Comics, which were published from 1993-2018. Marge also plays a role in The Simpsons Ride, launched in 2008 at Universal Studios Florida and Hollywood.Marge appeared in a 2005 advertisement for Dove Styling, where her normal beehive hair was exchanged for a more stylish look for a series of ads featuring several popular cartoon women.In April 2004, Marge appeared on the cover of Maxim. She also appeared on the cover of the November 2009 issue of Playboy, becoming the first cartoon character to appear on the cover. The cover and a three-page picture spread, as well as a story inside entitled The Devil in Marge Simpson, commemorated the 20th anniversary of The Simpsons, but as also part of a plan to appeal to younger readers, a decision which has been criticized due to a page in which the character is depicted nude. Darine Stern's picture on the October 1971 cover served as the inspiration for Playboy's November 2009 cover.== References ===== Bibliography ===== External links ==Marge Simpson on IMDb In addition to the show's regular cast of voice actors, celebrity guest stars have been a staple of The Simpsons, an American animated television sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company, since its first season. The Simpsons focuses on the eponymous family, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie. The family was initially conceived by Groening for a series of animated shorts, which originally aired as a part of The Tracey Ullman Show between 1987 and 1989. The shorts were developed into a half-hour prime time series which began in December 1989. The series' 33rd season debuted on September 26, 2021, and 710 episodes of The Simpsons have aired. A feature film adaptation of the series called The Simpsons Movie, was released in 2007.Guest voices have come from a wide range of professions, including actors, athletes, authors, musicians, artists, politicians and scientists. In the show's early years most guest stars voiced original characters, but as the show has continued the number of those appearing as themselves has increased.The first credited guest star was Marcia Wallace who appeared in "Bart the Genius" in her first stint as Bart's teacher Edna Krabappel. Singer Tony Bennett was the first guest star to appear as himself, appearing briefly in the season two episode "Dancin' Homer". Several guest stars have featured as recurring characters on the show, including Phil Hartman, Joe Mantegna and Kelsey Grammer. After Wallace, Hartman made the most appearances, guest starring 52 times. Mantegna has appeared over thirty times, Grammer, Maurice LaMarche, Jon Lovitz and Frank Welker have appeared twenty times or more; Glenn Close and Jackie Mason have appeared over ten times, while Albert Brooks, Michael Dees, Dana Gould, Terry W. Greene, Valerie Harper, Jan Hooks, Jane Kaczmarek, Stacy Keach, Kipp Lennon, Dawnn Lewis, J. K. Simmons, Sally Stevens, George Takei and Michael York have made over five appearances.Three guest stars, Ricky Gervais, Seth Rogen and Pete Holmes, earned writing credits for the episodes in which they appeared. Grammer, Mason and three-time guest star Anne Hathaway all won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance for guest voice roles on the show. The show was awarded the Guinness World Record for "Most Guest Stars Featured in a TV Series" in 2010. As of October 17, 2021, there have been 913 guest stars on the show[A], with this figure rising to 917 if The Simpsons Movie is included.== History ==Guest stars have appeared on The Simpsons since its first season, in addition to the show's main cast of Dan Castellaneta, Julie Kavner, Nancy Cartwright, Yeardley Smith, Hank Azaria and Harry Shearer and supporting cast of Tress MacNeille, Pamela Hayden, Maggie Roswell, Chris Edgerly, Grey Griffin, Alex Désert, Eric Lopez, Tony Rodríguez and former supporting cast members Russi Taylor, Marcia Mitzman Gaven, Karl Wiedergott, Doris Grau, Jo Ann Harris, Susan Blu and Christopher Collins. Kevin Michael Richardson started as a recurring guest star in the twenty first season, but joined the supporting cast in the twenty eighth, starting with the episode "The Last Traction Hero".Guest voices have come from a wide range of professions, including actors, athletes, authors, musicians, artists, politicians and scientists. In the earlier seasons, most of the guest stars voiced characters, but eventually more started appearing as themselves. The first male guest star was actor Sam McMurray, who voiced a worker at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant in "Homer's Odyssey", the show's third episode, and Marcia Wallace was the first female guest star on the show starting from Bart the Genius as Edna Krabappel and Ms. Melon. Singer Tony Bennett was the first guest star to appear as himself, appearing in the season two episode "Dancin' Homer" while Aerosmith were the first band with their cameo in the third season's "Flaming Moe's"Several guest stars have made multiple appearances on the show, often as recurring characters. Actress Marcia Wallace guest starred 176 times, making her the most recurring female guest star on the show, until her death in 2013. Edna Krabappel was then retired from the show, but sometimes appears as a ghost, and actor Phil Hartman guest-starred in 52 episodes, more than any other male actor, although his initial role in the second season episode "Bart Gets Hit By a Car" in 1991 was intended to be a one-off. He voiced the recurring characters Troy McClure and Lionel Hutz as well as numerous other one-time characters, until his death in 1998. McClure and Hutz were subsequently retired from the show. Actor Kelsey Grammer first appeared as Sideshow Bob in the first-season episode "Krusty Gets Busted" while actor Joe Mantegna made his first appearance as Fat Tony in the third season episode "Bart the Murderer". The two have appeared in 21 and 28 episodes respectively; Mantegna also appeared in the film. Both roles were originally written for other actors: Bob was originally to be voiced by James Earl Jones, who later guest starred three times on the show, while Fat Tony was written for Sheldon Leonard. Other repeat guest stars include Albert Brooks, Glenn Close, Jan Hooks, Maurice LaMarche, Jon Lovitz, Jane Kaczmarek, Jackie Mason, Charles Napier and Frank Welker.According to Groening, guest star choices "come from the writers saying, 'Wouldn't it be cool to have [such a person on the show]?'", while showrunner Al Jean has stated the reasoning is "we want to meet our heroes." Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein, showrunners of the seventh and eight seasons, favored guest stars with what they felt were unique and interesting voices such as actors R. Lee Ermey, Donald Sutherland, Kirk Douglas and Lawrence Tierney. In 2014, Jean stated that fewer people would be appearing as themselves, as the staff did not want it to become a "crazy roster".Many guest stars come into the show's recording studio to record their parts, although some are recorded over the telephone. Three guest stars have been credited with writing the episode in which they guest starred. Comedian Ricky Gervais wrote the episode "Homer Simpson, This Is Your Wife", while actor Seth Rogen co-wrote the episode "Homer the Whopper" with Evan Goldberg, and comedian Pete Holmes wrote the two-part "Warrin' Priests" episodes. Two guest stars were credited with pseudonyms. Actor Dustin Hoffman was credited as "Sam Etic" for the episode "Lisa's Substitute" while musician Michael Jackson was credited as "John Jay Smith" for the episode "Stark Raving Dad". After the latter episode, the producers decided that if a celebrity wished to guest star on the show, they had to be willing to be credited under their real name.Numerous people have rejected the chance to appear on the show. Actor William Shatner has been described as the first person to reject the show. The producers have consistently failed to persuade any former President of the United States to appear. Musicians Bruce Springsteen and Bob Dylan have also rejected multiple invitations to guest star on the series. Other people to turn the show down include actors Michael Caine, Tom Cruise, Clint Eastwood and Anthony Hopkins and director Quentin Tarantino. Musician Prince turned down a role in a sequel to "Stark Raving Dad", which meant the script was never produced.Others have accepted the offer, but have been unable to record a role. Musician Frank Zappa and actor Anthony Perkins both became too ill to record their parts, while Jim Carrey had to drop out due to time constraints, and Faye Dunaway cancelled. Christopher Walken originally agreed appear as himself in "Insane Clown Poppy". However, he then decided to demand a lot more money than the producers were willing to pay. Instead, Jay Mohr provided the voice of Walken. In the end credits, Jay Mohr is actually credited with the voice of Christopher Walken, the credit says "Jay Mohr as Christopher Walken". This is the first time this has ever been done.Robby Krieger of The Doors recorded a cameo for the episode "The Great Money Caper", but his part was cut because the writers felt his appearance seemed too forced. The scene was later included on the season's DVD release. Similarly, actress Catherine O'Hara recorded the voice of Colette the waitress in "Flaming Moe's", but was redubbed with Jo Ann Harris who the producers felt was a better fit. Ron Howard, in what would have been his third appearance on The Simpsons, was advertised as guest starring on "Children of a Lesser Clod". However, he did not appear for any recording sessions. Similarly, Werner Herzog was advertized as guest starring in "Thanksgiving of Horror", in what would have been his third appearance as Walter Hotenhoffer, but didn't appear in the final episode.Mason, Grammer and Anne Hathaway have each won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance for their guest voice roles on the show. The show was awarded the Guinness World Record for "Most Guest Stars Featured in a TV Series" on May 23, 2010, with Guinness estimating that the show has featured "at least 555 as of series 21". As of October 17, 2021, there have been 913 guest stars on the show, totaling 1556 guest spots.[A] These figures rise to 917 and 1564 respectively if The Simpsons Movie is counted as well.== Guest stars ==The color of the season number in the first column corresponds to the color of that season's DVD boxset or digital purchase image for the seasons which have not been released in physical format.In the No. column:The first number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.The second number refers to the episode number within its season: i.e. 1506 would be the sixth episode of the fifteenth season.The production code refers to the code assigned to the episode by the production team. The first two characters refer to the season the episode was made for. The first season is 7Gxx, the second is 7Fxx, the third is 8Fxx and the fourth is 9Fxx. After that, the fifth season started with 1F and continued in order until season nine (which was 5F). Starting with season ten, the production codes started with AABF, with the first letter changing for each season (i.e. BABF, CABF, etc.). The number at the end of the code is the order in which that episode was produced during that production run.Guests with "(archival)" after their names refer to cases where roles were not recorded specifically for the episode, but instead archival audio and/or footage from independent sources was used in the episode. In most cases these appearances have been uncredited and are usually not considered as proper guest stars given the circumstances.== Upcoming scheduled guest stars ==The following have been announced as guest stars for upcoming episodes that have not yet aired. This however is subject to change as sometimes in the past announced guest stars have had their appearances cut for time, been removed or replaced, or for some other reason have not appeared in the final episode.Additionally, the staff have written a part in mind for Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson. According to Al Jean there is the introduction of a character who was born deaf played "by an actor who is appropriate" in an upcoming episode.== Guest stars with multiple appearances ==The following people have guest starred on the show twice or more. 1 Indicates the figure includes an appearance in The Simpsons Movie 2 Indicates the figure includes an appearance in the Butterfingers commercials 3 Indicates the figure includes an appearance in "Do the Bartman" music video 4 Indicates the figure includes an appearance in a The Simpsons Game 5 Indicates the figure includes an appearance in "The Simpsons Ride" 6 Indicates the figure includes an uncredited appearance 7 Indicates the figure dictates appearances as a recurring guest star up until joining the regular supporting cast== Other media ==Beyond the television series and the movie, there have been other media products of The Simpsons where guest stars have provided vocal talents in addition to the regular cast. From music videos, to video games, commercials and theme park rides, the following guest stars have appeared in various Simpsons-related media.== Guest animators ==The show has also had several guest animators who will do their own version of the show's opening credits, from just a couch gag to the whole introduction. Starting from the 22nd season, these following guest animators have contributed to the show:== Potential guest stars that didn't happen ==== Notes ==== Citations ==== References ==Official episode guide at the Fox website The Retrieved March 26, 2012.Season 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25Bates, James W.; Gimple, Scott M.; McCann, Jesse L.; Richmond, Ray; Seghers, Christine, eds. (2010). Simpsons World The Ultimate Episode Guide: Seasons 1–20 (1st ed.). Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 978-0-00-738815-8.Turner, Chris (2004). Planet Simpson: How a Cartoon Masterpiece Documented an Era and Defined a Generation. Foreword by Douglas Coupland. (1st ed.). Toronto: Random House Canada. ISBN 978-0-679-31318-2. OCLC 55682258.== External links ==Guest star list at the Internet Movie Database Allison Beth "Allie" Goertz (born March 2, 1991) is an American comedy musician, writer and former editor for Mad magazine. Goertz is known for her satirical songs based on various pop culture topics. Her videos were originally posted on YouTube under the name of "Cossbysweater", which has been changed to simply "Allie Goertz."== Career ==In December 2015, Goertz released a concept album based on the Adult Swim series Rick and Morty, Sad Dance Songs, with the album's cover emulating the animation and logo of the series. The album was made possible through Kickstarter. She is co-host, along with Julia Prescott, of the Everything's Coming Up Simpsons podcast (formerly known as Everything's Coming Up Podcast), a Simpsons-focused podcast.Subjects of her songs have included the film The Room, the character Milhouse from the television show The Simpsons, and the game Dungeons & Dragons. Her style has been compared to that of Bo Burnham.== Affiliations and memberships ==Goertz has served as a social media producer for shows including @midnight for Comedy Central. In 2018, Goertz became an editor at Mad magazine, leaving in June 2019, midway through production of issue #9.== Personal life ==Goertz grew up in Long Beach, California, the daughter of an elementary school teacher mother and a web graphic designer father.== In popular culture ==The band Nerf Herder released a song entitled "Allie Goertz" on their 2016 album Rockingham.== References ==== External links ==Official website Allie Goertz at IMDb Homer Jay Simpson is a fictional character and one of the main characters of the American animated sitcom The Simpsons. He is voiced by Dan Castellaneta and first appeared on television, along with the rest of his family, in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Homer was created and designed by cartoonist Matt Groening while he was waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on his comic strip Life in Hell but instead decided to create a new set of characters. He named the character after his father, Homer Groening. After appearing for three seasons on The Tracey Ullman Show, the Simpson family got their own series on Fox, which debuted December 17, 1989. The show was later acquired by Disney in 2019.As patriarch of the eponymous family, Homer and his wife Marge have three children: Bart, Lisa and Maggie. As the family's provider, he works at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant as safety inspector. Homer embodies many American working class stereotypes: he is obese, immature, outspoken, aggressive, balding, lazy, ignorant, unprofessional, and addicted to beer, junk food and watching television. However, he is fundamentally a good man and is staunchly protective of his family, especially when they need him the most. Despite the suburban blue-collar routine of his life, he has had a number of remarkable experiences, including going to space, climbing the tallest mountain in Springfield by himself, fighting former President George H. W. Bush and winning a Grammy Award as a member of a barbershop quartet.In the shorts and earlier episodes, Castellaneta voiced Homer with a loose impression of Walter Matthau; however, during the second and third seasons of the half-hour show, Homer's voice evolved to become more robust, to allow the expression of a fuller range of emotions. He has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons—including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride, commercials, and comic books—and inspired an entire line of merchandise. His signature catchphrase, the annoyed grunt "D'oh!", has been included in The New Oxford Dictionary of English since 1998 and the Oxford English Dictionary since 2001.Homer is one of the most influential characters in the history of television, and is widely considered to be an American cultural icon. The British newspaper The Sunday Times described him as "The greatest comic creation of [modern] time". He was named the greatest character "of the last 20 years" in 2010 by Entertainment Weekly, was ranked the second-greatest cartoon character by TV Guide, behind Bugs Bunny, and was voted the greatest television character of all time by Channel 4 viewers. For voicing Homer, Castellaneta has won four Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance and a special-achievement Annie Award. In 2000, Homer and his family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.== Role in The Simpsons ==Homer Jay Simpson is the bumbling husband of Marge, and father to Bart, Lisa and Maggie Simpson. He is the son of Mona and Abraham "Grampa" Simpson. Homer held over 188 different jobs in the first 400 episodes of The Simpsons. In most episodes, he works as the nuclear safety inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant (in Sector 7-G), a position which he has held since "Homer's Odyssey", the third episode of the series, despite the fact that he is totally unsuitable for it. At the nuclear plant, Homer is often ignored and completely forgotten by his boss Mr. Burns, and he constantly falls asleep and neglects his duties. Matt Groening has stated that he decided to have Homer work at the power plant because of the potential for Homer to wreak severe havoc. Each of his other jobs has lasted only one episode. In the first half of the series, the writers developed an explanation about how he got fired from the plant and was then rehired in every episode. In later episodes, he often began a new job on impulse, without any mention of his regular employment.The Simpsons uses a floating timeline in which the characters never physically age, and, as such, the show is generally assumed to be always set in the current year. Nevertheless, in several episodes, events in Homer's life have been linked to specific time periods. "Mother Simpson" (season seven, 1995) depicts Homer's mother, Mona, as a radical who went into hiding in 1969 following a run-in with the law; "The Way We Was" (season two, 1991) shows Homer falling in love with Marge Bouvier as a senior at Springfield High School in 1974; and "I Married Marge" (season three, 1991) implies that Marge became pregnant with Bart in 1980. However, the episode "That '90s Show" (season 19, 2008) contradicted much of this backstory, portraying Homer and Marge as a twentysomething childless couple in the early 1990s.Due to the floating timeline, Homer's age has changed occasionally as the series developed; he was 34 in the early episodes, 36 in season four, 38 and 39 in season eight, and 40 in the eighteenth season, although even in those seasons his age is inconsistent. In the fourth season episode "Duffless", Homer's drivers license shows his birthdate of being May 12, 1956, which would have made him 36 years old at the time of the episode. During Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein's period as showrunners, they found that as they aged, Homer seemed to become older too, so they increased his age to 38. His height is 6' (1.83 m).== Character ===== Creation ===Naming the characters after members of his own family, Groening named Homer after his father, who himself had been named after the ancient Greek poet of the same name. Very little else of Homer's character was based on him, and to prove that the meaning behind Homer's name was not significant, Groening later named his own son Homer. According to Groening, "Homer originated with my goal to both amuse my real father, and just annoy him a little bit. My father was an athletic, creative, intelligent filmmaker and writer, and the only thing he had in common with Homer was a love of donuts." Although Groening has stated in several interviews that Homer was named after his father, he also claimed in several 1990 interviews that a character in the 1939 Nathanael West novel The Day of the Locust was the inspiration for naming Homer. Homer's middle initial "J", which stands for "Jay", is a "tribute" to animated characters such as Bullwinkle J. Moose and Rocket J. Squirrel from The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, who got their middle initial from Jay Ward.Homer made his debut with the rest of the Simpson family on April 19, 1987, in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night". In 1989, the shorts were adapted into The Simpsons, a half-hour series airing on the Fox Broadcasting Company. Homer and the Simpson family remained the main characters on this new show.=== Design ===As currently depicted in the series, Homer's everyday clothing consists of a white shirt with short sleeves and open collar, blue pants, and gray shoes. He is overweight and bald, except for a fringe of hair around the back and sides of his head and two curling hairs on top, and his face always sports a growth of beard stubble that instantly regrows whenever he shaves.The entire Simpson family was designed so that they would be recognizable in silhouette. The family was crudely drawn because Groening had submitted basic sketches to the animators, assuming they would clean them up; instead, they just traced over his drawings. By coincidence or not, Homer's look bears a resemblance to the cartoon character Adamsson, created by Swedish cartoonist Oscar Jacobsson in 1920. Homer's physical features are generally not used in other characters; for example, in the later seasons, no characters other than Homer, Grampa Simpson, Lenny Leonard, and Krusty the Clown have a similar beard line. When Groening originally designed Homer, he put his initials into the character's hairline and ear: the hairline resembled an 'M', and the right ear resembled a 'G'. Groening decided that this would be too distracting and redesigned the ear to look normal. However, he still draws the ear as a 'G' when he draws pictures of Homer for fans. The basic shape of Homer's head is described by director Mark Kirkland as a tube-shaped coffee can with a salad bowl on top. During the shorts, the animators experimented with the way Homer would move his mouth when talking. At one point, his mouth would stretch out back "beyond his beardline"; but this was dropped when it got "out of control." In some early episodes, Homer's hair was rounded rather than sharply pointed because animation director Wes Archer felt it should look disheveled. Homer's hair evolved to be consistently pointed. During the first three seasons, Homer's design for some close-up shots included small lines which were meant to be eyebrows. Groening strongly disliked them and they were eventually dropped.In the season seven (1995) episode "Treehouse of Horror VI", Homer was computer animated into a three-dimensional character for the first time for the "Homer3" segment of the episode. The computer animation directors at Pacific Data Images worked hard not to "reinvent the character". In the final minute of the segment, the 3D Homer ends up in a real world, live-action Los Angeles. The scene was directed by David Mirkin and was the first time a Simpsons character had been in the real world in the series. Because "Lisa's Wedding" (season six, 1995) is set fifteen years in the future, Homer's design was altered to make him older in the episode. He is heavier; one of the hairs on top of his head was removed; and an extra line was placed under the eye. A similar design has been used in subsequent flashforwards.=== Voice ===Homer's voice is performed by Dan Castellaneta, who voices numerous other characters, including Grampa Simpson, Krusty the Clown, Barney Gumble, Groundskeeper Willie, Mayor Quimby and Hans Moleman. Castellaneta had been part of the regular cast of The Tracey Ullman Show and had previously done some voice-over work in Chicago alongside his wife Deb Lacusta. Voices were needed for the Simpsons shorts, so the producers decided to ask Castellaneta and fellow cast member Julie Kavner to voice Homer and Marge rather than hire more actors. In the shorts and first season of the half-hour show, Homer's voice is different from the majority of the series. The voice began as a loose impression of Walter Matthau, but Castellaneta could not "get enough power behind that voice", or sustain his Matthau impression for the nine- to ten-hour-long recording sessions, and had to find something easier. During the second and third seasons of the half-hour show, Castellaneta "dropped the voice down" and developed it as more versatile and humorous, allowing Homer a fuller range of emotions.Castellaneta's normal speaking voice does not bear any resemblance to Homer's. To perform Homer's voice, Castellaneta lowers his chin to his chest and is said to "let his I.Q. go". While in this state, he has ad-libbed several of Homer's least intelligent comments, such as the line "S-M-R-T; I mean, S-M-A-R-T!" from "Homer Goes to College" (season five, 1993) which was a genuine mistake made by Castellaneta during recording. Castellaneta likes to stay in character during recording sessions, and he tries to visualize a scene so that he can give the proper voice to it. Despite Homer's fame, Castellaneta claims he is rarely recognized in public, "except, maybe, by a die-hard fan"."Homer's Barbershop Quartet" (season five, 1993) is the only episode where Homer's voice was provided by someone other than Castellaneta. The episode features Homer forming a barbershop quartet called The Be Sharps; and, at some points, his singing voice is provided by a member of The Dapper Dans. The Dapper Dans had recorded the singing parts for all four members of The Be Sharps. Their singing was intermixed with the normal voice actors' voices, often with a regular voice actor singing the melody and the Dapper Dans providing backup.Until 1998, Castellaneta was paid $30,000 per episode. During a pay dispute in 1998, Fox threatened to replace the six main voice actors with new actors, going as far as preparing for casting of new voices. However, the dispute was soon resolved and he received $125,000 per episode until 2004 when the voice actors demanded that they be paid $360,000 an episode. The issue was resolved a month later, and Castellaneta earned $250,000 per episode. After salary re-negotiations in 2008, the voice actors receive approximately $400,000 per episode. Three years later, with Fox threatening to cancel the series unless production costs were cut, Castellaneta and the other cast members accepted a 30 percent pay cut, down to just over $300,000 per episode.=== Character development ===Executive producer Al Jean notes that in The Simpsons' writing room, "everyone loves writing for Homer", and many of his adventures are based on experiences of the writers. In the early seasons of the show, Bart was the main focus. But, around the fourth season, Homer became more of the focus. According to Matt Groening, this was because "With Homer, there's just a wider range of jokes you can do. And there are far more drastic consequences to Homer's stupidity. There's only so far you can go with a juvenile delinquent. We wanted Bart to do anything up to the point of him being tried in court as a dad. But Homer is a dad, and his boneheaded-ness is funnier. [...] Homer is launching himself headfirst into every single impulsive thought that occurs to him."Homer's behavior has changed a number of times through the run of the series. He was originally "very angry" and oppressive toward Bart, but these characteristics were toned down somewhat as his persona was further explored. In early seasons, Homer appeared concerned that his family was going to make him look bad; however, in later episodes he was less anxious about how he was perceived by others. In the first several years, Homer was often portrayed as dumb yet well-meaning, but during Mike Scully's tenure as executive producer (seasons nine, 1997 to twelve, 2001), he became more of "a boorish, self-aggrandizing oaf". Chris Suellentrop of Slate wrote, "under Scully's tenure, The Simpsons became, well, a cartoon. ... Episodes that once would have ended with Homer and Marge bicycling into the sunset... now end with Homer blowing a tranquilizer dart into Marge's neck." Fans have dubbed this incarnation of the character "Jerkass Homer". At voice recording sessions, Castellaneta has rejected material written in the script that portrayed Homer as being too mean. He believes that Homer is "boorish and unthinking, but he'd never be mean on purpose." When editing The Simpsons Movie, several scenes were changed to make Homer more sympathetic.The writers have depicted Homer with a declining intelligence over the years; they explain this was not done intentionally, but it was necessary to top previous jokes. For example, in "When You Dish Upon a Star", (season 10, 1998) the writers included a scene where Homer admits that he cannot read. The writers debated including this plot twist because it would contradict previous scenes in which Homer does read, but eventually they decided to keep the joke because they found it humorous. The writers often debate how far to go in portraying Homer's stupidity; one suggested rule is that "he can never forget his own name".=== Personality ===The comic efficacy of Homer's personality lies in his frequent bouts of bumbling stupidity, laziness and his explosive anger. He has a low intelligence level and is described by director David Silverman as "creatively brilliant in his stupidity". Homer also shows immense apathy towards work, is overweight, and "is devoted to his stomach". His short attention span is evidenced by his impulsive decisions to engage in various hobbies and enterprises, only to "change ... his mind when things go badly". Homer often spends his evenings drinking Duff Beer at Moe's Tavern, and was shown in the episode "Duffless" (season four, 1993) as a full-blown alcoholic. He is very envious of his neighbors, Ned Flanders and his family, and is easily enraged by Bart. Homer will often strangle Bart on impulse upon Bart angering him (and can also be seen saying one of his catchphrases, "Why you little—!") in a cartoonish manner. The first instance of Homer strangling Bart was in the short "Family Portrait". According to Groening, the rule was that Homer could only strangle Bart impulsively, never with premeditation, because doing so "seems sadistic. If we keep it that he's ruled by his impulses, then he can easily switch impulses. So, even though he impulsively wants to strangle Bart, he also gives up fairly easily." Another of the original ideas entertained by Groening was that Homer would "always get his comeuppance or Bart had to strangle him back", but this was dropped. Homer shows no compunction about expressing his rage, and does not attempt to hide his actions from people outside the family.Homer has complex relationships with his family. As previously noted, he and Bart are the most at odds; but the two commonly share adventures and are sometimes allies, with some episodes (particularly in later seasons) showing that the pair have a strange respect for each other's cunning. Homer and Lisa have opposite personalities and he usually overlooks Lisa's talents, but when made aware of his neglect, does everything he can to help her. The show also occasionally implies Homer forgets he has a third child, Maggie; while the episode "And Maggie Makes Three" suggests she is the chief reason Homer took and remains at his regular job (season six, 1995). While Homer's thoughtless antics often upset his family, he on many occasions has also revealed himself to be a caring and loving father and husband: in "Lisa the Beauty Queen", (season four, 1992) he sold his cherished ride on the Duff blimp and used the money to enter Lisa in a beauty pageant so she could feel better about herself; in "Rosebud", (season five, 1993) he gave up his chance at wealth to allow Maggie to keep a cherished teddy bear; in "Radio Bart", (season three, 1992) he spearheads an attempt to dig Bart out after he had fallen down a well; in "A Milhouse Divided", (season eight, 1996) he arranges a surprise second wedding with Marge to make up for their unsatisfactory first ceremony; and despite a poor relationship with his father Abraham "Grampa" Simpson, whom he placed in a nursing home as soon as he could while the Simpson family often do their best to avoid unnecessary contact with Grampa, Homer has shown feelings of love for his father from time to time.Homer is "a (happy) slave to his various appetites". He has an apparently vacuous mind, but occasionally exhibits a surprising depth of knowledge about various subjects, such as the composition of the Supreme Court of the United States, Inca mythology, bankruptcy law, and cell biology. Homer's brief periods of intelligence are overshadowed, however, by much longer and consistent periods of ignorance, forgetfulness, and stupidity. Homer has a low IQ of 55, which would actually make him unable to speak or perform basic tasks, and has variously been attributed to the hereditary "Simpson Gene" (which eventually causes every male member of the family to become incredibly stupid), his alcohol problem, exposure to radioactive waste, repetitive cranial trauma, and a crayon lodged in the frontal lobe of his brain. In the 2001 episode "HOMR", Homer has the crayon removed, boosting his IQ to 105; although he bonds with Lisa, his newfound capacity for understanding and reason makes him unhappy, and he has the crayon reinserted. Homer often debates with his own mind, expressed in voiceover. His mind has a tendency to offer dubious advice, which occasionally helps him make the right decision, but often fails spectacularly. His mind has even become completely frustrated and, through sound effects, walked out on Homer. These exchanges were often introduced because they filled time and were easy for the animators to work on. They were phased out after the producers "used every possible permutation".Producer Mike Reiss said Homer was his favorite Simpsons character to write: "Homer's just a comedy writer's dream. He has everything wrong with him, every comedy trope. He's fat and bald and stupid and lazy and angry and an alcoholic. I'm pretty sure he embodies all seven deadly sins." John Swartzwelder, who wrote 60 episodes, said he wrote Homer as if he were "a big talking dog ... One moment he's the saddest man in the world, because he's just lost his job, or dropped his sandwich, or accidentally killed his family. Then, the next moment, he's the happiest man in the world, because he's just found a penny — maybe under one of his dead family members ... If you write him as a dog you'll never go wrong." Reiss felt this was insightful, saying: "Homer is just pure emotion, no long-term memory, everything is instant gratification. And, you know, has good dog qualities, too. I think, loyalty, friendliness, and just kind of continuous optimism."== Reception ===== Commendations ===Homer's influence on comedy and culture has been significant. In 2010, Entertainment Weekly named Homer "the greatest character of the last 20 years". He was placed second on TV Guide's 2002 Top 50 Greatest Cartoon Characters, behind Bugs Bunny; fifth on Bravo's 100 Greatest TV Characters, one of only four cartoon characters on that list; and first in a Channel 4 poll of the greatest television characters of all time. In 2007, Entertainment Weekly placed Homer ninth on their list of the "50 Greatest TV icons" and first on their 2010 list of the "Top 100 Characters of the Past Twenty Years". Homer was also the runaway winner in British polls that determined who viewers thought was the "greatest American" and which fictional character people would like to see become the President of the United States. His relationship with Marge was included in TV Guide's list of "The Best TV Couples of All Time".Dan Castellaneta has won several awards for voicing Homer, including four Primetime Emmy Awards for "Outstanding Voice-Over Performance" in 1992 for "Lisa's Pony", 1993 for "Mr. Plow", in 2004 for "Today I Am a Clown", and in 2009 for "Father Knows Worst". However, in the case of "Today I Am a Clown", it was for voicing "various characters" and not solely for Homer. In 2010, Castellaneta received a fifth Emmy nomination for voicing Homer and Grampa in the episode "Thursdays with Abie". In 1993, Castellaneta was given a special Annie Award, "Outstanding Individual Achievement in the Field of Animation", for his work as Homer on The Simpsons. In 2004, Castellaneta and Julie Kavner (the voice of Marge) won a Young Artist Award for "Most Popular Mom & Dad in a TV Series". In 2005, Homer and Marge were nominated for a Teen Choice Award for "Choice TV Parental Units". Various episodes in which Homer is strongly featured have won Emmy Awards for Outstanding Animated Program, including "Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment" in 1991, "Lisa's Wedding" in 1995, "Homer's Phobia" in 1997, "Trash of the Titans" in 1998, "HOMR" in 2001, "Three Gays of the Condo" in 2003 and "Eternal Moonshine of the Simpson Mind" in 2008. In 2000, Homer and the rest of the Simpson family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame located at 7021 Hollywood Boulevard. In 2017, Homer Simpson was celebrated by the National Baseball Hall of Fame, to honor the 25th anniversary of the episode "Homer at the Bat".=== Analysis ===Homer is an "everyman" and embodies several American stereotypes of working class blue-collar men: he is crude, overweight, incompetent, dim-witted, childish, clumsy and a borderline alcoholic. Matt Groening describes him as "completely ruled by his impulses". Dan Castellaneta calls him "a dog trapped in a man's body", adding, "He's incredibly loyal – not entirely clean – but you gotta love him." In his book Planet Simpson, author Chris Turner describes Homer as "the most American of the Simpsons" and believes that while the other Simpson family members could be changed to other nationalities, Homer is "pure American". In the book God in the Details: American Religion in Popular Culture, the authors comment that "Homer's progress (or lack thereof) reveals a character who can do the right thing, if accidentally or begrudgingly." The book The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer includes a chapter analyzing Homer's character from the perspective of Aristotelian virtue ethics. Raja Halwani writes that Homer's "love of life" is an admirable character trait, "for many people are tempted to see in Homer nothing but buffoonery and immorality. ... He is not politically correct, he is more than happy to judge others, and he certainly does not seem to be obsessed with his health. These qualities might not make Homer an admirable person, but they do make him admirable in some ways, and, more importantly, makes us crave him and the Homer Simpsons of this world." In 2008, Entertainment Weekly justified designating The Simpsons as a television classic by stating, "we all hail Simpson patriarch Homer because his joy is as palpable as his stupidity is stunning".In the season eight episode "Homer's Enemy" the writers decided to examine "what it would be like to actually work alongside Homer Simpson". The episode explores the possibilities of a realistic character with a strong work ethic named Frank Grimes placed alongside Homer in a work environment. In the episode, Homer is portrayed as an everyman and the embodiment of the American spirit; however, in some scenes his negative characteristics and silliness are prominently highlighted. By the end of the episode, Grimes, a hard working and persevering "real American hero", has become the villain; the viewer is intended to be pleased that Homer has emerged victorious.In Gilligan Unbound, author Paul Arthur Cantor states that he believes Homer's devotion to his family has added to the popularity of the character. He writes, "Homer is the distillation of pure fatherhood. ... This is why, for all his stupidity, bigotry and self-centered quality, we cannot hate Homer. He continually fails at being a good father, but he never gives up trying, and in some basic and important sense that makes him a good father." The Sunday Times remarked "Homer is good because, above all, he is capable of great love. When the chips are down, he always does the right thing by his children—he is never unfaithful in spite of several opportunities."== Cultural influence ==Homer Simpson is one of the most popular and influential television characters by a variety of standards. USA Today cited the character as being one of the "top 25 most influential people of the past 25 years" in 2007, adding that Homer "epitomized the irony and irreverence at the core of American humor". Robert Thompson, director of Syracuse University's Center for the Study of Popular Television, believes that "three centuries from now, English professors are going to be regarding Homer Simpson as one of the greatest creations in human storytelling." Animation historian Jerry Beck described Homer as one of the best animated characters, saying, "you know someone like it, or you identify with (it). That's really the key to a classic character." Homer has been described by The Sunday Times as "the greatest comic creation of [modern] time". The article remarked, "every age needs its great, consoling failure, its lovable, pretension-free mediocrity. And we have ours in Homer Simpson."Despite Homer's partial embodiment of American culture, his influence has spread to other parts of the world. In 2003, Matt Groening revealed that his father, after whom Homer was named, was Canadian, and said that this made Homer himself a Canadian. The character was later made an honorary citizen of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, because Homer Groening was believed to be from there, although sources say the senior Groening was actually born in the province of Saskatchewan. In 2007, an image of Homer was painted next to the Cerne Abbas Giant in Dorset, England as part of a promotion for The Simpsons Movie. This caused outrage among local neopagans who performed "rain magic" to try to get it washed away. In 2008, a defaced Spanish euro coin was found in Avilés, Spain with the face of Homer replacing the effigy of King Juan Carlos I.On April 9, 2009, the United States Postal Service unveiled a series of five 44-cent stamps featuring Homer and the four other members of the Simpson family. They are the first characters from a television series to receive this recognition while the show is still in production. The stamps, designed by Matt Groening, were made available for purchase on May 7, 2009.Homer has appeared, voiced by Castellaneta, in several other television shows, including the sixth season of American Idol where he opened the show; The Tonight Show with Jay Leno where he performed a special animated opening monologue for the July 24, 2007, edition; and the 2008 fundraising television special Stand Up to Cancer where he was shown having a colonoscopy.On February 28, 1999, Homer Simpson was made an honorary member of the Junior Common Room of Worcester College, Oxford. Homer was granted the membership by the college's undergraduate body in the belief that ″he would benefit greatly from an Oxford education″.Homer has also been cited in the scientific literature, in relation to low intelligence or cognitive abilities. A 2010 study from the Emory university showed that the RGS14 gene appeared to be impairing the development of cognitive abilities in mice (or, rather, that mice with a disabled RGS14 gene improved their cognitive abilities), prompting the authors to dub it the "Homer Simpson gene".=== D'oh! ===Homer's main and most famous catchphrase, the annoyed grunt "D'oh!", is typically uttered when he injures himself, realizes that he has done something stupid, or when something bad has happened or is about to happen to him. During the voice recording session for a Tracey Ullman Show short, Homer was required to utter what was written in the script as an "annoyed grunt". Dan Castellaneta rendered it as a drawn out "d'ooooooh". This was inspired by Jimmy Finlayson, the mustachioed Scottish actor who appeared in 33 Laurel and Hardy films. Finlayson had used the term as a minced oath to stand in for the word "Damn!" Matt Groening felt that it would better suit the timing of animation if it were spoken faster. Castellaneta then shortened it to a quickly uttered "D'oh!" The first intentional use of D'oh! occurred in the Ullman short "The Krusty the Clown Show" (1989), and its first usage in the series was in the series premiere, "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire"."D'oh!" was first added to The New Oxford Dictionary of English in 1998. It is defined as an interjection "used to comment on an action perceived as foolish or stupid". In 2001, "D'oh!" was added to the Oxford English Dictionary, without the apostrophe ("Doh!"). The definition of the word is "expressing frustration at the realization that things have turned out badly or not as planned, or that one has just said or done something foolish". In 2006, "D'oh!" was placed in sixth position on TV Land's list of the 100 greatest television catchphrases. "D'oh!" is also included in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. The book includes several other quotations from Homer, including "Kids, you tried your best and you failed miserably. The lesson is never try", from "Burns' Heir" (season five, 1994) as well as "Kids are the best, Apu. You can teach them to hate the things you hate. And they practically raise themselves, what with the Internet and all", from "Eight Misbehavin'" (season 11, 1999). Both quotes entered the dictionary in August 2007.=== Merchandising ===Homer's inclusion in many Simpsons publications, toys, and other merchandise is evidence of his enduring popularity. The Homer Book, about Homer's personality and attributes, was released in 2004 and is commercially available. It has been described as "an entertaining little book for occasional reading" and was listed as one of "the most interesting books of 2004" by The Chattanoogan. Other merchandise includes dolls, posters, figurines, bobblehead dolls, mugs, alarm clocks, jigsaw puzzles, Chia Pets, and clothing such as slippers, T-shirts, baseball caps, and boxer shorts. Homer has appeared in commercials for Coke, 1-800-COLLECT, Burger King, Butterfinger, C.C. Lemon, Church's Chicken, Domino's Pizza, Intel, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Ramada Inn, Subway and T.G.I. Friday's. In 2004, Homer starred in a MasterCard Priceless commercial that aired during Super Bowl XXXVIII. In 2001, Kelloggs launched a brand of cereal called "Homer's Cinnamon Donut Cereal", which was available for a limited time. In June 2009, Dutch automotive navigation systems manufacturer TomTom announced that Homer would be added to its downloadable GPS voice lineup. Homer's voice, recorded by Dan Castellaneta, features several in-character comments such as "Take the third right. We might find an ice cream truck! Mmm... ice cream."Homer has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons. He has appeared in every one of The Simpsons video games, including the most recent, The Simpsons Game. Homer appears as a playable character in the toys-to-life video game Lego Dimensions, released via a "Level Pack" packaged with Homer's Car and "Taunt-o-Vision" accessories in September 2015; the pack also adds an additional level based on the episode "The Mysterious Voyage of Homer". Alongside the television series, Homer regularly appeared in issues of Simpsons Comics, which were published from November 29, 1993, until October 17, 2018. Homer also plays a role in The Simpsons Ride, launched in 2008 at Universal Studios Florida and Hollywood.== References ===== Citations ====== Sources ===Groening, Matt (1997). Richmond, Ray; Coffman, Antonia (eds.). The Simpsons: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family (1st ed.). New York: HarperPerennial. ISBN 978-0-06-095252-5. LCCN 98141857. OCLC 37796735. OL 433519M.Halwani, Raja (1999). "Homer and Aristotle". In Irwin, William; Conrad, Mark T.; Skoble, Aeon (eds.). The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer. Chicago, Illinois: Open Court. ISBN 978-0-8126-9433-8.Reiss, Mike; Klickstein, Mathew (2018). Springfield confidential: jokes, secrets, and outright lies from a lifetime writing for the Simpsons. New York City: Dey Street Books. ISBN 978-0062748034.Turner, Chris (2004). Planet Simpson: How a Cartoon Masterpiece Documented an Era and Defined a Generation. Foreword by Douglas Coupland. (1st ed.). Toronto: Random House Canada. ISBN 978-0-679-31318-2. OCLC 55682258.== Further reading ==Alberti, John, ed. (2003). Leaving Springfield: The Simpsons and the Possibility of Oppositional Culture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-2849-1.Brown, Alan; Logan, Chris (2006). The Psychology of The Simpsons. BenBella Books. ISBN 978-1-932100-70-9.Fink, Moritz (2019). The Simpsons: A Cultural History. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-5381-1616-6.Groening, Matt (2005). The Homer Book. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-111661-2.Groening, Matt (1991). The Simpsons Uncensored Family Album. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-096582-2.Pinsky, Mark I (2004). The Gospel According to The Simpsons: The Spiritual Life of the World's Most Animated Family. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22419-6.== External links == Media related to Homer Simpson at Wikimedia CommonsHomer Simpson on IMDb The Simpsons: An Uncensored, Unauthorized History is a non-fiction book about the American animated television series The Simpsons. It was written by John Ortved, and first published in October 2009 by Faber and Faber. In the United Kingdom, the book is called Simpsons Confidential: The uncensored, totally unauthorised history of the world's greatest TV show by the people that made it. The book is an oral history of the show, and concentrates particularly on the writers and producers of the show. The book includes entire chapters devoted to key figures such as creator Matt Groening and James L. Brooks and Sam Simon, who helped develop the series. According to National Public Radio reviewer Linda Holmes, "Ortved's thesis, essentially, is that lots of people are responsible for the success of The Simpsons, and their creator, Matt Groening, has too often been viewed as the sole source to the detriment of others who also deserve to be praised."In 2007, John Ortved wrote an article for Vanity Fair titled "Simpson Family Values". Producers of the show, including Groening, Brooks and Simon, chose not to cooperate in the project. Ortved believes that the reason was because "were upset [that] the myth of The Simpsons would be challenged." Shortly after the article was published, an agent suggested that Ortved write a full book. The producers again decided not to participate, and, according to Ortved, Brooks asked current and former Simpsons employees not to talk to Ortved. However, the book does include portions of interviews that several figures did with other sources. Ortved did interview a number of sources for the book, including Hank Azaria, a cast member of the show since the second season, Fox Broadcasting Company owner Rupert Murdoch and former writer Conan O'Brien.Reviews of the book were mostly positive, with most reviewers commenting that the book was well researched and provided a solid history of the show. A few critics felt that the final chapters, in which Ortved gives his opinion of the current state of the show, were out of place and did not fit in with the rest of the book.== Background ==In 2007, John Ortved wrote an article for Vanity Fair titled "Simpson Family Values". It was an oral history of The Simpsons, featuring interviews with several of the crew and cast members. According to Ortved, the producers of The Simpsons decided not to cooperate and be interviewed for the project because they had heard that he was asking questions about Sam Simon. Simon, one of the first executive producers of the show, had left after the fourth season after clashing with creator Matt Groening and executive producer James L. Brooks. Ortved believes that the producers "were upset [that] the myth of The Simpsons would be challenged." He still wrote the story, without the approval of the Simpsons producers.Shortly after the article was published, an agent suggested that Ortved write a full book. They put together a proposal and shopped it to several publishers, before being signed by Faber and Faber. According to Ortved, "When word of this got out, Brooks sent a letter to every current Simpsons employee, and all the former ones he thought mattered, asking them not to speak to me. The writers’ agents sent denial after denial for interview requests and eventually stopped responding altogether." He added, "There was one 'D'oh!' in James L. Brooks and the Gracie Films master plan: Many people don’t like James L. Brooks. [...] The book I ended up writing quotes more than 75 sources—some of them Simpsons staffers, former and current, who opened up because they considered his and Matt Groening’s attempt to stomp on my project very 'un-Simpsons.'"Ortved decided to write the book as an oral history because he found that every person interviewed had a different perspective on the events. His decision was "reinforced" when he found out that the producers of the show would not cooperate.== Content ==According to National Public Radio reviewer Linda Holmes, "Ortved's thesis, essentially, is that lots of people are responsible for the success of The Simpsons, and their creator, Matt Groening, has too often been viewed as the sole source to the detriment of others who also deserve to be praised." The Simpsons: An Uncensored, Unauthorized History is an oral history of the show, examining its beginnings, rise to success, impact on pop culture, as well as the people behind the show, including the animators, writers and producers. The content consists mostly of quotations from various figures, which are tied together by comments from Ortved. The book includes entire chapters devoted to key figures such as Matt Groening, James L. Brooks, Sam Simon and Conan O'Brien. The book's foreword was written by Canadian author Douglas Coupland. The final chapters of the book consist mostly of commentary from Ortved, in which he states that he believes that quality of the show has declined since its early years.=== Interviews ===Ortved interviewed a number of sources for the book, including main cast member Hank Azaria, former director Brad Bird, former supervising director Gábor Csupó and former writer O'Brien. Groening, Brooks and Simon refused to participate in the book, or be interviewed by Ortved. However, the book does include portions of interviews that they did with other sources. According to Ortved, most of the participants "had stories to tell, or axes to grind," or are "too successful to care." Research and interviews for both the book and Vanity Fair article were conducted between January 2007 and May 2008. Ortved commented that the person he most would have liked to interview was Dan Castellaneta, the voice of Homer Simpson. Rupert Murdoch, the owner of the Fox Broadcasting Company, agreed to be interviewed, and reportedly told Ortved "Those creative types, they're always looking to pick a fight." He also interviewed figures such as Fox CEO Barry Diller and guest stars Ricky Gervais, Art Spiegelman and Tom Wolfe.== Reception ==Reviews of the book were mostly positive. Linda Holmes of National Public Radio felt that "most of Ortved's work provides a solid basic history." Ken Tucker of Entertainment Weekly gave the book a "B+", writing, "you have to admire all the work that went into this unauthorized history." He noted that he "felt a little bad afterward for the central players who got sucker punched. [...] The subsequent testimony about the empire Groening created is contentious and mesmerizing. It's also conflicting and compromised, since some of the biggest fishies of all did not talk to Ortved. [...] The reader should be wary when sources assert that Groening is little more than an affable frontman for the show or that Brooks sometimes wielded his power imperiously: The guys aren't there to defend themselves. In most cases, though, Ortved amasses quotes from many sources to establish such points, so the negative stuff doesn't seem gratuitous." Michael C. Lorah of Newsarama described the book as a "very effective, very worthwhile read" but felt that Ortved's "editorializing" was "probably the most distracting element of the book." Michael Hingston of See Magazine called the book "a well-told patchwork that shines formidable light on the show" and gave it three and a half stars. However, he felt the book was released prematurely and should have been published after the end of the show, also criticizing Ortved's narration and the lack of quotes from Matt Groening or James L. Brooks. Kyle Ryan of The A.V. Club pointed out that the book has "numerous factual errors" that "may only trip the alarms of hardcore fans, but even casual readers may be put off by the book's redundancy." He concluded that despite flaws, the "insight into its routines and eccentric personalities can't help but fascinate."Ryan Bigge of The Toronto Star felt that Ortved's "diligence and research is faultless, and [he] has worked hard to avoid writing another insider-y true-fans-only look at the show. Still, certain chunks of the book are unlikely to appeal to casual Simpsons viewers. [..] By mixing journalism about yellow people with a bit of yellow journalism, Ortved provides a tough, necessary look at Homer Simpson's odyssey that would make Kent Brockman proud."Bryan Appleyard of The Sunday Times criticized the format of the book, writing that it was "alternately engrossing and infuriating book [...] It is infuriating because of a fatal structural decision taken by the author and/or his publisher to include long quotations from interviewees as breaks in the text. This destroys narrative coherence and, for much of the time, makes reading a chore." Appleyard concluded that it is "an important and controversial contribution to the ever-expanding scope of Simpsons studies."Several critics felt that the final chapters, in which Ortved gives his opinion of the current state of the show, were out of place when compared with the rest of the book. Ken Tucker felt Ortved's "complaints aren't original or illuminating." Linda Holmes wrote that "After spending most of the book using actual reporting to flesh out the facts, Ortved largely turns the floor over to himself for the part of the book in which he describes the creative decline of the show and tries to figure out whose fault it is by not infrequently simply declaring, among other things, which episodes are good and which are bad, sometimes without explaining himself at all." Michael C. Lorah felt that Ortved's criticism of the later seasons was "disconcerting", noting that "It's not that he's wrong, but it seems unnecessary and at times even petty when cast against his own fawning over the undeniably massive influence of the show on current pop culture and comedy."== Other editions ==== Notes ==== References ==Ortved, John (2009). The Simpsons: An Uncensored, Unauthorized History. Greystone Books. pp. 248–250. ISBN 978-1-55365-503-9.== External links ==An Uncensored, Unauthorized History at Bartholomew JoJo "Bart" Simpson is a fictional character in the American animated television series The Simpsons and part of the Simpson family. He is voiced by Nancy Cartwright and first appeared on television in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Cartoonist Matt Groening created and designed Bart while waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on his comic strip, Life in Hell, but instead decided to create a new set of characters. While the rest of the characters were named after Groening's family members, Bart's name is an anagram of the word brat. After appearing on The Tracey Ullman Show for two years, the Simpson family received its own series on Fox, which debuted December 17, 1989. Bart has appeared in every Simpsons episode except "Four Great Women and a Manicure".At ten years old, Bart is the eldest child and only son of Homer and Marge, and the brother of Lisa and Maggie. Bart's most prominent and popular character traits are his mischievousness, rebelliousness and disrespect for authority. Hallmarks of the character include his chalkboard gags in the opening sequence; his prank calls to Moe; and his catchphrases "Eat my shorts", "¡Ay, caramba!", "Don't have a cow, man!", and "I'm Bart Simpson. Who the hell are you?". However, with the exception of "Ay, caramba!", these hallmarks have been retired or are not often used. Bart has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons – including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride, commercials, and comic books – and inspired an entire line of merchandise.In casting, Cartwright originally planned to audition for the role of Lisa, while Yeardley Smith tried out for Bart. Smith's voice was too high for a boy, so she was given the role of Lisa. Cartwright found that Lisa was not interesting at the time, so instead auditioned for Bart, which she thought was a better role.During the first two seasons of The Simpsons, Bart was the show's breakout character and "Bartmania" ensued, spawning Bart Simpson-themed merchandise touting his rebellious attitude and pride at underachieving, which caused many parents and educators to cast him as a bad role model for children. Around the third season, the series started to focus more on the family as a whole, though Bart still remains a prominent character. Time named Bart one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century, and he was named "entertainer of the year" in 1990 by Entertainment Weekly. Cartwright has won several awards for voicing Bart, including a Primetime Emmy Award in 1992 and an Annie Award in 1995. In 2000, Bart, along with the rest of his family, was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.== Role in The Simpsons ==The Simpsons uses a floating timeline in which the characters do not age or age very little, and as such, the show is always assumed to be set in the current year. In several episodes, events have been linked to specific times, though sometimes this timeline has been contradicted in subsequent episodes. Bart's year of birth was stated in "I Married Marge" (season three, 1991) as being in the early 1980s. In "Simpsorama" (season 26, 2014) Bart states his birthday as February 23. He lived with his parents in the Lower East Side of Springfield until the Simpsons bought their first house. When Lisa was born, Bart was at first jealous of the attention she received, but he soon warmed to her when he discovered that "Bart" was her first word. Bart's first day of school was in the early 1990s. His initial enthusiasm was crushed by an uncaring teacher and Marge became worried that something was truly wrong with Bart. One day during recess, Bart met Milhouse and started entertaining him and other students with various gestures and rude words. Principal Skinner told him "you've just started school, and the path you choose now may be the one you follow for the rest of your life! Now, what do you say?" In his moment of truth, Bart responded, "eat my shorts". The episode "That '90s Show" (season nineteen, 2008) contradicted much of the backstory's time frame; for example, it was revealed that Homer and Marge were childless in the early 1990s.Bart's hobbies include skateboarding, watching television (especially The Krusty the Clown Show which includes The Itchy & Scratchy Show), reading comic books (especially Radioactive Man), playing video games and generally causing mischief. His favorite movies are Jaws and the Star Wars Trilogy. For the duration of the series, Bart has attended Springfield Elementary School and has been in Edna Krabappel's fourth grade class. While he is too young to hold a full-time job, he has had occasional part-time jobs. He works as a bartender at Fat Tony's social club in "Bart the Murderer" (season three, 1991); as Krusty the Clown's assistant in "Bart Gets Famous" (season five, 1994); as a doorman in Springfield's burlesque house, the Maison Derrière, in "Bart After Dark" (season eight, 1996); and briefly owns his own factory in "Homer's Enemy" (season eight, 1997).== Character ===== Creation ===Matt Groening first conceived of Bart and the rest of the Simpson family in 1986, while waiting in the lobby of producer James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called in to pitch a series of animated shorts for The Tracey Ullman Show, and had intended to present an adaptation of his Life in Hell comic strip. When he realized that animating Life in Hell would require him to rescind publication rights, Groening decided to go in another direction. He hurriedly sketched out his version of a dysfunctional family, naming the characters after members of his own family. For the rebellious son, he substituted "Bart", an anagram of the word brat, for his own name, as he decided it would have been too obvious for him to have named the character 'Matt'. Bart's middle initial J is a "tribute" to animated characters such as Bullwinkle J. Moose and Rocket J. Squirrel from The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, who received their middle initial from Jay Ward. According to the book Bart Simpson's Guide to Life, Bart's full middle name is "JoJo".Bart had originally been envisioned as "a much milder, troubled youth given to existential angst who talks to himself", but the character was changed based on Cartwright's voice acting. Groening has credited several different figures with providing inspiration for Bart: Matt Groening's older brother Mark provided much of the motivation for Bart's attitude. Bart was conceived as an extreme version of the typical misbehaving child character, merging all of the extreme traits of characters such as Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn into one person. Groening describes Bart as "what would happen if the son of Eddie Haskell [from Leave It to Beaver] got his own show". Groening has also said that he found the premise of Dennis the Menace disappointing and was inspired to create a character who was actually a menace.Bart made his debut with the rest of the Simpson family on April 19, 1987 in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night". In 1989, the shorts were adapted into The Simpsons, a half-hour series airing on the Fox Broadcasting Company. Bart and the Simpson family remained the main characters on this new show.=== Design ===The entire Simpson family was designed so that they would be recognizable in silhouette. The family was crudely drawn, because Groening had submitted basic sketches to the animators, assuming they would clean them up; instead, they just traced over his drawings. Bart's original design, which appeared in the first shorts, had spikier hair, and the spikes were of different lengths. The number was later limited to nine spikes, all of the same size. At the time Groening was primarily drawing in black and "not thinking that [Bart] would eventually be drawn in color" gave him spikes which appear to be an extension of his head. The features of Bart's character design are generally not used in other characters; for example, no other characters in current episodes have Bart's spiky hairline, although several background characters in the first few seasons shared the trait.The basic rectangular shape of Bart's head is described by director Mark Kirkland as a coffee can. Homer's head is also rectangular (with a dome on top), while spheres are used for Marge, Lisa, and Maggie. Different animators have different methods of drawing Bart. Former director Jeffrey Lynch starts off with a box, then adds the eyes, then the mouth, then the hair spikes, ear, and then the rest of the body. Matt Groening normally starts with the eyes, then the nose, and the rest of the outline of Bart's head. Many of the animators have trouble drawing Bart's spikes evenly; one trick they use is to draw one on the right, one on the left, one in the middle, then continue to add one in the middle of the blank space until there are nine. Originally, whenever Bart was to be drawn from an angle looking down so the top of his head was seen, Groening wanted there to be spikes along the outline of his head, and in the middle as well. Instead, Wes Archer and David Silverman drew him so that there was an outline of the spikes, then just a smooth patch in the middle because "it worked graphically". In "The Blue and the Gray", Bart (along with Lisa and Maggie) finally questions why his hair has no visible border to separate head from hair.In the season seven (1995) episode "Treehouse of Horror VI", Bart (along with Homer) was computer animated into a three-dimensional character for the first time for the "Homer3" segment of the episode. The computer animation was provided by Pacific Data Images. While designing the 3D model of the character, the animators did not know how they would show Bart's hair. They realized that there were vinyl Bart dolls in production and purchased one to use as a model.=== Voice ===Bart's voice is provided by Nancy Cartwright, who voices several other child characters on The Simpsons, including Nelson Muntz, Ralph Wiggum, Todd Flanders, and Kearney. While the roles of Homer and Marge were given to Dan Castellaneta and Julie Kavner because they were already a part of The Tracey Ullman Show cast, the producers decided to hold casting for the roles of Bart and Lisa. Yeardley Smith had initially been asked to audition for the role of Bart, but casting director Bonita Pietila believed her voice was too high. Smith later recalled, "I always sounded too much like a girl. I read two lines as Bart and they said, 'Thanks for coming!'" Smith was given the role of Lisa instead. On March 13, 1987, Nancy Cartwright went in to audition for the role of Lisa. After arriving at the audition, she found that Lisa was simply described as the "middle child" and at the time did not have much personality. Cartwright became more interested in the role of Bart, who was described as "devious, underachieving, school-hating, irreverent, [and] clever". Matt Groening let her try out for the part instead, and upon hearing her read, gave her the job on the spot. Cartwright is the only one of the six main Simpsons cast members who had been professionally trained in voice acting prior to working on the show.Cartwright's normal speaking voice is said to have "no obvious traces of Bart". The voice came naturally to Cartwright; prior to The Tracey Ullman Show, she had used elements of it in shows such as My Little Pony, Snorks, and Pound Puppies. Cartwright describes Bart's voice as easy to perform, saying, "Some characters take a little bit more effort, upper respiratory control, whatever it is technically. But Bart is easy to do. I can just slip into that without difficulty." She usually does five or six readings of every line in order to give the producers more to work with. In flashforward episodes, Cartwright still provides the voice of Bart. For "Lisa's Wedding", (season six, 1995) Bart's voice was electronically lowered.Despite Bart's fame, Cartwright is rarely recognized in public. When she is recognized and asked to perform Bart's voice in front of children, Cartwright refuses as it "freaks [them] out". During the first season of The Simpsons, the Fox Network did not allow Cartwright to give interviews because they did not want to publicize that Bart was voiced by a woman.Until 1998, Cartwright was paid $30,000 per episode. During a pay dispute in 1998, Fox threatened to replace the six main voice actors with new actors, going as far as preparing for casting of new voices. The dispute was resolved and Cartwright received $125,000 per episode until 2004, when the voice actors demanded that they be paid $360,000 an episode. The dispute was resolved a month later, and Cartwright's pay rose to $250,000 per episode. After salary renegotiations in 2008, the voice actors receive approximately $400,000 per episode. Three years later, with Fox threatening to cancel the series unless production costs were cut, Cartwright and the other cast members accepted a 30 percent pay cut to just over $300,000 per episode.=== Hallmarks ===In the opening sequence of many Simpsons episodes, the camera zooms in on Springfield Elementary School, where Bart can be seen writing a message on the chalkboard. This message, which changes from episode to episode, has become known as the "chalkboard gag". Chalkboard messages may involve political humor such as "The First Amendment does not cover burping", pop culture references such as "I can't see dead people", and meta-references such as "I am not a 32-year-old woman" and "Nobody reads these anymore". The animators are able to produce the chalkboard gags quickly and in some cases have changed them to fit current events. For example, the chalkboard gag for "Homer the Heretic" (season four, 1992) read, "I will not defame New Orleans." The gag had been written as an apology to the city for a controversial song in the previous week's episode, "A Streetcar Named Marge", which called the city a "home of pirates, drunks and whores". Many episodes do not feature a chalkboard gag because a shorter opening title sequence, where the chalkboard gags are cut, is used to make more room for story and plot development.One of Bart's early hallmarks were his prank calls to Moe's Tavern owner Moe Szyslak in which Bart calls Moe and asks for a gag name. Moe tries to find that person in the bar, but rapidly realizes it is a prank call and (despite not knowing who actually made the call) angrily threatens Bart. These calls were based on a series of prank calls known as the Tube Bar recordings. Moe was based partly on Tube Bar owner Louis "Red" Deutsch, whose often profane responses inspired Moe's violent side. The prank calls debuted in "Homer's Odyssey", (season one, 1990) the third episode to air, but were included in "Some Enchanted Evening", the first episode of the series that was produced. As the series progressed, it became more difficult for the writers to come up with a fake name and to write Moe's angry response, so the pranks were dropped as a regular joke during the fourth season but they have occasionally resurfaced on the show.The catchphrase "Eat My Shorts" was an ad-lib by Cartwright in one of the original table readings, harking back to an incident when she was in high school. Cartwright was in the marching band at Fairmont High School, and one day while performing, the band chanted "Eat my shorts" rather than the usual "Fairmont West! Fairmont West!" It could also be an homage to The Breakfast Club, as John Bender says the phrase to Principal Vernon. John Bender would become the inspiration for another Matt Groening creation, Bender from Futurama. Bart's other catchphrases, "¡Ay, caramba!" came from a Portuguese flamenco dancer and "Don't have a cow!" had been around since the 1950s which derived from the British phrase "Don't have kittens"; both were featured on T-shirts manufactured during the production of the early seasons of The Simpsons. "Cowabunga" is also commonly associated with Bart, although it was mostly used on the show after it had been used as a slogan on the T-shirts. Reiss also stated the writers took the phrase from Chief Thunderthud on The Howdy Doody Show. The use of catchphrase-based humor was mocked in the episode "Bart Gets Famous" (season five, 1994) in which Bart lands a popular role on Krusty the Clown's show for saying the line "I didn't do it." The writers chose the phrase "I didn't do it" because they wanted a "lousy" phrase "to point out how really crummy things can become really popular".Bart commonly appears nude in the show, although in every case only his buttocks are visible. In The Simpsons Movie (2007), Bart appears in a sequence where he is skateboarding while fully nude; several different items cover his genitalia, but for a brief moment his penis can be seen. The scene was one of the first worked on for the film, but the producers were nervous about the segment because they thought it would earn the movie an R rating. Despite this, the film was rated PG-13 by the Motion Picture Association of America for "Irreverent Humor Throughout". The scene was later included by Entertainment Weekly in their list of "30 Unforgettable Nude Scenes".=== Personality ===Bart's character traits of rebelliousness and disrespect for authority have been compared to that of America's founding fathers, and he has been described as an updated version of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, rolled into one. In his book Planet Simpson, Chris Turner describes Bart as a nihilist, a philosophical position that argues that existence is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value.Bart's rebellious attitude has made him a disruptive student at Springfield Elementary School, where he is an underachiever and proud of it. He is constantly at odds with his teacher Ms. Krabappel, Principal Skinner, and occasionally Groundskeeper Willie. Bart does poorly in school and is well aware of it, having once declared, "I am dumb, okay? Dumb as a post! Think I'm happy about it?" On one occasion, Lisa successfully proves that Bart is dumber than a hamster, although Bart ultimately outsmarts her. Bart's thoughts are often illogical― he once thought if he died and reincarnated as a butterfly, he would be able to burn the school down without being suspected, thinking that he would be able to hold a gas can as a butterfly. He has also thought if he wrote his name in wet cement, people who see it after it dries will wonder how he managed to write his name in solid cement. In "Separate Vocations" (season three, 1992), Bart becomes hall monitor and his grades go up, suggesting that he struggles mainly because he does not pay attention, not because he is stupid. This idea is reinforced in "Brother's Little Helper", (season eleven, 1999) in which it is revealed that Bart suffers from attention deficit disorder. His lack of smarts can also be attributed to the hereditary "Simpson Gene", which affects the intelligence of most male members of the Simpson family. Although he gets into endless trouble and can be sadistic, shallow and selfish, Bart also exhibits many qualities of high integrity. He has, on a few occasions, helped Principal Skinner and Mrs. Krabappel: In "Sweet Seymour Skinner's Baadasssss Song" (season five, 1994), Bart accidentally got Skinner fired and befriended him outside the school environment. Bart missed having Skinner as an adversary and got him rehired, knowing that this would mean that the two could no longer be friends.Due to Bart's mischievousness and Homer's often uncaring and incompetent behavior, the two have a turbulent, jaded, violent, and at times borderline sadistic relationship. Bart regularly addresses Homer by his given name instead of "Dad", while Homer in turn often refers to him as "the boy". Homer has a short temper and when enraged by Bart will strangle him on impulse in a cartoonishly violent manner. One of the original ideas for the show was that Homer would be "very angry" and oppressive toward Bart, but these characteristics were toned down somewhat as their characters were explored. Marge is a much more caring, understanding and nurturing parent than Homer, but she also refers to Bart as "a handful" and is often embarrassed by his antics. In "Marge Be Not Proud", (season seven, 1995) she felt she was mothering Bart too much and began acting more distant towards him after he was caught shoplifting. At the beginning of the episode, Bart protested at her over-mothering but as her attitude changed, he felt bad and made it up to her. Despite his attitude, Bart is sometimes willing to experience humiliation if it means pleasing his mom. Marge has expressed an understanding for her "special little guy" and has defended him on many occasions. She once said "I know Bart can be a handful, but I also know what he's like inside. He's got a spark. It's not a bad thing ... Of course, it makes him do bad things."Bart shares a sibling rivalry with his younger sister, Lisa, but has a buddy-like relationship with his youngest sister Maggie, due to her infant state. While Bart has often hurt Lisa, and even fought her physically, the two are often very close. Bart cares for Lisa deeply and has always apologized for going too far. He also believes Lisa to be his superior when it comes to solving problems and frequently goes to her for advice. Bart is also highly protective of Lisa: When a bully destroys her box of cupcakes in "Bart the General", (season one, 1990), Bart immediately stands up for her.Bart is portrayed as a popular cool boy and has many friends at school. Out of all of them his best friend is Milhouse Van Houten, although Bart has at times shown embarrassment about their friendship. Bart is a bad influence on Milhouse, and the two have been involved in a lot of mischief together. Because of this behavior, Milhouse's mother forbids Milhouse from playing with Bart in "Homer Defined" (season three, 1991). While at first he pretended that he did not care, Bart eventually realizes that he needs Milhouse, and Marge manages to convince Mrs. Van Houten to reconsider. Milhouse is a frequent target for local bullies Nelson Muntz and his friends Jimbo, Dolph, and Kearney. At times, Bart also finds himself at the hands of their abuse. Despite being the more socially powerful of the two, Bart's social popularity has temporarily subsided various episodes either due to extreme embarrassment caused by his family or other people (or even himself) or an unfortunate coincidence. Milhouse describes their social standing as "Three and a half. We get beat up, but we get an explanation." While Bart and the bullies have been adversaries at times, with Bart once declaring war on Nelson, the school bullies actually like Bart for his ways and hang out with him at times, especially Nelson who eventually becomes close friends with him.Bart is one of the biggest fans of children's television host Krusty the Clown. He once declared, "I've based my whole life on Krusty's teachings", and sleeps in a room filled with Krusty merchandise. He has helped the clown on many occasions, for example, foiling Sideshow Bob's attempt to frame Krusty for armed robbery in "Krusty Gets Busted" (season one, 1990), reuniting Krusty with his estranged father in "Like Father, Like Clown". and helping Krusty return to the air with a comeback special and reignite his career in "Krusty Gets Kancelled". For his part, Krusty has remained largely ignorant of Bart's help and treats Bart with disinterest. One summer, Bart enthusiastically attended Kamp Krusty, which turned out to be a disaster, with Krusty nowhere to be seen. Bart keeps his hopes up by believing that Krusty would show up, but is soon pushed over the edge, and finally decides that he is sick of Krusty's shoddy merchandise and takes over the camp. Krusty immediately visits the camp in hopes of ending the conflict and manages to appease Bart. One of the original ideas for the series was that Bart worshiped a television clown but had no respect for his father, although this was never directly explored. Because of this original plan, Krusty's design is basically Homer in clown make-up. When Bart foiled Sideshow Bob's plans in "Krusty Gets Busted", it sparked a long-standing feud between the two. The writers decided to have Bob repeatedly return to get revenge on Bart. They took the idea of the Coyote chasing the Road Runner and depicted Bob as an intelligent person obsessed with catching a bratty boy. Bob has appeared in fourteen episodes, generally plotting various evil schemes which often have to do with getting revenge on Bart (and sometimes the entire Simpson family by proxy), but is always foiled in the end.== Reception and cultural influence ===== Bartmania ===In 1990, Bart quickly became one of the most popular characters on television in what was termed "Bartmania". He became the most prevalent Simpsons character on memorabilia, such as T-shirts. In the early 1990s, millions of T-shirts featuring Bart were sold; as many as one million were sold on some days. Believing Bart to be a bad role model, several American public schools banned T-shirts featuring Bart next to captions such as "I'm Bart Simpson. Who the hell are you?" and "Underachiever ('And proud of it, man!')". The Simpsons merchandise sold well and generated $2 billion in revenue during the first 14 months of sales. The success of Bart Simpson merchandise inspired an entire line of black market counterfeit items, especially T-shirts. Some featured Bart announcing various slogans, others depicted redesigns of the character, including "Teenage Mutant Ninja Bart, Air Simpson Bart, [and] RastaBart". Matt Groening generally did not object to bootleg merchandise, but took exception to a series of "Nazi Bart" shirts which depicted Bart in Nazi uniform or as a white power skinhead. 20th Century Fox sued the creator of the shirts, who eventually agreed to stop making them.Bart became so associated with Fox that, when bidding in 1993 to show pro football, the network had to assure the NFL and reporters that the character would not announce games. Due to the show's success, over the summer of 1990 Fox decided to switch The Simpsons' timeslot so that it would move from 8:00 p.m. ET on Sunday night to the same time on Thursday, where it would compete with The Cosby Show on NBC, the number one show at the time. Through the summer, several news outlets published stories about the supposed "Bill vs. Bart" rivalry. The August 31, 1990 issue of Entertainment Weekly featured a picture of Bill Cosby wearing a Bart Simpson T-shirt. "Bart Gets an 'F'" (season two, 1990) was the first episode to air against The Cosby Show, and it received a lower Nielsen rating, tying for eighth behind The Cosby Show, which had an 18.5 rating. The rating is based on the number of household televisions that were tuned into the show, but Nielsen Media Research estimated that 33.6 million viewers watched the episode, making it the number one show in terms of actual viewers that week. At the time, it was the most watched episode in the history of the Fox Network, and it is still the highest rated episode in the history of The Simpsons. Because of his popularity, Bart was often the most promoted member of the Simpson family in advertisements for the show, even for episodes in which he was not involved in the main plot.Bart was described as "television's king of 1990", "television's brightest new star" and an "undiminished smash". Entertainment Weekly named Bart the "entertainer of the year" for 1990, writing that "Bart has proved to be a rebel who's also a good kid, a terror who's easily terrorized, and a flake who astonishes us, and himself, with serious displays of fortitude." In the United States congressional, senatorial and gubernatorial elections of 1990, Bart was one of the most popular write-in candidates, and in many areas was second only to Mickey Mouse amongst fictional characters. In the 1990 Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, Bart made his debut as one of the giant helium-filled balloons for which the parade is known. The Bart Simpson balloon has appeared at every parade since. This was referenced in The Simpsons in the episode "Bart vs. Thanksgiving", which aired the same day as the parade, where Homer tells Bart, "If you start building a balloon for every flash-in-the-pan cartoon character, you turn the parade into a farce!" Meanwhile, behind and unbeknownst to him, the television briefly shows a Bart Simpson balloon.The album The Simpsons Sing the Blues was released in September 1990 and was a success, peaking at No. 3 on the Billboard 200 and becoming certified 2x platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. The first single from the album was the pop rap song "Do the Bartman", performed by Nancy Cartwright and released on November 20, 1990. The song was written by Bryan Loren, a friend of Michael Jackson. Jackson was a fan of The Simpsons, especially Bart, and had called the producers one night offering to write Bart a number one single and do a guest spot on the show. Jackson eventually guest starred in the episode "Stark Raving Dad" (season three, 1991) under the pseudonym John Jay Smith. While the song was never officially released as a single in the United States, it was successful in the United Kingdom. In 1991 it was the number one song in the UK for three weeks from February 16 to March 9 and was the seventh best-selling song of the year. It sold half a million copies and was certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry on February 1, 1991.=== Bart as a role model ===Bart's rebellious nature, which frequently resulted in no punishment for his misbehavior, led some parents and conservatives to characterize him as a poor role model for children. Robert Bianco of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette wrote that "[Bart] outwits his parents and outtalks his teachers; in short, he's the child we wish we'd been, and fear our children will become." In schools, educators claimed that Bart was a "threat to learning" because of his "underachiever and proud of it" attitude and negative attitude regarding his education. Others described him as "egotistical, aggressive and mean-spirited." In response to the criticism, James L. Brooks said, "I'm very wary of television where everybody is supposed to be a role model, you don't run across that many role models in real life. Why should television be full of them?"In 1990 William Bennett, who at the time was drug czar of the United States, visited a drug treatment center in Pittsburgh and upon noticing a poster of Bart remarked, "You guys aren't watching The Simpsons, are you? That's not going to help you any." When a backlash over the comment ensued, Bennett apologized, claiming he "was just kidding" and saying "I'll sit down with the little spike head. We'll straighten this thing out." In a 1991 interview, Bill Cosby described Bart as a bad role model for children, calling him "angry, confused, frustrated". In response, Matt Groening said, "That sums up Bart, all right. Most people are in a struggle to be normal. He thinks normal is very boring, and does things that others just wished they dare do." On January 27, 1992, then-President George H. W. Bush said, "We are going to keep on trying to strengthen the American family, to make American families a lot more like the Waltons and a lot less like the Simpsons." The writers rushed out a tongue-in-cheek reply in the form of a short segment which aired three days later before a rerun of "Stark Raving Dad" in which Bart replied, "Hey, we're just like the Waltons. We're praying for an end to the Depression, too."Although there were many critics of the character, favorable comments came from several quarters. Columnist Erma Bombeck wrote, "Kids need to know that somewhere in this world is a contemporary who can pull off all the things they can only fantasize about, someone who can stick it to their parents once in a while and still be permitted to live." In 2003, Bart placed first in a poll of parents in the United Kingdom who were asked "which made-up character had the most influence" on children under 12 years old.=== Commendations ===In 1998, Time named Bart one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century. He was the only fictional character to make the list. He had previously appeared on the cover of the edition of December 31, 1990. He was also ranked No. 48 in TV Guide's "50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time" in 1996 and both he and Lisa ranked No. 11 in TV Guide's "Top 50 Greatest Cartoon Characters of All Time" in 2002.At the 44th Primetime Emmy Awards in 1992, Cartwright won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance for voicing Bart in the season three episode "Separate Vocations". She shared the award with five other voice actors from The Simpsons. Various episodes in which Bart is strongly featured have been nominated for Emmy Awards for Outstanding Animated Program, including "Radio Bart" in 1992, "Future-Drama" in 2005, "The Haw-Hawed Couple" in 2006 and "Homer's Phobia", which won the award in 1997. In 1995, Cartwright won an Annie Award for "Voice Acting in the Field of Animation" for her portrayal of Bart in an episode. In 2000, Bart and the rest of the Simpson family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame located at 7021 Hollywood Boulevard.In 2014 Bart Simpson became the second mascot of Russian football club FC Zenit Saint Petersburg, wearing number 87 on his back (referring to The Simpsons debut in 1987; the club's first mascot is a blue-maned lion).=== Merchandising ===Alongside T-shirts, Bart has been included in various other The Simpsons-related merchandise, including air fresheners, baseball caps, bumper stickers, cardboard standups, refrigerator magnets, key rings, buttons, dolls, posters, figurines, clocks, soapstone carvings, Chia Pets, bowling balls and boxer shorts. The Bart Book, a book about Bart's personality and attributes, was released in 2004. Other books include Bart Simpson's Guide to Life. The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer, which is not an official publication, includes a chapter analyzing Bart's character and comparing him to the "Nietzschean ideal".Bart has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons. He has appeared in every one of The Simpsons video games, including Bart vs. the World, Bart Simpson's Escape from Camp Deadly, Bart vs. the Space Mutants, Bart's House of Weirdness, Bart vs. The Juggernauts, Bartman Meets Radioactive Man, Bart's Nightmare, Bart & the Beanstalk and The Simpsons Game, released in 2007. Alongside the television series, Bart regularly appears in issues of Simpsons Comics, which were first published on November 29, 1993 and are still issued monthly, and also has his own series called Bart Simpson Comics which have been released since 2000. Bart also plays a role in The Simpsons Ride, launched in 2008 at Universal Studios Florida and Hollywood. Bart appears as a playable character in the toys-to-life video game Lego Dimensions, released via a "Fun Pack" packaged with a Gravity Sprinter accessory in November 2015.Bart, and other The Simpsons characters, have appeared in numerous television commercials for Nestlé's Butterfinger candy bars from 1990 to 2001, with the slogan "Nobody better lay a finger on my Butterfinger!" Lisa would occasionally advertise it too. Matt Groening would later say that the Butterfinger advertising campaign was a large part of the reason why Fox decided to pick up the half-hour show. The campaign was discontinued in 2001, much to the disappointment of Cartwright. Bart has also appeared in commercials for Burger King and Ramada Inn. In 2001, Kellogg's launched a brand of cereal called "Bart Simpson Peanut Butter Chocolate Crunch", which was available for a limited time. Before the half-hour series went on the air, Matt Groening pitched Bart as a spokesperson for Jell-O. He wanted Bart to sing "J-E-L-L-O", then burp the letter O. His belief was that kids would try to do it the next day, but he was rejected.On April 9, 2009, the United States Postal Service unveiled a series of five 44-cent stamps featuring Bart and the four other members of the Simpson family. They are the first characters, other than Sesame Street characters, to receive this accolade while the show is still in production. The stamps, designed by Matt Groening, were made available for purchase on May 7, 2009.== References ==Bibliography== Further reading ==Alberti, John, ed. (2003). Leaving Springfield: The Simpsons and the Possibility of Oppositional Culture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-2849-1.Brown, Alan; Logan, Chris (2006). The Psychology of The Simpsons. BenBella Books. ISBN 978-1-932100-70-9.Conard, Mark T. (1999). "Thus Spake Bart: On Nietzsche and the Virtues of Being Bad". In Irwin, William; Skoble, Aeon (eds.). The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer. Chicago: Open Court. ISBN 978-0-8126-9433-8.Groening, Matt; Morrison, Bill (2005). The Bart Book. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-111660-5.Groening, Matt (2001). Bart Simpson's Guide to Life. Harper Perennia]. ISBN 978-5-558-68551-0.Groening, Matt (1991). The Simpsons Uncensored Family Album. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-096582-2.Pinsky, Mark I (2004). The Gospel According to The Simpsons: The Spiritual Life of the World's Most Animated Family. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22419-6.== External links ==Bart Simpson on IMDb"

[ "President Richard Nixon"]

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"Which tennis player won more Grand Slam titles, Henri Leconte or Jonathan Stark? Larisa Savchenko-Neiland (Ukrainian: Лариса Савченко-Нейланд, Latvian: Larisa Savčenko-Neilande; née Savchenko; also Larisa Neiland; born 21 July 1966) is a retired tennis player who represented the Soviet Union, Ukraine and Latvia. A former world number-one-ranked doubles player, Neiland won two Grand Slam women's doubles and four mixed doubles titles. She also won two singles titles and 63 doubles titles on the WTA Tour. She is listed in fourth place for the most doubles match wins (766) in WTA history, after Lisa Raymond, Rennae Stubbs and Liezel Huber.== Career ==Savchenko turned professional in 1983 as No. 10 on the ITF Junior rankings in that year. Doubles team of Savchenko and Svetlana Parkhomenko reached the Wimbledon quarterfinals in 1983 and 1984, both times as an unseeded pair; beat No. 2 seeds Fairbank/Reynolds in 1983 and No. 3 seeds Horvath/Ruzici in 1984. In 1984, Savchenko reached the third round of the French Open as a qualifier, which was her best singles result at the French Open. She won her first singles title in Chicago in January 1984, where she only lost one set. Having 1986 wins over Wendy Turnbull (twice), Ann Henricksson, and Annabel Croft, Savchenko was ranked No. 1 in USSR for 1986. She qualified for the Virginia Slims Championships in March and November 1986 with partner Svetlana Parkhomenko. She defeated Kathy Rinaldi, Peanut Louie Harper, and Nathalie Tauziat to reach the quarterfinals of Eastbourne in 1986.Savchenko jumped from No. 53 to No. 28 (June 1983) on the Hewlett-Packard/WITA Computer rankings after performances at Birmingham and Eastbourne. She also had wins over Robin White, Ann Henricksson, Candy Reynolds, and Melissa Gurney.In 1988, Savchenko reached her first Grand Slam doubles final with Natasha Zvereva. They lost 10–12 in the final set to Gabriela Sabatini and Steffi Graf, who in that same year won all four Grand Slam singles titles and an Olympic gold medal. In 1989, again with Zvereva, Savchenko won her first doubles Grand Slam final, over Graf and Sabatini in straight sets.In December 1989, Larisa married Aleksandr Neiland and took his last name, she continued to compete as Larisa Savchenko-Neiland.In 1991, she captured the Wimbledon title with Zvereva. In 1992, she lost in the US Open final to Jana Novotná and Helena Suková. She won her first mixed doubles title at Wimbledon, as well, when she and Cyril Suk teamed and won over Dutch duo Jacco Eltingh and Miriam Oremans. That year, she reached the No. 1 doubles ranking. Neiland then reached her next five doubles runners-up with Novotná. Each and every final played with Novotná was lost, the first being the US Open in 1991 and losing to Pam Shriver and Zvereva.Her final Grand Slam doubles final appearance came in 1996 at Wimbledon. Neiland played in 2000 but retired after losing at Wimbledon. She lost in the first round, when she and her partner Lina Krasnoroutskaya lost to Ai Sugiyama and Julie Halard, the eventual runners-up, in straight sets.Neiland tested positive for prohibited levels of the stimulant caffeine at the 1999 Australian Open. She was subsequently stripped of the $15k she had earned for reaching the women's doubles quarterfinals with Arantxa Sanchez Vicario, and issued a warning by the International Tennis Federation.As a coach, she is best known for guiding Svetlana Kuznetsova to the 2009 French Open singles title and has been a part of the Russian Fed Cup coaching team.== Major finals ===== Grand Slam tournaments ======= Women's doubles: 12 (2 titles, 10 runner-ups) ======== Mixed doubles: 9 (4 titles, 5 runner-ups) ======= Year-end championships ======= Doubles: 5 (5 runner-ups) ====== WTA career finals ===== Singles: 9 (2 titles, 7 runner-ups) ====== Doubles: 65 titles ===== ITF finals ===== Singles (2–0) ====== Doubles (3–1) ===== Women's doubles performance timeline ==== Head-to-head recordsArantxa Sánchez Vicario 0–4 ==Serena Williams 0–1Venus Williams 0–3Lindsay Davenport 1–1Steffi Graf 0–6Monica Seles 0–2Martina Navratilova 1–9== Personal life ==She married Latvian tennis coach Aleksandr Neiland on 21 December 1989, after which her surname was changed from Savchenko to Neiland (Savčenko-Neiland). The marriage later ended in divorce.== References ==== External links ==Larisa Neiland at the Women's Tennis Association Larisa Neiland at the International Tennis Federation Larisa Neiland at the Billie Jean King Cup Henri Leconte (born 4 July 1963) is a French former professional tennis player. He reached the men's singles final at the French Open in 1988, won the French Open men's doubles title in 1984, and helped France win the Davis Cup in 1991. Leconte's career-high singles ranking was world No. 5.== Biography and career ==Leconte first came to the tennis world's attention as an outstanding junior player who won the French Open junior title in 1981. He turned professional that year and won his first career doubles title at Bologna, and his first top-level singles title the following year, 1982, in Stockholm. Leconte played in the Davis Cup final for the first time in 1982, when France was defeated 4–1 by the United States.Leconte teamed up with Yannick Noah to win the men's doubles title at the French Open in 1984. In 1985, Leconte and Noah reached a second Grand Slam doubles final at the US Open, where they finished runners-up. Leconte reached his career-high doubles ranking of world No. 6 in 1985. In singles in 1985, Leconte reached the quarterfinals of the French Open and Wimbledon, the latter run of which included a dazzling win over world no. 2, Ivan Lendl, in the fourth round of Wimbledon.1986 saw Leconte reach two Grand Slam singles semi-finals at the French Open and Wimbledon, and attain his career-high singles ranking of world No. 5. Leconte also played on the French team that won the World Team Cup that year.In 1988, Leconte reached the men's singles final at the French Open beating Simon Youl, Bruno Orešar, Horacio de la Peña, Boris Becker, Andrei Chesnokov and Jonas Svensson. In the final, despite strong support from the French crowd, Leconte could not overcome two-time former champion Mats Wilander who defeated him in straight sets.In 1991, Leconte was involved in the Davis Cup final for a second time. France again faced the US, and this time Leconte defeated Pete Sampras in straight sets in a critical singles rubber, and also teamed with Guy Forget to win the doubles rubber, as France upset the heavily favoured U.S. team 3–1.In total, Leconte played for France's Davis Cup team for a total of 13 consecutive years, compiling a 41–25 record. He compiled a doubles record of 17–5 and was undefeated with Guy Forget (11 wins), winning his last 14 doubles matches (from March 1985 to July 1993).Leconte won his final top-level singles title in 1993 in Halle. He also won his final doubles title that year at Indian Wells.Leconte retired from the professional tour in 1996, having won a total of nine career singles titles and ten doubles titles. Playing on the ATP Champions Tour for over-35's, he formed a doubles partnership with the Iranian player Mansour Bahrami.He is now the manager of an event company (HL Event) based in Belgium and opened a tennis academy in Fès, Morocco, in 2006.Since 2010, Leconte has appeared on Australian television as a commentator on the Seven Network's coverage of the Australian Open. There, he obtained a cult following as a result of a zany exhibition doubles performance, and his passionate and often parochial commentary, especially for compatriot Jo-Wilfried Tsonga, whose winning shots he routinely described as "unbelievable!"In 2014, Leconte appeared as a commentator for the 2014 Australian Open. One match he commentated was the third-round match between Frenchmen Gilles Simon and Jo-Wilfried Tsonga. He has since appeared regularly as a commentator for matches involving French players in the men's draw.== Grand Slam singles performance timeline ==== Trivia ==He participated in 2005 in the second season of La Ferme Célébrités, a TV reality game show. In 2007, his son Maxime also participated in the TV reality game show Secret Story, the French version of Big Brother.He also appeared as a contestant on BBC Celebrity Masterchef 2017, reaching the semifinals.== Major finals ===== Grand Slam finals ======= Singles: 1 (0–1) ======== Doubles: 2 (1–1) ======= Masters Series finals ======= Doubles: 2 (1–1) ====== Career finals ===== Singles: 16 (9–7) ====== Doubles: 19 (10–9) ===== References ==== External links ==Henri Leconte at the Association of Tennis Professionals Henri Leconte at the International Tennis Federation Henri Leconte at the Davis Cup H Talent Management Henri Leconte client biography Kenneth Robert Rosewall (born 2 November 1934) is an Australian former world top-ranking amateur and professional tennis player. He won a record 23 tennis Majors in singles, including 8 Grand Slam singles titles and, before the Open Era, a record 15 Pro Slam titles; overall, he reached a record 35 Major finals. He won the Pro Grand Slam in 1963. Rosewall won a record 24 major men's doubles titles. He won 9 grand slam titles in men's doubles with a career men's doubles grand slam and also won 15 Pro Slam men's doubles titles.Rosewall had a renowned backhand and enjoyed a long career at the highest levels from the early 1950s to the early 1970s. Rosewall was ranked the world No. 1 tennis player in eight different years in contemporary rankings. Rosewall was first ranked in the top 20 in 1952 and last ranked in the top 20 in 1977. Rosewall is the only player to have simultaneously held Pro Grand Slam titles on three different surfaces (1962–1963). At the 1971 Australian Open he became the first male player during the open era to win a Grand Slam tournament without dropping a set. Rosewall won world professional championship tours in 1963, 1964, and the WCT titles in 1971 and 1972.A natural left-hander, Rosewall was taught by his father to play right-handed. He developed a powerful and effective backhand but never had anything more than an accurate but relatively soft serve. He was 1.70 m (5 ft 7 in) tall, weighed 67 kg (148 lb) and was ironically nicknamed "Muscles" by his fellow-players because of his lack of them. He was, however, fast, agile, and tireless, with a deadly volley. The father of two and grandfather of five, Rosewall now lives in northern Sydney.== Early life and tennis ==Rosewall was born on 2 November 1934 in Hurstville, Sydney. His father, Robert Rosewall, was a grocer at Penshurst, New South Wales and when Ken was one year old they moved to the Rockdale where his father bought three clay tennis courts. Ken started playing tennis at age three with a shortened racket and using both hands for forehand and backhand shots. They practiced early in the morning, focusing on playing one type of shot for a period of weeks. He was a natural left-hander but was taught to play right-handed by his father. He played his first tournament when he was nine and lost to the eventual winner. At age eleven Rosewall won the Metropolitan Hardcourt Championships for under fourteen. In his youth, Rosewall often played Lew Hoad, and they became known as the Sydney "twins", although they had very different physiques, personalities and playing styles. Their first match in Sydney in January 1947 (when both were aged 12) was played as an opener of an exhibition match between Australia and America. Rosewall won 6–0, 6–0. The two played again a few weeks later and Rosewall won again in straight sets. Rosewall beat Hoad twice later in 1947 in state age-group championships. "At this stage the consistent baseline strategy of Rosewall was able to doggedly unravel any questions asked by his more aggressive, hard-hitting rival". In 1949 at age 14 Rosewall became the junior champion at the Australian Hardcourt Championships in Sydney, the youngest player to win an Australian title.== Tennis career ===== Amateur career: 1950 through 1956 ===1950In September 1950 at the age of 15 and still a junior player, Rosewall reached the final of the 1950 New South Wales Metropolitan hard court championships, where he lost to Jim Gilchrist. In October, Rosewall reached the semifinals of the 1950 New South Wales Metropolitan grass court Championships (not to be confused with the New South Wales Championships), where he was defeated by the world-class adult player Ken McGregor.1951Rosewall won his first men's tournament in Manly in January against Gilchrist and was "the youngest player ever to capture the seaside title. It was also Rosewall's first important win in a tennis tournament. Rosewall played almost flawless ground shots. When he did come into the net he made no mistake about volleying his winners. Rosewall's only weakness was his smash. He seemed to hurry this shot and in the second set he missed eight consecutive smashes." Rosewall beat Adrian Quist in the semi final of the Brisbane exhibition tournament in August, but he lost the final to Lew Hoad. Ken lost in the final of Metropolitan Hardcourt championships at Naremburn to George Worthington in September. In the New South Wales championships in November, Rosewall pushed reigning Australian and Wimbledon champion Dick Savitt to four close sets.1952In 1952, still only 17, Rosewall reached the quarterfinals of the U.S. Championships, upsetting the top-seeded Vic Seixas in the fourth round in five sets before losing to Gardnar Mulloy in five sets. In his end-of-year rankings, the British tennis expert Lance Tingay ranked Rosewall and Lew Hoad, his equally youthful doubles partner, jointly as the tenth best amateur players in the world.1953Rosewall was only 18 years old when, in 1953, he won his first singles title at a Grand Slam event after defeating American Vic Seixas in the semi finals and Australian compatriot Mervyn Rose in the final of the Australian Championships. He also won the French Championships beating Seixas in the final in four sets, when "the young Australian's mastery in all phases of the game disheartened Seixas as Rosewall beat him repeatedly with perfectly placed shots". Rosewall was the top seed at Wimbledon but lost the quarterfinal match to Kurt Nielsen. Rosewall reached the semifinals at the U.S. Championships, where he was defeated by Tony Trabert in straight sets. At the Pacific Southwest Championships Rosewall beat Trabert in the semi finals and Seixas in the final in five sets and in the end "Rosewall's superior backhand probably decided the match." Rosewall lost to Trabert in the Challenge Round of the Davis Cup in Melbourne in three sets. Rosewall, however, won the fifth and deciding rubber of that tie, defeating Seixas in four sets. In early September, Tingay placed Trabert first and Rosewall second in his annual amateur rankings. The editors of Tennis de France magazine ranked Rosewall third behind Hoad and Trabert in the only full season ranking for 1953.1954In 1954, Rosewall lost in the semi finals of the Australian championships to Rose. Rosewall played "a fine net game" in beating Mal Anderson in the final of the Darling Downs tournament in April. He defeated Trabert in a five-set semifinal at Wimbledon but lost the final to crowd-favorite Jaroslav Drobný in four sets. At the U. S. Championships, Rosewall lost in the semi finals to Rex Hartwig. At the Victorian championships in December, Rosewall won the title beating Seixas in the final (the seventh victory by Rosewall in eight meetings between the two players).1955Rosewall won the singles title at the Australian Championships for the second time in 1955, defeating Hoad in the final in three sets. Rosewall's "angled shots rattled Hoad and his returns of service were a match-winning factor. Hoad made 74 errors to Rosewall's 52." Ken did not play in the 1955 French Championships because it did not fit in the preparation of the Australian team for the Davis Cup. At Wimbledon, Rosewall lost in the semi finals to unseeded Kurt Nielsen. At the U.S. Championships, Trabert defeated Rosewall in the final in three sets.1956In 1956, Rosewall and Hoad captured all the Grand Slam men's doubles titles except at the French Championships, from which Rosewall was absent. For several years in their youthful careers, Rosewall and Hoad were known as "The Gold Dust Twins." In singles, Rosewall lost to Hoad in the final of two Grand Slam tournaments. At the Australian Championships, Hoad defeated Rosewall in four sets and at Wimbledon, Hoad won in four sets. Rosewall, however, prevented Hoad from winning the Grand Slam when Rosewall won their final at the U.S. Championships in four sets. "Rosewall owner of the best backhand in the game, ripped the lines with his passing shots, sent trickly lobs into the swirling winds and caught Hoad flat-footed with stop volleys and drop shots. Frequently Hoad would stop and shake his head in disbelief at some of Rosewall's returns."Tingay and the editors of Tennis de France both ranked Rosewall No. 2 behind Hoad for 1956.During his amateur career, Rosewall helped Australia win three Davis Cup Challenge Rounds (1953, 1955 and 1956). Rosewall won 15 of the 17 Davis Cup singles rubbers he played those years, including the last 14 in a row.=== Professional career: 1957 through March 1968 ===Promoter and former tennis great Jack Kramer tried unsuccessfully to sign the "Whiz Kids" (Lew Hoad and Rosewall) to professional contracts in late 1955. But one year later, Rosewall accepted Kramer's offer on 30 December 1956. Rosewall, during the Challenge Round of the Davis Cup, tried to convince his partner Hoad to do the same, but he rejected the proposition.==== 1957 ====Rosewall played his first professional match on 14 January 1957, at Kooyong Stadium in Melbourne against the reigning king of professional tennis, Pancho Gonzales who won after a close five-set match. The following day Rosewall defeated Gonzales in straight sets. Gonzales opened a lead of 5 to 1 in the Australian series. Rosewall explained later that there was a huge gap between the amateur level and the professional level. In their head-to-head world series tour in Australia and the U.S. (until May), Gonzales won 50 matches to Rosewall's 26. During this period, Rosewall also entered two tournaments, the Ampol White City Tournament of Champions at Sydney in February and the U.S. Pro in Cleveland, Ohio in April. At both events he was defeated in the semifinal in straight sets; by Frank Sedgman (second best pro in 1956) and Pancho Segura (third best pro in 1956), respectively. At the Forest Hills Tournament of Champions, a round robin event held in New York, Rosewall defeated Segura and Hoad but lost to Gonzales, Sedgman and Trabert to finish in joint third place.In September, Rosewall won the Wembley Pro title, beating Segura in a five-set final. This was a significant victory for Rosewall because, of the top professional players, only Sedgman and Tony Trabert did not play. At the end of the year, Rosewall won an Australian tour featuring Lew Hoad, Sedgman, and Segura.Rosewall was offered an undercard position against Trabert for the 1958 world championship tour, but declined.==== 1958 ====At the Kooyong Tournament of Champions at Kooyong in January, the richest tournament of the era, Rosewall finished in fourth place, beating Trabert and Segura, but losing to Sedgman, Hoad, and Gonzales.Rosewall was the runner-up at the Forest Hills Tournament of Champions in June. Both he and Gonzales won five round robin matches and lost one but Gonzales claimed the title as he won their head-to-head encounter. Rosewall tied for second (with Pancho Gonzales and Sedgman) behind an undefeated Segura in the Masters Round Robin Pro in Los Angeles in July. Those tournaments were among the most important of the year. Kramer designated Forest Hills, Kooyong, Sydney, and Los Angeles as the four major pro tennis tournaments. In September, Rosewall had the opportunity to show that he was still one of the best players on clay. The previous year, no French Professional Championships (also known as the "World Pro Championships on Clay" when organised at Stade Roland Garros) had been held. This tournament returned in 1958, and Rosewall beat Jack Kramer, Frank Sedgman to reach the final in which he defeated an injured Lew Hoad in four sets to claim the title. At the Wembley Pro, Rosewall lost a close five set semi-final to Trabert.==== 1959 ====In the Ampol Open Trophy points standings after February, part of a fifteen tournament world series, Rosewall was second with 12 points behind Hoad with 13. For the first time since he turned professional, Rosewall had a favourable 6–5 win-loss record against Pancho Gonzales for the year. Rosewall won both editions of the Queensland Pro Championships in Brisbane, both included in the Ampol series, defeating Tony Trabert in the January final in five sets and Gonzales in the December final in four sets. At the Forest Hills Tournament of Champions, Rosewall lost a close semi-final to Hoad in four sets, and beat Trabert to win third place. At the Roland Garros World Professional Championships, Rosewall lost in the semi-final to Trabert, and was beaten by Hoad in the third place match. At the White City Tournament of Champions in Sydney in early December, Rosewall lost in the semi-final to Gonzales in three straight sets. In the final Ampol series tournament, played at Kooyong from December 26, 1959 to January 2, 1960, Rosewall finished runner-up to Hoad, losing the deciding match to Hoad in four long sets. Kramer acclaimed this match as one of the greatest ever played. Rosewall finished third in the Ampol series with 41 bonus points, behind Hoad in first place (51 bonus points), and Gonzales in second place (43 bonus points). Rosewall's winning percentage on the 1959 Ampol series was 62% (26/42). Rosewall was 2 wins and 6 losses against Hoad and 3 wins and 1 loss against Gonzales during the series. Kramer's personal list ranked Rosewall world No. 3 professional tennis player behind Gonzales and Sedgman, but ahead of Hoad.==== 1960 ====The following year Rosewall was incorporated in a new World Pro tour, from January to May, featuring Gonzales, Segura and new recruit Alex Olmedo. This tour was perhaps the peak of Gonzales's entire career. The finals standings were: 1) Gonzales 49 matches won – 8 lost, 2) Rosewall 32–25, 3) Segura 22–28, 4) Olmedo 11–44. Rosewall was therefore far behind Gonzales on this tour, the American having won almost all their direct confrontations (20 wins for Gonzales to 5 wins for Rosewall).Rosewall began the tour slowly, dropping briefly in early February to fourth place in the overall standings behind Segura and Olmedo, and rising to second place in early March. Halfway through the North American part of the tour the standings were Gonzales 23–1 (his only match lost in three sets to Olmedo in Philadelphia), Segura 8-9, Rosewall 11–13. British Lawn Tennis reported, "While Kenny hasn't yet nailed Pancho, he has come within a couple of points several times. Rosewall has finally got his serve working better and he is now the tough little player he was last year. He'll get some wins over Big Pancho before long." As described in a later report, "Ken started very slowly against Gonzales, Segura and Olmedo but finished in second place behind Gonzales [and] more than held his own the last 20 matches with him, after getting over a physical problem."In 1960 Rosewall won six tournaments including the two main tournaments of the year, the French Pro at Roland Garros, defeating Hoad in the final in four sets, and Wembley Pro, defeating Segura. Hoad won four tournaments in 1960, defeating Rosewall in all four finals.Kramer's personal list ranked Rosewall world No. 3 professional tennis player behind Gonzales and Sedgman, but ahead of Hoad.==== 1961 ====After ten years of World touring, Rosewall decided to take several long breaks in order to spend time with his family and entered no competitions in the first half of 1961, withdrawing from Kramer's World Series tour. He trained his long-time friend Hoad when the pros toured in Australia where Gonzales, back to the courts after a 7+1⁄2-month retirement, won another World tour featuring Hoad (withdrew with injury), Olmedo (replacing Rosewall), Gimeno and the two new recruits MacKay and Buchholz (Segura, Trabert, Cooper and Sedgman sometimes replaced the injured players).In the summer Rosewall returned to the circuit and won the two biggest tournaments (all the best players participating): the French Pro (clay) and Wembley Pro (wood). At the French he captured the title by beating Gonzales in the final in four sets, and at Wembley he defeated Hoad in the final. In the summer Rosewall won a short head-to-head tour of France over Gonzales 4-2 and had a 7-4 edge over Gonzales for the entire year.Rosewall teamed with Hoad to win the inaugural Kramer Cup trophy (the pro equivalent of the Davis Cup) in South Africa. Rosewall lost to Trabert in the first rubber, but defeated MacKay to set up the fifth and deciding rubber between Hoad and Trabert. After having won on clay and on wood Rosewall ended the season by winning on grass at the New South Wales Pro Championships in Sydney, defeating Butch Buchholz in the final, cementing his status as the best all-court player that year.Although Gonzales had won Kramer's 1961 World Series tour, later in the year Rosewall won both Wembley Pro and French Pro, where Gonzales was reported in one source to lose his title. The USPLTA reported Rosewall as the world No. 1 ranked pro followed by Gonzales and Trabert. Robert Roy of L'Équipe, Kléber Haedens and Philippe Chatrier of Tennis de France, Michel Sutter (who has published "Vainqueurs 1946–1991 Winners"), Peter Rowley, Robert Geist and also the New York Times and World Tennis magazine considered Rosewall as the new No. 1 in the world.==== 1962 ====In 1962 Rosewall was the leading pro, winning most pro tournaments of all the players during the year. He retained his Wembley Pro and French Pro titles and also won tournaments at Adelaide, Melbourne, Christchurch, Auckland, Geneva, Milan and Stockholm. There was no World Series tour in 1962 and many of the top pros (Rosewall included) did not play pro matches in the U.S. during the year.Per records found, Rosewall lost 7 matches in 1962 : Hoad (in the Adelaide Professional Indoor Tournament), Gimeno, Ayala, Buchholz, Segura, Anderson and Robert Haillet.==== 1963 ====In an Australasian tour (Australia and New Zealand) played on grass for the Australian portion, Rosewall defeated Rod Laver 11 matches to 2.A US tour followed with Rosewall defending his world pro title against Laver, Gimeno, Ayala and two Americans: Butch Buchholz and Barry MacKay (Hoad was recovering from a shoulder injury). Rosewall entered as defending world pro titlist. In the first phase of this tour, lasting two and a half months, each player faced each other about eight times. Rosewall ended first (31 matches won – 10 lost in front of Laver (26–16), Buchholz (23–18), Gimeno (21–20), MacKay (12–29) and Ayala (11–30)). In this round-robin phase Rosewall beat Laver in the first 5 meetings, ensuring thus a 12-match winning streak (in counting the last 7 matches in Australasia) and Laver won the last 3. Then a second and final phase of the tour opposed the first (Rosewall) and the second (Laver) of the first phase to determine the final winner (the third (Buchholz) met the fourth (Gimeno)). In 18 matches Rosewall beat Laver 14 times to conquer the US tour first place (Gimeno beat Buchholz 11–7) and thus successfully defended his world pro title.In mid-May the tournament season started. In those occasions Rosewall only beat Laver 4–3 and won 5 tournaments (the same as Laver), but in particular he won the three main tournaments of the year 1963: chronologically the U.S. Pro at Forest Hills (without Gimeno and Sedgman) on grass where he defeated Laver in three straight sets, neither Rosewall nor Laver receiving any payment for the event. the French Pro at Coubertin on wood where his opponent in the final was again Laver who later praised his victor: "I played the finest tennis I believe I've ever produced, and he beat me", Rosewall won the Wembley Pro for the fourth consecutive time after a four-sets win against Hoad in the final. In those tournaments Rosewall won three times while Laver reached two finals and one quarterfinal (Wembley). Rosewall then beat Laver 34 matches to 12.==== 1964 ====In early 1964, Rosewall finished third behind Hoad and Laver in a 4-man 24-match tour of New Zealand.In 1964 Rosewall won one major pro tournament: the French Pro over Laver on an indoor wood surface (at Coubertin). At the end of the South African tour, Rosewall also beat Laver in three straight sets in a Challenge Match considered by some as a World Championship match, on cement, held in Ellis Park, Johannesburg. In the pro points rankings (7 points for the winner, 4 points for the finalist, 3 points for third, 2 for fourth place and 1 point to each quarterfinalist), Rosewall ended as the official No. 1 in 1964 ahead of No. 2 Laver and No. 3 Gonzales.The majority of tennis observers (Joe McCauley, Robert Geist, Michel Sutter) and the players themselves agreed with this points rankings for they considered Rosewall the number one in 1964. Rod Laver himself after his triumph over Rosewall at the Wembley Pro said "I've still plenty of ambitions left and would like to be the world's No. 1. Despite this win, I am not there yet – Ken is. I may have beaten him more often than he has beaten me this year but he has won the biggest tournaments except here. I've lost to other people but Ken hasn't.".Laver had a great season and could also claim the top rank. He captured two of the major pro tournaments, a) the U.S. Pro (outside Boston) over Rosewall (suffering from food poisoning) and Gonzales and b) Wembley Pro over Rosewall in one of their best matches ever (Gonzales won arguably the fourth greatest tournament of that year, the U.S. Pro Indoors, at White Plains, defeating in succession Anderson, Laver, Hoad and Rosewall).In 1964, Rosewall beat Gonzales 13 times out of 17, most of the matches taking place in Italy on clay, while Laver was beaten by Gonzales 7 times out of 12. In 1964 Laver had a leading win-loss record against Rosewall of 17–7.==== 1965 ====Next year until mid-September Rosewall and Laver were quite equal, the latter winning more tournaments including the US Pro Indoors at New York City and the Masters Pro at Los Angeles but Rosewall won the U.S. Pro on the Longwood C.C. (outside Boston) grass courts defeating Gonzales in three sets and Laver in three sets in the last rounds and Rosewall again beat Laver in three sets in the French Pro final on the fast wooden courts at Coubertin.==== 1966 ====Laver and Rosewall shared all the titles and the finals of the five greatest tournaments. Rosewall won the Madison Square Garden Pro and the French Pro tournaments over Laver, the latter capturing Forest Hills Pro, the U.S. Pro (outside Boston) and Wembley Pro, with Rosewall finalist (or second) each time.==== 1967 ====The 20 main tournaments of the year were shared by a) Laver, ten titles including the five biggest ones, all played on fast courts (U.S. Pro, French Pro, Wembley Pro, Wimbledon Pro, Madison Square Garden, World Pro in Oklahoma, Boston Pro (not to be confused with the U.S. Pro), Newport R.R., Johannesburg Ellis Park, Coubertin Pro in April (not to be confused with the French Pro at Coubertin in October), b) Rosewall, six titles (Los Angeles, Berkeley, U.S. Pro Hardcourt in St Louis, Newport Beach, Durban and Cape Town), c) Gimeno, three titles (Cincinnati, East London, Port Elizabeth) and d) Stolle, one tournament (Transvaal Pro). Including lesser tournaments Laver's supremacy was even more obvious: 1) Laver 18 tournaments, plus two small tours, 2) Rosewall seven tournaments, 3) Stolle four tournaments and 4) Gimeno three tournaments. In head-to-head matches Rosewall trailed Laver 5–8 and was equal with Gimeno 7–7.Before 1967 Gimeno always trailed Rosewall in direct confrontations but that year they split their matches. Rosewall defeated Gimeno in Los Angeles, Madison Square Garden, St Louis, Newport, Johannesburg (challenge match), Durban and Wembley whereas Gimeno won in Cincinnati, U.S. Pro, East London, Port Elizabeth, Johannesburg (tournament), Marseille, French Pro.Forbidden to contest the greatest traditional events, Davis Cup and Grand Slams, during nearly eleven and a half years from 1957 to 30 March 1968, Rosewall reached his best level during this period, in particular from 1960 to 1966, by winning at least 62 tournaments (including 16 less-than-eight-man events) and seven small tours.=== Open-closed career: April 1968 through July 1972 ======= 1968 ====During the 1968 season several categories of players coexisted:Amateur players, dependent on their national and international federations, allowed to play the amateur events and open events but forbidden to receive official prize moneyRegistered players, also dependent on their national and international federations, eligible to play the Davis Cup and forbidden to play pro events as an amateur, but authorised to take prize money in the open events (e.g. Okker)Professionals under contract with the National Tennis League (NTL)Professionals under contract with the World Championship Tennis (WCT)Freelance professionals (e.g. Hoad, Ayala, Owen Davidson and Mal Anderson).In 1968 there were a) an amateur circuit including the Davis Cup (closed to any "contract" professional until 1973) and the Australian Championships, b) two pro circuits: WCT and NTL, which met at four tournaments, and c) an open circuit (with a little more than 10 tournaments). At the beginning of the open era WCT founder Dave Dixon did not allow his players to enter tournaments where NTL players were present: there were no WCT players at the first two open tournaments, the British Hard Court Championships and French Open, while all the NTL players were present. The first tournament where NTL and WCT players competed against each other, was the U.S. Pro, held at Longwood in June. Several events were still reserved to the amateur players between 1968 and 1972.Two tournaments were at the top in 1968: Wimbledon (a 128-man field), and the US Open (a 96-man field), both played on grass, where all the best players competed. Other notable tournaments that year were the Queen's Club tournament and the greatest pro tournaments where all the NTL and WCT pros competed (but without amateur or registered players) as the U.S. Pro (outside Boston, on grass), the French Pro (coming back to Roland Garros after the 5-edition interlude at Coubertin), the first Pacific Southwest Open in Los Angeles (64-man field) with all the best players present, the indoor professional championships at Wembley in November and the Madison Square Garden Pro in December with the four best pros of each organisation.In this context Rosewall played almost all NTL pro tournaments in 1968, the four "NTL-WCT" tournaments and some open tournaments. He entered his first open tournament at 33 years old at Bournemouth on clay (the WCT players did not take part) and defeated Gimeno and Laver, to win the first open tennis title. At the French Open, the first Grand Slam tournament of the Open Era, Rosewall confirmed his status of best claycourt player in the world by defeating Laver in the final in four sets. Defeats followed against some of the upcoming 1967 amateur players (Roche twice on grass at the US Pro and at Wimbledon, Newcombe on clay at the French Pro and Okker on grass at the U.S. Open in the semifinals). Rosewall was finalist to Laver at the Pacific Southwest Open, defeating the new US Open winner, Arthur Ashe, and in November captured the Wembley Pro tournament over WCT player, John Newcombe. At age 34 Rosewall was still ranked No. 3 in the world behind Laver and Ashe according to Lance Tingay and Bud Collins. Rino Tommasi ranked Rosewall 2 behind Laver.==== 1969 ====Rosewall was no longer the best claycourt player as Laver had taken his crown in the final of the French Open at Roland Garros. At Wimbledon, Rosewall lost in the third round to Bob Lutz and "confessed that for the first time in his career the fans disturbed his concentration". At the US Open, Rosewall lost in the quarter finals to Arthur Ashe. Rosewall was ranked No. 4 that year by Bud Collins and 6 by Rino Tommasi. He won three tournaments (Bristol, Chicago, Midland).==== 1970 ====Being an NTL player at the beginning of 1970 he didn't play the Australian Open held at the White City Stadium (Sydney) in Sydney in January because NTL boss, George McCall, and his players thought that the prize money was too low for a Grand Slam tournament. In March, a tournament, sponsored by Dunlop, was organised at the same site, with a higher quality field because of better prize-money and a better date. Some of the same players as in the Australian Open were present and in addition not only the NTL pros participated but also some independent pros, such as Ilie Năstase, who usually did not make the trip to Australia. Laver won the tournament after defeating Rosewall in a five-set final watched by a crowd of 8,000. As both the NTL and the WCT boycotted the Roland Garros tournament because it refused to pay guarantees Rosewall also missed the second Grand Slam tournament of the year. All the best players met again at Wimbledon. This time a rested Rosewall reached the final and took Newcombe, his junior by 9+1⁄2-years, to five sets but ultimately succumbed. In July Rosewall became a WCT player after that organisation took over the NTL and its players. Two months later at the U.S. Open, one of the two 1970 Grand Slams with all the best players, Rosewall won over Newcombe in their semifinal match in three straight sets before defeating Tony Roche in the final to win his sixth Grand Slam tournament.To fight against the WCT and NTL promoters, who controlled their own players and did not allow them to compete where they wanted, Kramer introduced the Grand Prix tennis circuit in December 1969, open to all players. The first Grand Prix circuit was held in 1970 and comprised 20 tournaments from April to December. These tournaments gave points according to their categories and the players' performances with the top six ranked players invited to a season-ending tournament called the Masters. The amateurs and independent pros played in this circuit, while the contract pros firstly played their own circuit and eventually played in some Grand Prix tournaments. Rosewall and Laver performed well in both circuits. Rosewall was ranked third in the Grand Prix standings and finished third in the Masters behind winner Stan Smith and his 1970 nemesis Laver.After his 1967–1969 steady decline, 1970 saw a rejuvenated Rosewall who was just one set short of winning the Wimbledon and U.S. Open double. 1970 was a year where no player dominated the circuit, the seven leading tournaments were won by seven different players, and different arguments were given to designate the World No. 1. Rino Tommasi ranked Rosewall number 1 and Bud Collins ranked him 2 behind Newcombe. In his book (see above) Robert Geist ranked the three Australians Laver, Newcombe and Rosewall equal number ones.==== 1971 ====After his runner-up finishes at Sydney and Wimbledon and his victory at the US Open in 1970, Rosewall continued his good performances in 1971 in the great grass court tournaments. One year after the first Dunlop Open was held in Sydney, Rosewall was back in Sydney in March, this time for the Australian open held on the White City Courts. Because it was sponsored by Dunlop in 1971, all the World Championship Tennis (WCT) players (including the National Tennis League players since spring 1970) entered (John Newcombe, Rosewall, Rod Laver, Tony Roche, Tom Okker, Arthur Ashe) as well as some independent pros. Only Stan Smith (Army's service), Cliff Richey, Clark Graebner, and the clay specialist players Ilie Năstase and Jan Kodeš were missing. Rosewall won the tournament, his second consecutive Grand Slam win and his seventh overall Grand Slam title, without losing a set and defeated Roy Emerson and Okker before beating Ashe in the final in straight sets.Rosewall and most other WCT players did not play the French Open; yet, Rosewall still tried to reach his seventies goal by winning Wimbledon. In the quarterfinals, Rosewall needed about four hours to defeat Richey in five sets, whereas Newcombe quickly defeated Colin Dibley. In the semifinals, the older Rosewall was no match for the younger Newcombe and lost in straight sets. Later in the summer, Rosewall and some other WCT players (Laver, Andrés Gimeno, Emerson, Cliff Drysdale, Fred Stolle, and Roche) did not play the US Open because of the growing conflict between the International Lawn Tennis Federation (ILTF) and the WCT. The illnesses of both his sons was an additional reason for Rosewall not playing this tournament.As a contract pro, Rosewall was not allowed to play the Davis Cup and thus concentrated mainly on the WCT circuit organised similarly to the Grand Prix circuit which was the equivalent for the independent pros: 20 tournaments (including the Australian Open), each giving the same points amount. The top eight players in ranking points were invited to the WCT Finals, an eight-man tournament, equivalent of the Grand Prix Masters for the WCT players, played in November in Houston and Dallas, USA. When the WCT players were off they could play tournaments on the Grand Prix circuit. The war between the ILTF and WCT climaxed in a ban by the ILTF beginning on 1 January 1972, of the WCT players from the Grand Prix circuit.Rosewall ended third on the 1971 WCT circuit behind Laver and Okker and qualified for the WCT Finals. He won the title, beating Newcombe in the quarterfinals, defeating Okker in the semifinals and beating Laver in a four-sets final in what was considered at the time as the best match, with their 1970 Sydney final, between the two rivals since their 1968 French Open final. As a WCT player Rosewall played few Grand Prix tournaments but he had earned enough points to play the Grand Prix Masters held about ten days after his WCT Finals. He refused the invitation as he was tired after a long season and took his holidays at the end of the year.In 1971 Rosewall won eight tournaments and 76 out of 97 matches (78%) and in direct confrontations trailed Newcombe 1–3, Laver 2–3 but led Smith 1–0. Collins ranked Rosewall third after Newcombe and Smith. Tingay ranked Rosewall 4th, Rino Tommasi 1st. Geist ranked Rosewall co-No. 1 tied with Newcombe and Smith. That year, as in 1970, there was no clear undisputed World No. 1.==== 1972 ====1972 saw a return to separate circuits because all traditional ILTF events held from January to July were forbidden to the WCT players. This included the Davis Cup but also Roland Garros and Wimbledon. The 1972 Australian Open organisers used a trick to avoid the ban of the WCT players. They held the tournament from 27 December 1971, four days before the ban could be applied, to 3 January 1972. Thus all contract as well as independent pros could enter but few were interested because it was held during Christmas and New Year's Day period. The draw included only eight non-Australian players. Rosewall reached the final in which he defeated Mal Anderson to win his fourth Australian title and the eighth, and last, Grand Slam title of his career and became the oldest Grand Slam male singles champion (37 years and 2 months old) in the open era. A fragile agreement in the spring of 1972 let the WCT players come back to the traditional circuit in August (in Merion, WCT players Okker and Roger Taylor played). The US Open, won by Ilie Năstase, was the greatest event of the year as only in this tournament were all the best players present with the exception of Tony Roche who suffered from a tennis elbow. Later that year two other tournaments had good fields with WCT and independent pros: the Pacific Southwest Open at Los Angeles and, to a lesser extent, Stockholm, both won by Stan Smith.In many 1972 rankings there were six or seven WCT players in the world top 10 (the three or four independent pros were Smith, Năstase, Orantes and sometimes Gimeno) so the season-ending WCT Finals held in May in Dallas were considered as one of the major events of the year. The final, played between Rosewall and Laver, was considered one of the two best matches played in 1972, the other being the Wimbledon final, and the best Rosewall-Laver match of the open era. It was broadcast nationally in the U.S., viewed by twenty-three million people, and became known as the "match that made tennis in the United States." Rosewall won the last major title of his long career by defeating Laver in an epic five-set match which was decided by a tiebreak. (Laver wrote that the two Australians had played better matches between them in the pre-open days, citing their 1963 French Pro final as the pinnacle; McCauley considered their 1964 Wembley final).Because of the ILTF's ban once again Rosewall could not enter Wimbledon.=== Open career: August 1972 through 1980 (and 1982) ======= 1972 ====From August 1972 players could enter almost all the tournaments they wanted. The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was created during the US Open. Rosewall won seven tournaments in 1972, including the depleted Australian Open. Rosewall was ranked 2 in 1972 by Bud Collins and number 1 by Rino Tommasi. He lost in the second round of the 1972 U.S. Open to Mark Cox. "Rosewall was the picture of dismay and frustration, often looking to the gray, leaden skies as if seeking help. He once pounded his fist on the rain-slicked grass after missing a shot, several times batting balls angrily away after Cox had scored a point."==== 1973 ====At the 1973 Australian Open (again with a weak field because as in 1972 among the Top 20 only Rosewall and Newcombe participated), top seeded Rosewall was defeated by "virtual unknown" German Karl Meiler in his first match (second round) in straight sets in a big upset. "It just wasn't the vintage Rosewall stuff we have come to expect from the Little Master. He seldom middled the ball, and was generally out-manoeuvred by the West German. Rosewall would not have said that he had been taking antibiotics for a throat infection unless he had been asked. Nor would he have admitted to feeling poorly when he played unless he had been asked." Between May 1972 (victory at Dallas) and April 1973 (victory at Houston, River Oaks) Rosewall captured only two minor titles, Tokyo WCT (not giving points for the WCT Finals) and Brisbane (in December 1972) where he was the only Top 20 player.Rosewall did not play Wimbledon that year as the edition was boycotted by the ATP players. After an absence of 17 years Rosewall returned to Davis Cup play in November when he played a doubles match with Rod Laver in the interzonal final against Czechoslovakia.His best performances in 1973 were firstly his semifinal at the US Open (as in 1972 the greatest event of the year) and secondly his third place at the WCT Finals (he was beaten by Ashe in the semifinals and defeated Laver for 3rd place). He also won at Houston WCT, Cleveland WCT, Charlotte WCT, Osaka and Tokyo. He was still ranked in the top 10. Tommasi ranked Rosewall 4, Tingay 6, ATP 6 and Collins 5.==== 1974 ====1974 was the first year since 1952 that Rosewall did not win a single tournament. However, he entered nine tournaments (the one at Hong Kong not finished because of rain) and reached three finals including Wimbledon and US Open. At Wimbledon, Rosewall beat Newcombe in the quarter finals in four sets. In the semi finals against Stan Smith, Rosewall was behind 0-2 sets, 3-5 games, and 5-6 in the tiebreaker at match point, but won three points in succession to take the set and went on to win in five sets to reach the final. This was his last Wimbledon final, at the age of 39. Despite the strong support of the crowd, who were eager to see him finally claim a Wimbledon title, he lost to the 18 years younger Jimmy Connors. He was ranked between second (Tingay) and seventh place (Collins) by many tennis journalists. He ranked only 9th in the ATP rankings because he played too few tournaments due to playing World Team Tennis (Rosewall coached the Pittsburgh Triangles team in 1974.)==== 1975–1982 ====Rosewall still stayed in the Top 10 (number 6 according to ATP, 10 according to Collins and 8 according to Tommasi) in 1975 winning 5 tournaments (Jackson, Houston-River Oaks, Louisville, Gstaad, Tokyo Gunze Open) and his two singles in Davis Cup against New Zealand (this event has been finally open to contract pros in 1973 : that year Rosewall was selected by Neale Fraser for the semifinals doubles). Rosewall made his last attempt at Wimbledon, at over 40, and as in his first Wimbledon Open (in 1968) he lost in the same round (4th) and against the same player (Tony Roche).In 1976 Rosewall dropped out of the Top 10 in the ATP rankings but stayed in the Top 20, as he won three tournaments: Brisbane, Jackson WCT and Hong Kong (over Năstase then the 3rd player in the world).1977 was Rosewall's last year in the Top 20 in the ATP rankings (his first year in the top 10 was in 1952). In January he reached the semifinal of the 1977 Australian Open, losing in four sets to eventual champion Roscoe Tanner. He won his last two titles in Hong Kong and Tokyo (Gunze Open) respectively at the age of 43. Rosewall played in the Sydney Indoor Tournament in October 1977. Approaching his 43rd birthday he beat the No. 3 in the world Vitas Gerulaitis in a straight-sets semifinal and lost to Jimmy Connors in the final in three straight sets. The following year he lost in the semifinals at 44 years of age. Afterwards, he gradually retired. In October 1980 at the Melbourne indoor tournament, at nearly 46 years of age, Rosewall defeated American Butch Walts, ranked World No. 49, in the first round before losing to Paul McNamee. Rosewall made a very brief comeback at 47 years of age in a non-ATP tournament, the New South Wales Hardcourt Championships in Grafton in February 1982, where he reached the final, losing to Brett Edwards in two sets.In 1972 Rosewall had been the second tennis pro to pass $1 million career earnings. In early 1978 his career earnings were $1,510,267.== Rivalries ==Gonzales and Laver are the two players that Rosewall most often met. His meetings with Laver are better documented and detailed than those with Gonzales.Except the first year (1963) and the last year they played (1976), the statistics of their meetings show a domination by Laver. In the Open Era a match score of 23–9 in favour of Laver can be documented, overall a score of 89–75.Including tournaments and one-night stands, Rosewall and Gonzales played at least 204 matches, all of them as professionals. A match score of 117–87 in favor of Gonzales can be documented.== Playing style and assessment ==In his 1979 autobiography, Kramer wrote that "Rosewall was a backcourt player when he came into the pros, but he learned very quickly how to play the net. Eventually, for that matter, he became a master of it, as much out of physical preservation as for any other reason. I guarantee you that Kenny wouldn't have lasted into his forties as a world-class player if he hadn't learned to serve and volley." His sliced backhand was his strongest shot, and, along with the very different backhand of former player Don Budge, has generally been considered one of the best, if not the best, backhands yet seen.His one-handed backhand which he usually played with backspin was rated as one of the best backhand shots in the history of the game.He is considered to be one of the greatest tennis players of all time. Kramer included the Australian in his list of the 21 greatest players of all time, albeit in the second echelon.During his long playing career he remained virtually injury-free, something that helped him to still win tournaments at the age of 43 and remain ranked in the top 15 in the world. Although he was a finalist 4 times at Wimbledon, and also at the Wimbledon Pro in 1967, it was the one major tournament that eluded him.Rosewall was a finalist at the 1974 US Open at 39 years 310 days old, making him the oldest player to participate in two Grand Slam finals in the same year. Before that, in 1972 Rosewall won the Australian Open final at age 37 and 2 months making him the oldest male player to win a Grand Slam singles title in the Open Era as of 2021.In 1995 Pancho Gonzales said of him: "He became better as he got older, more of a complete player. With the exception of me and Frank Sedgman, he could handle everybody else. Just the way he played, he got under Hoad's skin, but he had a forehand weakness and a serve weakness." In 202 matches against Gonzales he won 87 and lost 117. In 135 matches against Lew Hoad he won 84 and lost 51.In the 2012 Tennis Channel series "100 Greatest of All Time" Rosewall was ranked number 13 among all time male tennis players, with only two Australian tennis players ranked ahead of him, Laver and Emerson.== Career statistics ===== Major titles performance timeline ===Ken Rosewall joined professional tennis in 1957 and was unable to compete in 45 Grand Slam tournaments until the open era arrived in 1968. Summarizing Grand Slam and Pro Slam tournaments, Rosewall won 23 titles, he has a winning record of 246–46 which represents 84.24% spanning 28 years.=== Grand Slam tournament finals ===Singles: 16 (8 titles, 8 runner-ups)=== Pro-Slam tournament finals ===* Singles : 15 titles, 4 runner-ups* other events (Tournament of Champions, Wimbledon Pro – important professional tournaments – 2 runners-up)== Records ===== All-time records ====== Open Era records ===These records were attained in Open Era of tennis.Note: The draw of Pro majors was significantly smaller than the traditional Grand Slam tournaments; usually they only had 16 or even fewer professional players, this meant only four rounds of play instead of the modern six or seven rounds.== Personal life ==Rosewall married Wilma McIver at St John's Cathedral, Brisbane on 6 October 1956. It was described in press reports as Brisbane's society wedding of the year with over 2000 people in attendance outside the church, and 800 guests in the Cathedral. The couple then moved to Turramurra in Sydney, and after that in Queensland. His wife died on 27 April 2020.Rosewall was a non-executive director of the failed stockbroking firm BBY and his son, Glenn Rosewall, was the company's executive director.== Honours ==In the Queen's Birthday Honours of 1971, he was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE). In the Australia Day Honours of 1979, he was appointed a Member of the Order of Australia (AM). Rosewall was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1980. In 1985 he was inducted into the Sport Australia Hall of Fame. He is an Australian Living Treasure.The Sydney Olympic Park Tennis Centre's central court is the Ken Rosewall Arena, a covered arena.== See also ==Tennis male players statisticsOverall tennis records – Men's SinglesTennis records of the Open Era – men's singles== Notes ==== References ===== Sources ===Hoad, Lew; Pollack, Jack (1958). The Lew Hoad Story. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. OCLC 398749.Rosewall, Ken; Rowley, Peter T. (1976). Ken Rosewall: Twenty Years at the Top. London: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-29735-6.Jack Kramer with Frank Deford (1981). The Game : My 40 Years in Tennis. London: Deutsch. ISBN 0233973079. OCLC 59152557. OL 17315708M.Naughton, Richard (2012). Alexander, Helen (ed.). Muscles. Richmond, Vic.: Slattery Media Group. ISBN 9781921778568. OCLC 810217024.McCauley, Joe (2000). The History of Professional Tennis. Windsor: The Short Run Book Company Limited.== External links ==Ken Rosewall at the Association of Tennis Professionals Ken Rosewall at the International Tennis Federation Ken Rosewall at the Davis Cup Ken Rosewall at the International Tennis Hall of Fame Ken Rosewall at Tennis Australia Pam Teeguarden (born April 17, 1951) is a former American professional tennis player in the 1970s and 1980s, ranked in the top 20 from 1970–1975. She won two Grand Slam Doubles Titles and was a quarter finalist in singles at the U.S. Open and The French Open. Her father Jerry, a well known coach, helped Margaret Court win the coveted Grand Slam (all four Grand Slam titles in one year) in 1970 and Virginia Wade to her 1977 Wimbledon triumph. Teeguarden was voted the "Most Watchable Player" based on play and appearance by a group of Madison Avenue advertising executives or "Mad Men" while playing at the US Open. Teeguarden played in 19 consecutive US Opens, holding the record until Chris Evert played in 20. She wore the first all black outfit in the history of tennis in 1975 at The Bridgestone Doubles Championships in Tokyo, starting a trend that is still popular today. Teeguarden was the first woman tennis player signed by Nike. She played on the victorious Los Angeles Strings Team Tennis team in 1981 and won the Team Tennis Mixed Doubles Division with Tom Gullikson in 1977; they were also runners-up in the league that year.Teeguarden won two grand slam titles:US Open Mixed in 1974 (with Geoff Masters)French Open in 1977 (with Regina Maršíková)Among Teeguarden's doubles titles are the Canadian Open Doubles, the Swedish Open Doubles, the Austrian Open Doubles, the Argentinian Open Doubles, the Women's Games Doubles in Salt Lake City, and the Virginia Slims of Tucson Doubles. Pam was ranked second in the US twice behind Billie Jean King and Rosemary Casals and third on one other occasion with three different partners. She and her partner, Mona Guerrant won the Virginia Slims of Houston defeating Francoise Durr and Betty Stove the same week that Billie Jean King played Bobby Riggs at the Houston Astrodome.== WTA Tour finals ===== Singles 2 ====== Doubles 4 (3–1) ====== Mixed doubles 2 (1–1) ===== References ==== External links ==Pam Teeguarden at the Women's Tennis Association Pam Teeguarden at the International Tennis Federation Serena Williams's 2009 tennis season officially began at the 2009 Medibank International Sydney. Williams finished the year ranked world no. 1 for the second time in her career, having played in 16 tournaments, more than any other year. She also broke the record previously set by Justine Henin for the most prize money earned by a female tennis player in one year, with Williams earning $6,545,586. In doubles, she finished the year ranked world no. 3, despite playing only six tournaments as a pair. She won five Grand Slam titles, putting her total Grand Slam titles at 23.Williams was named Female Athlete of the Year by the Associated Press in a landslide vote (66 of 158 votes – no other candidate received more than 18 votes). She also was the International Tennis Federation World Champion in singles and doubles.== Year in detail ===== Early hard court season and Australian Open ======= Medibank International Sydney ====Williams began her 2009 season at the Medibank International Sydney as the top seed and faced local Samantha Stosur in the first round. Williams broke Stosur in the fourth game and maintained the advantage to close out the set. The second set went to a tie-break with a couple of breaks, the breaker went to Stosur. Stosur served for the match at the 10th game and had three match points, but Williams broke back and held. Williams then broke Stosur again in the twelfth game to take the match. In the second round Williams' cruised pass Sara Errani, losing just 3 games. In the quarterfinals Williams' had another tough match this time against Caroline Wozniacki, Williams lost the first set in a tie-break. The second set went to Williams when she broke in the ninth game after failing to serve the set out in the previous game. In the final set, Wozniacki took the lead and serve for the match at the twelfth game and had three match points but Williams broke and forced a tie-break, which she won to three. In the semifinals, Williams was routined by Dementieva in straight sets.==== Australian Open ==== Williams came into the Australian Open having a chance to claim the world number 1 ranking. In her opening round she face Yuan Meng of China and won the first set with a single break and took the first 4 games of the second set and held the lead to win the match. In the following round she faced Gisela Dulko, where she won the first set easily. However, in the second set Dulko served for the set in the ninth game and had six set points, but Williams saved them all and broke and took the next 3 games to win in straight sets. In the third round she faced China's Peng Shuai and took the first set winning the last 6 games of the set. The second set was closer, with Williams being broke twice but still won the set in the tenth game. In the Round of 16, Williams got a lucky break, when her opponent Victoria Azarenka retires due to the heat, after Azarenka won the first set, and Williams was up by a break in the second. In the quarterfinals, Williams faced 8th seed Svetlana Kuznetsova and was in trouble when she fell by a set and Kuznetsova serving for the match at 5–4, However Williams took 9 of the last 10 games to win the match and be the only non-Russian in the semifinals. She avenged her loss to Elena Dementieva in their previous match as she defeated the Russian in straight sets with a break lead in each set. In the final, she faced world no. 3 Dinara Safina, wherein the winner will claim the world no. 1. In the first set Williams took in a bagel, hitting 12 winner and 2 unforced errors. In the second set Safina, had more resistance as she took 3 games in the set, but Williams was proven to good as she won her 10th slam title. The win also meant that Williams has now become the highest paid female athlete in history, overtaking golfer Annika Sörenstam.In doubles, she paired with sister Venus and won their first three matches in straight sets against Svetlana Kuznetsova and Nadia Petrova, Ayumi Morita and Martina Müller, and Samantha Stosur and Rennae Stubbs. In the quarterfinals, they dropped their first set of the tournament against the team of Hsieh Su-wei and Peng Shuai, when they lost the second set, but eventually won in three. In the semifinals, they faced the team of Casey Dellacqua and Francesca Schiavone and won easily with a loss of only two games. In the final, they faced Daniela Hantuchová and Ai Sugiyama also known as "Hantuyama", the Williams sister fell by an early break but took six of the last seven games to the take the first set. They then took the second set, breaking in the ninth game of the second set to win the match.==== Open GDF Suez ====Having just re-claimed the no. 1 ranking, Williams competed in the Open GDF Suez. She cruised through in her first round against Iveta Benešová, Williams took the last 6 games of the first set to win it and then went on to take the second set as well. In the following round, she cruised pass Croat Karolina Šprem without dropping a point on serve in straight sets. In the quarterfinals, it was again smooth sailing for Williams as she dispatches Frenchwoman Émilie Loit in straight sets. Williams was then forced to withdrew from her semifinal match against Elena Dementieva due to a right knee tendon injury.==== Dubai Tennis Championships ====Williams next scheduled event is the Dubai Tennis Championships. Being the top seed, Williams received a bye into the second round, where she faced Italian Sara Errani, Williams dropped the first set, but came back dropping just two games in the nest two sets and winning a bagel in the third. She then faced 13th seed Zheng Jie, where she won in straight sets. In the quarterfinals, Williams faced former World no. 1 and reigning French Open champion Ana Ivanovic and won in four in straight sets, coming from a break down in the second set. In the semifinals, Williams faced sister Venus Williams in their 19th meeting having split their previous 18. The first set went to Venus, after Serena's first service percentage was a dire 36%, compared to her elder sibling's 83%, and she delivered six double faults, whereas Venus kept her slate clean. In the second set Serena cleaned her game, came back and won it to push a decider. The third set then went to a tie-break, which Venus won, thus ending Serena's 13 match winning-streak.==== Sony Ericsson Open ====Williams entered the Sony Ericsson Open as the top seed and received a bye into the second round. Williams began her campaign for a record sixth title against American wild card Alexa Glatch and won in straight sets. In the following round, she faced Peng Shuai and won in straight sets, however despite the straight sets win, Williams was broken three times. In the fourth round she faced Zheng Jie, Williams won the first five games, however Zheng won the next five games to even it out. Williams eventually broke in the twelfth game to win the set. In the second set Zheng was ahead by a break twice but failed to capitalize, however she broke Williams in the eleventh game and held to go to a decider. Zheng led by a break in the decider, but Williams was able to get back winning six of the last seven games to advance. In the quarterfinals, Williams faced her third Chinese opponent in a row in Li Na, Williams suffered a slow start losing the first five games, but was able to find some form to win the next four. However, Li was able to hold serve in the tenth game to win the set. The second set went to a tie-break after both players failed to take advantage of break points, Williams won the breaker losing only a point. Williams then broke Li in the third and fifth games and served it out in the eight game to advance to the semifinals In the semifinals, she faced sister Venus Williams, Serena served for the first set at ninth game, but was broken just to break again to take the set. In the second set Venus broke in the ninth game to push it to a decider. In the third set while serving to stay in the match at 5–3, Serena broke Venus to advance to her 7th Miami final. In the final, Williams faced Victoria Azarenka and lost convincingly 3–6, 1–6. Williams was hampered with ankle and quad injuries and was advised not to play in the final.=== Clay court season and French Open ======= Andalucia Tennis Experience, Internazionali BNL d'Italia, Mutua Madrileña Madrid Open ====Williams then headed to the clay court season. Her first tournament was at the Andalucia Tennis Experience, however she was upset by then world no. 95 Klára Zakopalová in three sets, with Williams winning the second. She then headed to the Internazionali BNL d'Italia having dropped the number 1 ranking to Safina, she faced Patty Schnyder in the second round after receiving a bye and lost in three sets, after winning the second set. Her clay court season has gone from bad to worse when she retired against Francesca Schiavone after having dropped the first set in the first round of the Mutua Madrileña Madrid Open due to a right knee injury. This is extended her losing streak to four, the longest in her career.==== French Open ====Williams entered the French Open having not won a match on clay. In the first round she faced Klára Zakopalová, who beat her in their last encounter. Williams was quick to take the lead was a set and a break-up; Williams squandered 5 match points in the ninth game and lost the second set in a tie-break. Williams then led the third with a break and had three match points in the eight game and had another three match points, but Zakopalová came back to get it on serve, just to lose her serve in the tenth game of the third set to hand the win to Williams in Williams' ninth match point. This ends Williams' four match losing streak. In the second round, Williams faced Virginia Ruano Pascual and unlike her first-round match, Williams cruised through, losing just two games including a bagel in the first set. In her next match she faced another Spaniard in María José Martínez Sánchez. Martínez Sánchez took the first set with a break, but with controversy as Williams fired in a powerful shot that appeared to graze Martínez Sánchez's hand as she looked to defend herself. The Spaniard denied that such happened, Martínez Sánchez got the break in that game and took the set. Williams came back and took the last two sets with a single break lead in each set. In the fourth round, she face Canadian Aleksandra Wozniak and won comfortably in straight sets in 53 minutes. In the quarterfinals, she faced Russian Svetlana Kuznetsova, Kuznetsova took the first set in a tie-break after saving a set point on her own serve in the twelfth game. Kuznetsova served for the match in the ninth game of the second set, but Williams broke through and won the last four games to push it to a decider. Williams then led by an early break just to surrender it and the match to Kuznetsova when she got broken in the twelfth game of the third set. Williams later admitted that she got tight in the match.In the doubles, Williams paired again with sister Venus and entered as the fifth seeds; the sisters scrapped through their first two matches, winning it in three against the teams of Andrea Hlaváčková and Lucie Hradecká, and Gisela Dulko and Ágnes Szávay. However, their resistance was placed in halt as they lost in the third round to Bethanie Mattek-Sands and Nadia Petrova; after winning the first set, they eventually lost in a tie-break in the final set.=== Wimbledon Championships ===Williams entered Wimbledon Championships as the second seed and favorite. In her opening match, she faced Neuza Silva and won in straight sets without facing a break point. She hit nine aces and 32 winners in the win. In the second round, she faced Australian Jarmila Groth and won the first set by breaking Groth in the fourth and eight game. In the second set, Groth didn't held serve but broke Williams once in the set, handing Williams the match. The match lasted only 57 minutes. In the third round, she faced Italy's Roberta Vinci and won in straight sets, despite getting broken twice in the match, once in each set. In the round of 16, she faced Daniela Hantuchová and won easily in straight sets. In the quarterfinals, Williams faced Victoria Azarenka, the woman that defeated her in the final of Miami, Williams won the last four games of the first set to win it. Azarenka then led by a break in the second set, but Williams came back once again winning the last four games to advance. In the semifinals, Williams faced rival Elena Dementieva. The first set saw Dementieva breaking the Williams serve just to be broken back. The set was pushed to a tie-break, which was won by Dementieva. Williams then broke in opening game of the second just to be broken in the sixth game. Williams then broke the Russian in the 11th game and served out the set to force a third set. In the final set, Dementieva broke early in the deciding set for a 3–1 lead only for Williams to break back immediately.Dementieva had a break and match point in the tenth games only for Williams to retrieve it with a low volley that clipped the net. The match remained close until Williams secured a break in the 13th game and serve it out and head to the final. In the final, she faced sister Venus Williams in their fourth Wimbledon final. Serena took the first set in a tie-break, the first saw Venus having break points but failing to convert whereas Serena didn't have any. Serena broke Venus twice in the second set including in the final game and won in her fourth match point to win her 11th slam and third Wimbledon.Once again, Williams paired with her sister Venus Williams in doubles as the fourth seeds. In the first round, they faced the French team of Virginie Razzano and Aravane Rezaï and won in three in both sets. They then cruised pass Sabine Lisicki and Aleksandra Wozniak in the second round in straight sets. In the third round, they faced the Chinese pair of Yan Zi and Zheng Jie and dominated winning in a double bagel. In the final eight, they defeated Anna-Lena Grönefeld and Vania King in straight sets. In the semifinals, they faced the top seeds and co-world no. 1's Cara Black and Liezel Huber and won losing only three games. In the final they took on the Australian duo of Samantha Stosur and Rennae Stubbs and won in two close sets, winning the first in a breaker and the second with a single break lead to claim their ninth slam as a team.=== US Open Series ======= Bank of the West Classic ==== Williams began her US Open preparation at the Bank of the West Classic. Williams faced Li Na in the first round, she had a set and had two match points in the eight game, however Li came back to force it to a tie-break. Williams closed out the match in her seventh match point. In the second round she faced Hungarian Melinda Czink, Williams broke in the fourth game and held it to take the set. Czink led by an early break, but Williams was able to force it to a tie-break, where she saved a set point and won the set to advance. In the quarterfinals, Williams took on Samantha Stosur, Stosur won the first set, but Williams came back winning the second. Williams had break points in the fifth game but failed to convert, that proved costly as Stosur took the next three games to take the final set and the match.The Williams Sisters paired up to play doubles. They cruised through their first three matches in straight sets to advance to the finals, defeating the teams of Chen Yi and Mashona Washington, Līga Dekmeijere and Julie Ditty, and Bethanie Mattek-Sands and Nadia Petrova. They claimed their third title of the year by defeating the team of Yung-Jan Chan and Monica Niculescu in the final.==== Western & Southern Financial Group Women's Open ====Williams next scheduled event is the Western & Southern Financial Group Women's Open. Williams received a bye in the first round and defeated Kateryna Bondarenko in the second round in straight sets. In the following round she faced Sybille Bammer, this time ending up in the losing side in straight sets. Williams also lost her only previous encounter with Bammer.==== Rogers Cup ====Williams made her final stop before the US Open at the Rogers Cup. Williams got a bye to advance to the second round where she faced Yaroslava Shvedova and easily won in straight set only dropping 5 games. In the next round, Williams faced Alona Bondarenko and once again won with only dropping 5 games. In the quarterfinals, for the third match in a row, Williams only dropped five games this time to Czech Lucie Šafářová. In the semifinals, she faced Elena Dementieva for the fourth time in the year. Williams served for the match in the ninth game but Dementieva rallied to push the first set into a tie-break, which Dementieva won. Dementieva then took advantage taking the second set dropping only a game to advance to the final.==== US Open ====Williams began her quest for her twelfth slam at the US Open, she entered the tournament as the defending champion and is trying to win US Open for two consecutive years for the first time. She opened her campaign against compatriot Alexa Glatch, Williams won easily in straight sets despite making 18 winners to 19 unforced errors in the match. In the following round, she faced Melinda Czink, and won with a double breadstick victory. Williams made 25 winners to just 9 unforced errors. In the third round she faced María José Martínez Sánchez for the first time after their controversial match in the French, Williams broke in the second game and held it through to take the first set. In the second set Williams went behind by an early break but came back to serve it out in the twelfth game. In the next round, she stormed pass Daniela Hantuchová, as Williams reeled in 10 games in a row starting from the fifth game of the first set to move on. In the final eight, Williams faced Italian Flavia Pennetta and won in straight sets, hitting 22 winners to 19 unforced errors. After several rain delays, her semifinal match against Kim Clijsters took place 4 days after her quarterfinal match. Williams was down by a set and 5-6 15–30, serving to stay in the match when a foot fault was called that gave Clijsters two match points. Williams then launched into a tirade directed at the lineswoman, for which Serena was given a code violation. The violation ended up as a point penalty due to receiving a warning for racquet abuse earlier in the match, thus ending the match in controversial fashion. The following day, Williams was issued the maximum permissible on-site fine of $10,000 (plus $500 for racquet abuse). After further investigation, the Grand Slam Committee in November 2009 fined her $175,000 in lieu of suspending her from the 2010 US Open or other Grand Slam events. They also placed her on a two-year probation, so if Williams committed another offense in the following two years at a Grand Slam tournament, she would be suspended from participating in the following US Open. If she committed no offenses in the next two years, her fine would be reduced to $82,500. Williams initially refused to apologize for her outburst, both in her post-match press conference and in an official statement released the following day. She eventually apologized to the lineswoman in a statement two days following the incident.Vying for their first title as a team at the US Open in ten years, the Williams sisters made quick work of their first three opponents Julia Görges and Arantxa Parra Santonja, Yung-Jan Chan and Katarina Srebotnik, and Sorana Cîrstea and Caroline Wozniacki defeating them all in straight sets. In the quarterfinals they defeated Yan Zi and Zheng Jie defeating them in two tight sets. In the semifinals, they faced the Russian pairing of Alisa Kleybanova and Ekaterina Makarova and won the first set in tie-break. However, they lost the second set ending their 29-set winning streak. The final set went to the Williams sisters as they advance to the final. In the final, they faced top ranked doubles team of Cara Black and Liezel Huber and took control of the match to claim their tenth slam as a team and their second US Open crown.=== Asian Swing and Year-End Championships ======= China Open ====Williams then went to Asia at the China Open with a chance of regaining the world no. 1 ranking from Dinara Safina. In the first round she faced Estonian Kaia Kanepi and won in straights with a single break lead in each set. Williams then defeated Ekaterina Makarova in the second round in two easy sets and claimed the no. 1 ranking after Safina fell earlier in the day. In the round of 16, she took on Russian Nadia Petrova, Petrova took the first set, with Williams coming back to take the second. In the third set both displayed good serving as neither dropped serve to push it to a tie-break, which Petrova won.==== WTA Tour Championships ====Williams entered the Year-End Championships as the second seed and was placed in the Maroon group with Elena Dementieva, Svetlana Kuznetsova and sister Venus Williams. Williams was in contention for the Year-End no. 1 ranking along with top seed Dinara Safina. Williams began her tournament against Svetlana Kuznetsova. Williams rallied in the first coming back from a break twice to take it to a tie-break, Williams then took the second set breaking Kuznetsova in the 11th game of the set and served it out to win the match. In her second round robin match, Williams faced older sister Venus Williams. Serena lost the first set but came back to win the second. In the finals set Serena was up by a double break, just to see Venus take five games in a row. Serena was serving to stay in that match in twelfth game and saved a match point to go to a tie-break, with Serena taking the breaker. Due to Safina's withdrawal from the event, thus securing Serena Williams the Year End no. 1 ranking only for the second time in her career. In her final group match, she took on Elena Dementieva, whom she has split their 4 meeting in the year, Dementieva began the match by breaking Williams in the third game, just to see Williams get back by winning the next seven game to take the first set and an early break. Dementieva came back to push it on serve but got broken in the ninth game of the set and Williams closed it out to go 3–0 in her group. In the semifinals, Williams faced Caroline Wozniacki, where she took the first set and was broken in the first game when Wozniacki retired due to a left abdominal strain. In the final it was an all-Williams final, as she took on sister Venus Williams, Serena took the first set breaking Venus twice. The second set, went on serve all throughout, with no breaks thus going to a tie-break, which Serena won to cap her no. 1 ranking with her 35th title.Williams qualified with sister Venus Williams and played for the first time as team in the Year-End Championships. In the semifinals they faced the Spanish duo of Nuria Llagostera Vives and María José Martínez Sánchez, where they took the first set but lost the second set. In the match tie-break, the Williams sisters lost it by 10 points to 8.== All matches ===== Singles matches ====== Doubles matches ===== Tournament schedule ===== Singles schedule ===Williams' 2009 singles tournament schedule is as follows:=== Doubles schedule ===Williams' 2009 doubles tournament schedule is as follows:== Yearly records ===== Head-to-head matchups ===Ordered by percentage of wins=== Finals ======= Singles: 4 (3–1) ======== Doubles: 4 (4–0) ======= Earnings === Figures in United States dollars (USD) unless noted. == See also ==Venus Williams2009 WTA Tour== References ==== External links == Stefanie Maria Graf (German pronunciation: [ˈʃtɛfiː ˈɡʁaːf], audio ; born 14 June 1969) is a German former professional tennis player. She was ranked world No. 1 for a record 377 weeks (only player, male or female, to be No. 1 for more than 7 years) and won 22 Grand Slam singles titles, which is the second-most since the introduction of the Open Era in 1968 and third-most of all-time behind Margaret Court (24) and Serena Williams (23). In 1988, she became the first tennis player to achieve the Golden Slam by winning all four Grand Slam singles titles and the Olympic gold medal in the same calendar year. Furthermore, she is the only tennis player, male or female, to have won each major at least four times.Graf was ranked singles world No. 1 by the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) for a record 377 total weeks: the longest period for which any player, male or female, has held the singles number-one ranking since the WTA and the Association of Tennis Professionals began issuing rankings. She won 107 singles titles, which ranks her third on the WTA's all-time list after Martina Navratilova (167 titles) and Chris Evert (157 titles). She and Margaret Court are the only players, male or female, to win three majors in a calendar year five times (1988, 1989, 1993, 1995 and 1996).Notable features of Graf's game were her versatility across all playing surfaces, footwork and powerful forehand drive. Graf's athletic ability and aggressive game played from the baseline have been credited with developing the modern style of play that has come to dominate today's game. She won six French Open singles titles (second to Evert), seven Wimbledon singles titles, four Australian Open titles, and five U.S. Open singles titles. She is the only singles player (male or female) to have achieved a Grand Slam since the hard court was introduced as a playing surface, replacing grass, at the US Open in 1978. Graf's Grand Slam was achieved on grass, clay, and hard court while the previous five singles Grand Slams were achieved on only grass and clay. Graf reached 13 consecutive singles major finals, from the 1987 French Open through to the 1990 French Open, winning nine of them. She won five consecutive singles majors (1988 Australian Open to 1989 Australian Open), and seven out of eight, in two calendar years (1988 Australian Open to 1989 US Open, except 1989 French Open). She reached a total of 31 singles major finals.Graf retired at the age of 30 in 1999 while she was ranked world No. 3. She is regarded as one of the greatest female tennis players of all time. Martina Navratilova included Graf at the top of her list of the greatest players ever. In the year of Graf's retirement, Billie Jean King said, "Steffi [Graf] is definitely the greatest women's tennis player of all time." In December 1999, Graf was named the greatest female tennis player of the 20th century by a panel of experts assembled by the Associated Press. She married former world No. 1 men's tennis player Andre Agassi in October 2001. They have two children. Graf was inducted into the Tennis Hall of Fame in 2004. Along with Boris Becker, Graf was considered instrumental in popularizing tennis in Germany, where it remains one of the foremost national sports.== Early life ==Stefanie Graf was born on 14 June 1969, in Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, West Germany, to Heidi Schalk and car-and-insurance salesman Peter Graf (18 June 1938 − 30 November 2013). When she was nine years old, her family moved to the neighboring town of Brühl. She has a younger brother, Michael. Her father, an aspiring tennis coach, first introduced her to the game, teaching his three-year-old daughter how to swing a wooden racket in the family's living room. She began practising on a court at the age of four and played in her first tournament at five. She soon began taking the top prize at junior tournaments with regularity, going on to win the European Championships 12s and 18s in 1982.== Career ===== Early career ===Graf played in her first professional tournament in October 1982 at Filderstadt, Germany. She lost her first round match 6–4, 6–0 to Tracy Austin, a two-time US Open champion and former world No. 1 player. (Twelve years later, Graf defeated Austin 6–0, 6–0 during a second round match at the Evert Cup in Indian Wells, California, which was their second and last match against each other.)At the start of her first full professional year in 1983, Graf was 13 years old and ranked world No. 124. She won no titles during the next three years, but her ranking climbed steadily to world No. 98 in 1983, No. 22 in 1984, and No. 6 in 1985. In 1984, she first gained international attention when she almost upset the tenth seed, Jo Durie of the United Kingdom, in a fourth round Centre Court match at Wimbledon. In August as a 15-year-old (and youngest entrant) representing West Germany, she won the tennis demonstration event at the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles. No medals were awarded as this was not an official Olympic event.Graf's schedule was closely controlled by her father, who limited her play so that she would not burn out. In 1985, for instance, she played only ten events leading up to the US Open, whereas another up-and-coming star, Gabriela Sabatini of Argentina, who was a year younger than Graf, played 21. Peter Graf also kept a tight rein on Graf's personal life. Social invitations on the tour were often declined as Graf's focus was kept on practicing and match play. Working with her father and then-coach Pavel Složil, Graf typically practiced for up to four hours a day, often heading straight from airports to practice courts. This narrow focus meant that Graf, already shy and retiring by nature, made few friends on the tour in her early years, but it led to a steady improvement in her play.In 1985 and early 1986, Graf emerged as the top challenger to the dominance of Martina Navratilova and Chris Evert. During that period, she lost six times to Evert and three times to Navratilova, all in straight sets. She did not win a tournament but consistently reached tournament finals, semifinals and quarterfinals, with the highlight being her semifinal loss to Navratilova at the US Open.On 13 April 1986, Graf won her first WTA tournament and beat Evert for the first time in the final of the Family Circle Cup in Hilton Head, South Carolina. (She never lost to Evert again, beating her six more times over the next three and a half years.) Graf then won her next three tournaments at Amelia Island, Charleston, and Berlin, culminating in a 6–2, 6–3 defeat of Navratilova in the final of the latter. Illness caused her to miss Wimbledon, and an accident where she broke a toe several weeks later also curtailed her play. She returned to win a small tournament at Mahwah just before the US Open where, in one of the most anticipated matches of the year, she encountered Navratilova in a semifinal. The match was played over two days with Navratilova finally winning after saving three match points 6–1, 6–7, 7–6. Graf then won three consecutive indoor titles at Tokyo, Zurich, and Brighton, before once again contending with Navratilova at the season-ending Virginia Slims Championships in New York. This time, Navratilova beat Graf 7–6, 6–3, 6–2.=== Breakthrough year: 1987 ===Graf's Grand Slam tournament breakthrough came in 1987. She started the year strongly, with six tournament victories heading into the French Open, with the highlight being at the tournament in Miami, where she defeated Martina Navratilova in a semifinal and Chris Evert in the final and lost only 20 games in the seven rounds of the tournament. In the French Open final, Graf defeated Navratilova, who was the world No. 1, 6–4, 4–6, 8–6 after beating Sabatini in a three-set semifinal.Graf then lost to Navratilova 7–5, 6–3 in the Wimbledon final, her first loss of the year. However, in the Federation Cup final in Vancouver, Canada, three weeks later, she defeated Evert easily 6–2, 6–1. The US Open ended anti-climactically as Navratilova defeated Graf in the final 7–6, 6–1.Graf had a win-loss record of 75-2 for a 97.4 winning percentage in 1987, both losses coming to Navratilova as they split the four matches they played during the year. On 17 August, after defeating Evert in a straight set final in the Virginia Slims of Los Angeles, Graf overtook Navratilova for the world No. 1 ranking for the first time in her career, a ranking she would hold for the next 186 consecutive weeks, a record (it was tied by Serena Williams in 2016). Graf was the first player other than Navratilova or Evert to hold the top spot since Tracy Austin in 1980.=== Golden Slam: 1988 ===Graf started 1988 by winning the Australian Open, defeating Chris Evert in the final 6–1, 7–6. Graf did not lose a set during the tournament and lost a total of only 29 games.Graf lost twice to Sabatini during the spring, once on hardcourts in Boca Raton, Florida, and once on clay at Amelia Island, Florida. Graf, however, won the tournament in San Antonio, Texas, and retained her title in Miami, where she once again defeated Evert in the final. Graf then won the tournament in Berlin, losing only twelve games in five matches.At the French Open, Graf successfully defended her title by defeating Natasha Zvereva 6–0, 6–0 in a 34-minute final. The official time of the match given on the scoresheet was 34 minutes; however, just 32 minutes of that was spent on the court, as a rain break split the match into two periods of play, of nine and 23 minutes. That was the shortest-ever and most one-sided Grand Slam final ever and the only double bagel in a Major final since 1911. Zvereva, who had eliminated Martina Navratilova in the fourth round, won only thirteen points in the match.Next came Wimbledon, where Martina Navratilova had won six straight titles. Graf was trailing Martina Navratilova in the final 7–5, 2–0 before winning the match 5–7, 6–2, 6–1. She then won tournaments in Hamburg and Mahwah (where she lost only eight games all tournament).At the US Open, Graf beat Sabatini in a three-set final to win the Grand Slam by 6–3, 3–6, 6–1, a feat previously performed by only two other women, Maureen Connolly Brinker in 1953 and Margaret Court in 1970. Graf's 1988 Grand Slam remains the only one in history completed on three surfaces (grass, clay, hard court), as all other Grand Slams in tennis history were achieved prior to the introduction of hard court at the US Open in 1978.In reaching and winning all four Grand Slam finals, Graf became the first player in history to contest and win 28 Grand Slam singles matches in a single year; albeit including the unplayed walkover against Evert in the US Open. Even discounting that result, no other player had played and won 27 Grand Slam matches in a single year before and the feat has to date only been matched by Novak Djokovic since, in both 2015 and 2021, when he failed in both bids to win the Grand Slam.Graf then defeated Sabatini 6–3, 6–3 in the gold medal match at the Olympic Games in Seoul and achieved what the media had dubbed the "Golden Slam". Graf also won her only Grand Slam doubles title that year—at Wimbledon partnering Sabatini—and picked up a women's doubles Olympic bronze medal. Graf was the first tennis player to achieve the feat: wheelchair tennis players Diede de Groot and Dylan Alcott achieved the Golden Slam in 2021.At the year-ending Virginia Slims Championships, Graf was upset by Pam Shriver, only her third loss of the year. The loss deprived her of the Golden Super Slam. She was named the 1988 BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year.At the end of the year, the municipality of Brühl, her hometown, gave her the title of honorary citizen.=== New challengers and personal challenges ======= 1989 ====Speculation was rife at the beginning of 1989 about the possibility of Graf winning another Grand Slam. Some noted observers, such as Margaret Court, suggested that Graf could achieve the feat a couple more times. And the year began as expected, with Graf extending her Grand Slam tournament winning streak to five events at the Australian Open, defeating Helena Suková in the final. Her 6–3, 6–0 defeat of Gabriela Sabatini in a semifinal was described by veteran observer Ted Tinling as "probably the best tennis I've seen". He went on to add, "I saw what Steffi did to Sabatini at the Australian Open this year, and that was it. She is better than them all."Graf followed this with easy victories in her next four tournaments at Washington, D.C., San Antonio, Texas, Boca Raton, Florida, and Hilton Head. The Washington, D.C. tournament was notable because Graf won the first twenty points of the final against Zina Garrison. In the Boca Raton final, Graf lost the only set she conceded to Chris Evert in their final seven matches.In the subsequent Amelia Island final on clay, Graf lost her first match of the year to Sabatini but returned to European clay with easy victories at Hamburg and Berlin.Graf's Grand Slam tournament winning streak ended at the French Open, where 17-year-old Spaniard Arantxa Sánchez Vicario beat Graf in three sets. Graf served for the match at 5–3 in the third set but lost the game and won only three more points in the match. Suffering from food poisoning, she had struggled to beat Monica Seles in their semifinal 6–3, 3–6, 6–3 and said that she had menstrual cramps in the final. Graf, however, recovered to defeat Martina Navratilova 6–2, 6–7, 6–1 in the Wimbledon final after defeating Monica Seles 6–0, 6–1 in a fourth round match, Arantxa Sánchez Vicario in a quarterfinal, and Chris Evert in a semifinal.Graf warmed up for the US Open with easy tournament victories in San Diego and Mahwah. In her semifinal match at the US Open, Graf defeated Sabatini 3–6, 6–4, 6–2. The match was notable for its dramatic ending. Having suffered from leg cramps since the middle of the third set, Graf ran off the court seconds after match point to seek medical treatment. In the final, Navratilova led 6–3, 4–2 before Graf rallied to win 3–6, 7–5, 6–1 for her third Grand Slam singles title of the year.Victories at Zurich and Brighton preceded the Virginia Slims Championships, where Graf cemented her top-ranked status by beating Navratilova in the four-set final. Graf ended 1989 with an 86–2 match record and the loss of only 12 sets. Her 0.977 winning percentage is the second-highest in the open era behind Navratilova.==== 1990 ====Graf defeated Mary Joe Fernández in the final of the Australian Open, which was her eighth Grand Slam singles title in the last nine she contested. She survived an intense three-set battle with Helena Sukova in the semis, breaking in the tenth and final game to win the third set 6–4. Her winning streak (unbeaten since the 1989 French Open loss to Arantxa Sánchez) continued with victories in Tokyo, Amelia Island, and Hamburg. Shortly after winning in Tokyo, Graf injured her right thumb while cross-country skiing in Switzerland and subsequently withdrew from the Virginia Slims of Florida and the Lipton Championships. In Berlin, she extended her unbeaten streak to 66 matches (second in WTA history to Navratilova's 74) before losing the final to Monica Seles, 4–6, 3–6.While the Berlin tournament was being played, the largest-circulation German tabloid, Bild, ran a story about an alleged scandal involving Graf's father. The difficulty of answering questions about the matter came to a head at a Wimbledon press conference, where Graf broke down in tears. Wimbledon authorities then threatened to immediately shut down any subsequent press conferences where questions about the issue were asked. Whether this scandal affected Graf's form is open to debate. In an interview with Stern magazine in July 1990, Graf stated, "I could not fight as usual."Graf again lost to Monica Seles in the final of the French Open 6–7, 4–6. Seles was behind 2–6 in the first-set tiebreaker, but then came back to win six points in a row and take the set. At Wimbledon, Graf lost in the semifinals to Zina Garrison, who with this victory broke Graf's string of 13 consecutive major finals. This was a major upset as Garrison had to save a match point to defeat Monica Seles in the quarterfinal, and was expected to easily fall to Graf, whom she had not beaten in four years. After victories in Montreal and San Diego, Graf reached the US Open final, where she lost in straight sets to Sabatini. Graf won four indoor tournaments after the US Open, including a pair of straight-set wins over Sabatini in the finals of Zürich and Worcester. Although Sabatini got the best of Graf in the semifinals of the season-ending Virginia Slims Championships, Graf still finished the year as the top-ranked player.==== 1991 ====A mixture of injury problems, personal difficulties, and loss of form made 1991 a tough year for Graf. Seles established herself as the new dominant player on the women's tour, winning the Australian Open, French Open, and US Open and, in March, ending Graf's record 186 consecutive-weeks hold on the World No. 1 ranking. Graf briefly regained the top ranking after winning at Wimbledon but lost it again after her loss to Navratilova at the US Open.Graf lost an Australian Open quarterfinal to Jana Novotná, the first time she did not reach the semifinals of a Grand Slam singles tournament since the 1986 French Open. She then lost to Sabatini in her next three tournaments before winning the U.S. Hardcourt Championships in San Antonio, beating Monica Seles in the final. After losing a fifth straight time to Sabatini in Amelia Island, Florida, Graf again defeated Seles in the Hamburg final. Following her tournament victory in German Open in Berlin, Graf suffered one of the worst defeats of her career in a French Open semifinal where she won only two games against Sánchez Vicario and lost her first 6–0 set since 1984. At Wimbledon, however, Graf captured her third women's crown, this time at Sabatini's expense. Sabatini served for the match twice, and was two points away from her first Wimbledon title. After breaking Sabatini's serve to even the third set at 6–6, Graf defeated Sabatini by winning the next two games to take the match 6–4, 3–6, 8–6. Martina Navratilova then defeated Graf 7–6, 6–7, 6–4 in a US Open semifinal, the first time she had beaten Graf in four years. Graf then won in Leipzig, with her 500th career victory coming in a quarterfinal against Judith Wiesner. After winning two more indoor tournaments at Zurich and Brighton, she failed once again in the Virginia Slims Championships, losing her quarterfinal to Novotná. Soon after, she split with her long-time coach, Pavel Složil.==== 1992 ====A bout of rubella forced Graf to miss the first major event of 1992, the Australian Open. Her year continued indifferently with losses in three of her first four tournaments, including a semifinal loss to Jana Novotná in Chicago. It was Graf's second consecutive loss to Novotna, and dating back to their 1991 Australian Open quarterfinal match, Jana had won three of their last five meetings. It would also be the last loss Graf would ever have to Novotna in a match she completed (she did have a loss after withdrawing with injury after the first set of a late 1996 match). Chicago was notable, however, for being the first tournament Graf played with her new coach, former Swiss player Heinz Günthardt. Graf's father had approached Günthardt during the 1991 Virginia Slims Championships. She would work with him for the remainder of her career. In Boca Raton, Florida, Graf reached her first final of the year, where she faced Conchita Martínez for the title. In their five previous head-to-head matches, Graf had defeated Martínez each time. Even though she lost the opening set, Graf went on to prevail in three sets. She lost twice to Sabatini in the early spring at the Lipton International and the Bausch & Lomb Championships, which now brought her to seven losses in her last eight matches against Sabatini; however, the Bausch & Lomb loss would be Graf's final loss to Sabatini, winning her next, and last eight matches against Sabatini.Victories at Hamburg and Berlin (beating Sánchez Vicario in the finals of both) prepared her for the French Open, where she defeated Sánchez Vicario in the semifinals after losing the first set 6–0. Graf then lost a closely contested final to Monica Seles, 2–6, 6–3, 8–10. Seles won the match on her fifth match point; Graf came within two points of winning the match a few games earlier. At Wimbledon, after struggling through early-round three-setters against Mariaan de Swardt and Patty Fendick, she easily defeated Natasha Zvereva in the quarterfinal, Sabatini in the semifinal, and Seles in the final, 6–2, 6–1, with Seles playing in almost complete silence because of widespread media and player criticism of her grunting. Graf then won all five of her Fed Cup matches, helping Germany defeat Spain in the final by defeating Arantxa Sánchez Vicario, 6–4, 6–2. At the Olympic Games in Barcelona, Graf lost to Jennifer Capriati in the final and claimed the silver medal. At the US Open, Graf was upset in the quarterfinals by Sánchez Vicario 7–6, 6–3. Four consecutive indoor tournament victories in the autumn helped improve her season, but for the third consecutive year, she failed to win the Virginia Slims Championships, where she lost in the first round to Lori McNeil.=== Second period of dominance ======= 1993 ====Graf began 1993 with four losses in her first six tournaments of the year: two to Sánchez Vicario and one each to Seles and the 36-year-old Martina Navratilova. Seles defeated Graf at the Australian Open 4–6, 6–3, 6–2. She struggled at the German Open in Berlin where she lost a 6–0 set to the unheralded Sabine Hack before defeating Mary Joe Fernández and Sabatini in three-set matches to claim her seventh title there in eight years.During a quarterfinal match between Seles and Magdalena Maleeva in Hamburg, Seles was stabbed between the shoulder blades by a mentally ill German fan of Graf, Günter Parche. He claimed that he committed the attack to help Graf reclaim the world No. 1 ranking. More than two years elapsed before Seles competed again. Shortly after the stabbing, during a players meeting at the Italian Open in Rome, 17 of the world's top 25 WTA members voted against preserving Seles' world No. 1 ranking while she was sidelined. Since Graf skipped the Italian Open, she did not take part in the vote.During Seles's absence, Graf won 65 of 67 matches, three of four Grand Slam events and the year-end Virginia Slims championships. She won her first French Open title since 1988 with a three-set victory over Mary Joe Fernández in the final. Fernandez had two break points to take a 3–0 and double break lead in the third set. The win elevated Graf to the world No. 1 ranking for the first time in 22 months. At Wimbledon, Graf defeated Jana Novotná to win her third consecutive, and fifth overall, ladies' title. In the third and deciding set, Novotná had a point to go up 5–1 on her serve. After breaking Novotná's serve, Graf won the next four games to take the match 7–6, 1–6, 6–4. Graf had a bone splinter in her right foot during this tournament (and for the next few months), finally resulting in surgery on 4 October.In the meantime, she lost surprisingly to Nicole Bradtke of Australia in a Fed Cup match on clay before winning the Acura Classic in San Diego and the Canadian Open in Toronto in preparation for the US Open. She won there, comfortably beating Helena Suková in the final after needing three sets to eliminate Gabriela Sabatini and Manuela Maleeva-Fragniere in the quarterfinals and semifinals respectively. In the fall, Graf won the Volkswagen Card Cup in Leipzig a day before her foot operation, losing only two games to Jana Novotná in the final. Graf lost to Conchita Martínez in her comeback tournament a month later in Philadelphia. However, she finished her year with a highlight, winning her first Virginia Slims Championships since 1989 by beating Arantxa Sánchez Vicario in the final despite needing painkillers for a back injury.==== 1994 ====Seemingly free of injury for the first time in years, Graf began the year by winning the Australian Open, where she defeated Arantxa Sánchez Vicario in the final with the loss of only two games. Graf later stated it was the best tennis she had ever played in a Grand Slam final. She then won her next four tournaments in Tokyo, Indian Wells, Delray Beach and Miami respectively. In the Miami final, she lost her first set of the year—to Natasha Zvereva—after winning 54 consecutive sets. In the Hamburg final, she lost for the first time in 1994 after 36 consecutive match victories, losing to Sánchez Vicario in three sets. She then won her eighth German Open, but there were signs that her form was worsening as she almost lost to Julie Halard in a quarterfinal. As the defending champion Graf lost in straight sets to Mary Pierce in the French Open semifinal. This was followed by a first-round straight-sets loss at Wimbledon to Lori McNeil, her only loss at Wimbledon between 1991 and 1997 and her first loss in a first round Grand Slam tournament in ten years. Graf still managed to win San Diego the following month but aggravated a long-time back injury in beating Sánchez Vicario in the final. Graf developed a bone spur at the base of her spine due to a congenital condition of the sacroiliac joint. She began to wear a back brace and was unsure about playing the US Open but elected to play while receiving treatment and stretching for two hours before each match. She made it to the final and took the first set against Sánchez Vicario but lost the next two sets — Sanchez Vicario's last victory over Graf. In the middle of the second set, Graf suffered back spasms while reaching for a ball in the ad court. She took the following nine weeks off, returning only for the Virginia Slims Championships where she lost in straight sets to Pierce in the quarterfinal. Although Graf ended the year ranked No. 1 on the computer the ITF named Sanchez Vicario its World Champion for the year, while the WTA backed their official rankings and named Graf.==== 1995 ====A strained right calf muscle forced Graf to withdraw from the Australian Open. She came back in February, winning four consecutive tournaments in Paris, Delray Beach, Miami and Houston. She then beat Sánchez Vicario in the finals of both the French Open and Wimbledon. The 1995 Wimbledon final is regarded as one of the most dramatic women's major finals in history as Graf and Sánchez Vicario battled in a tight third set that included a 16-minute long, 13-deuce game on Sanchez Vicario's serve at 5–5. In August Monica Seles made her much anticipated return to tennis at the Canadian Open. It was decided to grant her a joint number-one ranking with Graf who took her first loss of the year in the first round to Amanda Coetzer. The US Open was Monica Seles's first Grand Slam event since the 1993 attack, with much anticipation again around a potential Seles-Graf final. After surviving a scare in a three-setter against Amanda Coetzer in the first round, Graf reached the final with relative ease, while Seles went through her side of the draw in even more convincing fashion. Seles and Graf met in the final, with Graf winning in three sets, saving a set point in the first set. Graf then capped the year by beating countrywoman Anke Huber in a five-set final at the season-ending WTA Championships in 2 hours and 46 minutes.===== Tax issues =====In personal terms, 1995 was a difficult year for Graf, as she was accused by German authorities of tax evasion in the early years of her career. In her defense, she stated that her father Peter was her financial manager, and all financial matters relating to her earnings at the time had been under his control. Her father was arrested in August and was sentenced to 45 months in jail. He was eventually released after serving 25 months. Prosecutors dropped their case against Graf in 1997, when she agreed to pay a fine of 1.3 million Deutsche Marks to the government and an unspecified charity.==== 1996 ====Graf again missed the Australian Open after undergoing surgery in December 1995 to remove bone splinters from her left foot. Graf came back to the tour in March, winning back to back titles in Indian Wells and Miami, followed by a record ninth title at the German Open in May and a quarterfinal defeat in Rome against Martina Hingis. She then successfully defended the three Grand Slam titles she won the year before. In a close French Open final, Graf again overcame Sánchez Vicario, taking the third set 10–8. Graf had led 4–1 in the second set tiebreak, only to lose six points in a row and force a decider. Twice in the third set Sánchez Vicario served for the championship but was broken each time by Graf. It was the longest French Open women's singles final in history, both in terms of time (3 hours and 3 minutes) and number of games played (40). Graf then had a straight-sets win against Sánchez Vicario in the Wimbledon final. That was the last competitive match Graf and Sánchez Vicario would ever play against one another. In July, a left knee injury forced Graf to withdraw from the Summer Olympics in Atlanta. Graf played only one warm-up event ahead of the US Open, the Acura Classic in Manhattan Beach, California, where she lost to Lindsay Davenport in the semifinals. She then successfully defended her title at the US Open, defeating Monica Seles in the final. Her toughest battle came against rising star Martina Hingis in the semifinal, with Hingis unable to convert on five set points. Graf did not lose a set the whole tournament. She also won her fifth and final WTA Tour Championships title with a five set win over Martina Hingis, with Hingis cramping up in the fifth set.In 1988, Graf became only the second tennis player in history to win a Slam on hardcourt, clay, and grass all in the same season. She repeated the feat in 1993, 1995, and 1996.=== Final years on the tour: 1997–99 ===The last few years of Graf's career were beset by injuries, particularly to her knees and back. She lost the world No. 1 ranking to Martina Hingis and failed to win a Grand Slam title for the first time in ten years in 1997. That year Graf lost in the fourth round of the Australian Open in straight sets to Amanda Coetzer.She subsequently withdrew from the Pan Pacific Open and had arthroscopic surgery performed on her left knee. After several months injury lay off, Graf returned to play in the German Open in Berlin in front of a home crowd and had the worst defeat of her career in the quarterfinal, when Amanda Coetzer beat her in just 56 minutes 6–0, 6–1. In the French Open Graf was again beaten by Amanda Coetzer in straight sets, 6–1, 6–4. Only one week later, she underwent reconstructive knee surgery in Vienna and subsequently missed the 1997 Wimbledon and US Open championships. The treatment was for a fracture of the cartilage as well as a shortening and partial rupture of the patellar tendon of her left knee.After missing almost half of the tour in 1998, Graf lost in the third round at Wimbledon and in the fourth round at the US Open. Shortly after the US Open, she underwent surgery to remove a bone spur in her right wrist. Upon her return Graf defeated world No. 2 Hingis and world No. 1 Lindsay Davenport en route to the Philadelphia title. At the first round of the season-ending Chase Championships, Graf defeated world No. 3, Jana Novotná, before losing in the semifinal to first-seeded Davenport.At the beginning of 1999 Graf played the warm up event to the Australian Open in Sydney; she defeated Serena Williams in the second round and Venus in the quarterfinals before losing to Lindsay Davenport in the semifinal. Graf then went on to reach the quarterfinals of the Australian Open before losing to Monica Seles in two sets. In Indian Wells Graf lost to Serena Williams in three sets.At the French Open, Graf reached her first Grand Slam final in three years and fought back from a set and twice from a break down in the second set to defeat the top ranked Hingis in three sets for a memorable victory. Graf became the first player in the open era to defeat the first, second, and third ranked players in the same Grand Slam tournament by beating second-ranked Davenport in the quarterfinals and third-ranked Seles in the semifinals. Graf said after the final that it would be her last French Open, fueling speculation about her retirement.Graf then reached her ninth Wimbledon singles final, losing to third-seeded Davenport in straight sets. She had to overcome three difficult three set matches en route to this final, against Mariaan De Swardt in the third round, Venus Williams in the quarterfinals and Mirjana Lučić in the semifinals.On 13 August 1999, shortly after retiring with a strained hamstring from a second round match against Amy Frazier in San Diego, Graf announced her retirement from the women's tour at age 30. She was ranked No. 3 at that time and said, "I have done everything I wanted to do in tennis. I feel I have nothing left to accomplish. The weeks following Wimbledon [in 1999] weren't easy for me. I was not having fun anymore. After Wimbledon, for the first time in my career, I didn't feel like going to a tournament. My motivation wasn't what it was in the past."=== Doubles career ===From the beginning of her career until 1990, Graf regularly played doubles events in Grand Slams and other tournaments, winning a total of eleven titles. In 1986, she formed a partnership with rival Gabriela Sabatini. The pair was moderately successful, winning the 1988 Wimbledon Championships together and reaching the finals of the French Open in 1986, 1987 and 1989. The partnership was the subject of much discussion, as the two women, both known to be shy, usually kept communication to a minimum during changeovers and between points, a highly unusual situation in doubles. Sabatini said of the partnership: "doubles is all about communicating with each other, and we didn't communicate that much. We would just say the basic things, but nothing else." The pair played their last major tournament together at the 1990 Wimbledon Championships, losing in the quarterfinals. From 1991 until the end of her career, Graf would only play doubles sporadically, forming short-term partnerships with a variety of players, including Lori McNeil, Anke Huber and her best friends on the tour, Rennae Stubbs, Patricia Tarabini and Ines Gorrochategui. She played her last Grand Slam doubles tournament at the 1999 Australian Open with Gorrochategui, losing in the second round.Graf also occasionally played mixed doubles, although she never won a title. She partnered with doubles specialist Mark Woodforde at the Australian Open in 1994, with Henri Leconte at Wimbledon in 1991 and at the French Open in 1994, and with Charlie Pasarell at the US Open in 1984. In an unusual arrangement, she paired with her coaches Pavel Složil at Wimbledon in 1988 and Heinz Günthardt in 1992 and 1996, also at Wimbledon. At the 1999 Wimbledon Championships, Graf formed a much-publicized partnership with John McEnroe, with whom she reached the semifinals before withdrawing due to concerns that her uncertain hamstring, coupled with a bout of bronchitis, would affect her in the singles final.=== Post-career exhibition matches ===In late 1999 and early 2000, as part of her Farewell Tour, Graf played a series of exhibition matches against former rivals in New Zealand, Japan, Spain, Germany and South Africa. She played Jelena Dokic in Christchurch, New Zealand, Amanda Coetzer in Durban, South Africa, and her former rival Arantxa Sánchez Vicario in Zaragoza, Spain. It was Graf and Sánchez Vicario's first head-to-head meeting since 1996. In February 2000, Graf played against Kimiko Date at Nagoya Rainbow Hall in Tokyo, winning in three sets. In September 2004, Graf dispatched her former doubles partner Gabriela Sabatini, in straight sets, in an exhibition match played in Berlin, Germany. She was also in Berlin to host a charity gala, as well as inaugurating a tennis stadium renamed the "Steffi Graf Stadion". Proceeds from her match against Sabatini went to Graf's foundation, "Children for Tomorrow".In July 2005, Graf competed in one tie of World Team Tennis (WTT) on the Houston Wranglers team. She was beaten in two out of three matches, with each match being one set. Graf lost her singles match to Elena Likhovtseva 5–4. She teamed with Ansley Cargill in women's doubles against Anna Kournikova and Likhovtseva but lost 5–2. She was successful, however, in the mixed doubles match. Graf completely ruled out a return to professional tennis. In October, Graf defeated Sabatini in an exhibition match in Mannheim, Germany, winning both of their sets. Like the exhibition match the previous year against Sabatini, proceeds went to "Children for Tomorrow".In 2008 Graf lost an exhibition match against Kimiko Date at Ariake Colosseum in Tokyo. As part of the event, billed as "Dream Match 2008", she defeated Martina Navratilova in a one-set affair 8–7, with Graf winning a tiebreaker 10–5. It was the first time in 14 years Graf had played Navratilova. Graf played a singles exhibition match against Kim Clijsters and a mixed doubles exhibition alongside husband Andre Agassi against Tim Henman and Clijsters as part of a test event and celebration for the newly installed roof over Wimbledon's Centre Court in 2009. She lost a lengthy one-set singles match to Clijsters and also the mixed doubles.In 2010, Graf participated in the WTT Smash Hits exhibition in Washington, D.C. to support the Elton John AIDS Foundation. She and Agassi, her husband, were on Team Elton John, which competed against Team Billie Jean King. Graf played in the celebrity doubles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles before straining her left calf muscle and being replaced by Anna Kournikova.=== Summary of career ===Graf won seven singles titles at Wimbledon, six singles titles at the French Open, five singles titles at the US Open, and four singles titles at the Australian Open. Her overall record in 56 Grand Slam events was 282–32 (89 percent) (87–10 at the French Open, 75–7 at Wimbledon, 73–9 at the US Open, and 47–6 at the Australian Open). Her career prize-money earnings totalled US$21,895,277 (a record until Lindsay Davenport surpassed this amount in January 2008). Her singles win/loss record was 900–115 (88.7 percent). She was ranked world No. 1 for 186 consecutive weeks (from August 1987 to March 1991; tied with Serena Williams, a record in the women's game) and a record total 377 weeks overall.== Career statistics ===== Grand Slam tournament performance timeline ===Note:Graf's semifinal match at the 1988 US Open was walkover (so not counted as win)=== Grand Slam tournament finals ======= Singles: 31 (22 titles, 9 runner-ups) ======== Doubles: 4 (1 title, 3 runner-ups) ======= Records ===These records were attained in Open Era of tennis.Records in bold indicate Open Era peer-less achievements.== Playing style ==The main weapons in Graf's game were her powerful inside-out forehand drive (which earned her the moniker Fräulein Forehand) and her intricate footwork. She often positioned herself in her backhand corner and although this left her forehand wide open and vulnerable to attack, her court speed meant that only the most accurate shots wide to her forehand caused any trouble.Graf's technique on the forehand was unique and instantly recognizable: generating considerable racquet head speed with her swing, she reached the point of contact late and typically out of the air. As a result, she hit her forehand with exceptional pace and accuracy. According to her coaches Pavel Složil and Heinz Günthardt, Graf's superior sense of timing was the key behind the success of her forehand.Graf also had a powerful backhand drive but over the course of her career tended to use it less frequently, opting more often for an effective backhand slice. Starting in the early 1990s, she used the slice almost exclusively in baseline rallies and mostly limited the topspin backhand to passing shots. Her accuracy with the slice, both cross-court and down the line and her ability to skid the ball and keep it low, enabled her to use it as an offensive weapon to set the ball up for her forehand put-aways. However, Graf admitted in 1995 that she would have preferred having a two-handed backhand in retrospect.She built her powerful and accurate serve up to 174 km/h (108 mph), making it one of the fastest serves in women's tennis and was a capable volleyer.An exceptionally versatile competitor, Graf remains the only player, male or female, to have won the calendar-year Grand Slam on three surfaces or to have won each Grand Slam at least four times. Eighteen-time Grand Slam champion and former rival Chris Evert opined, "Steffi Graf is the best all-around player. Martina [Navratilova] won more on fast courts and I won more on slow courts, but Steffi came along and won more titles on both surfaces." Her endurance and superior footwork allowed her to excel on clay courts, where, in addition to six French Open titles, she won 26 regular tour events, including a record eight titles at the German Open. Meanwhile, her naturally aggressive style of play, effective backhand slice and speed around the court made her even more dominant on fast surfaces such as hard courts, grass and carpet. Graf stated that grass was her favorite surface to play on, while clay was her least favorite.== Equipment and endorsements ==Early in her career, Graf wore Dunlop apparel, before signing an endorsement contract with Adidas in 1985. She had an Adidas sneakers line known as the St. Graf Pro line. Early in her career, Graf used the Dunlop Maxpower Pro and Maxpower Kevlar racquets and then played with the Max 200G racquet from 1984 to 1993 before switching to Wilson from 1994 to 1999. She first used the Wilson Pro Staff 7.0 lite, then switched to the Pro Staff 7.5 in 1996 and to the Pro Staff 7.1 in 1998. Graf's racquets were strung at 29 kilograms (64 pounds), significantly above the 50-60 pound range recommended by Wilson. In 2006, she signed an endorsement deal with Head. In 2010, Graf and Agassi collaborated with Head and developed the new line of Star Series tennis racquets.Graf has signed many endorsement deals throughout the years including a ten-year endorsement deal with car manufacturer Opel in 1985, and Rexona from 1994 to 1998. Other companies she has endorsed include Barilla, Apollinaris, Citibank, Danone and Teekanne. She has appeared in many advertisements and television commercials with Andre Agassi including Canon Inc. and Longines in 2008 (Agassi became Longines ambassador in 2007). In 2015, she was appointed as the brand ambassador of Kerala tourism, for promoting Ayurveda in North America and Europe.== Personal life ==In 1997, she left the Catholic Church, citing personal reasons. During her career, Graf divided her time between her hometown of Brühl; Boca Raton, Florida; and New York City where she owned a penthouse in the former Police Headquarters Building in SoHo.From 1992 to 1999, Graf dated racing driver Michael Bartels. She started dating Andre Agassi after the 1999 French Open and they married on 22 October 2001, with only their mothers as witnesses. They have two children, a son born in 2001 and a daughter born in 2003. Agassi has said that he and Graf are not pushing their children toward becoming tennis players. The Graf-Agassi family resides in Summerlin, a community in the Las Vegas Valley. Graf's mother and her brother also live there.In 1991, the Steffi Graf Youth Tennis Center in Leipzig was dedicated to her. She is the founder and chairperson of "Children for Tomorrow", a non-profit foundation established in 1998 for implementing and developing projects to support children who have been traumatized by war or other crises.In 2001, Graf indicated that she preferred to be called Stefanie instead of Steffi.On 30 November 2013, Graf's father Peter died of pancreatic cancer. He was 75 years old.== Legacy ==In December 1999, Graf was named the greatest female tennis player of the 20th century by a panel of experts assembled by the Associated Press.In March 2012, Tennis Channel picked Graf as the greatest female tennis player ever in their list of 100 greatest tennis players of all time. In November 2018, polled its readers to choose the greatest women's tennis player of all time and Graf came in first. In July 2020, The Guardian polled its readers to determine the greatest female tennis player of the past 50 years, and Steffi was the clear favorite, picking up nearly twice as many votes as any other player.Tennis writer Steve Flink, in his book The Greatest Tennis Matches of the Twentieth Century, named Graf as the best female player of the 20th century. Flink said in 2020 that the jury was still out on (Serena) Williams as the greatest ever, but Williams' consistency over the long span did not match that of Graf or Navratilova. Graf compiled superior career accomplishments over Serena Williams (as of December 2, 2020); 900–115 career record (88.7 win %) versus 843–147 career record (85.2 win %), 107 career tournament victories versus 72 career tournament victories, 377 total weeks ranked as world No. One versus 319 total weeks ranked as world No. One. While Graf's 22 Grand Slam wins is one fewer than Williams' 23 (and two fewer than Margaret Court's 24), Graf's professional career is eight years shorter than Williams, plus Graf also faced much tougher competition during her era (Chris Evert, Martina Navratilova, Gabriela Sabatini, and Monica Seles) compared to Williams. However, with the stabbing of Monica Seles in 1993, some have questioned its impact on Graf's career statistics and legacy.== Awards and honours ==Graf was voted the ITF World Champion in 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1993, 1995 and 1996. She was voted the WTA Player of the Year in 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996. She was elected as the German Sportsperson of the Year in 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989 and 1999.In 2004, the Berliner Tennis-Arena was renamed Steffi-Graf-Stadion in honor of Graf.Graf was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 2004 and the German Sports Hall of Fame in 2008.In 2015, Graf was the recipient of the International Club's prestigious Jean Borotra Sportsmanship Award.== See also ==== References ==== External links ==Official website Steffi Graf at the Women's Tennis Association Steffi Graf at the International Tennis Hall of Fame Steffi Graf at the International Tennis Federation Steffi Graf at the Billie Jean King Cup Official Wimbledon profileBBC profileESPN biographySteffi Graf's victories (in German)Steffi Graf at the International Olympic Committee Steffi Graf at Olympics at (archived) Jonathan Stark (born April 3, 1971) is a former professional tennis player from the United States. During his career he won two Grand Slam doubles titles (the 1994 French Open Men's Doubles and the 1995 Wimbledon Championships Mixed Doubles). Stark reached the world No. 1 doubles ranking in 1994.== Early life ==Stark was born in Southern Oregon in the city of Medford on April 3, 1971. In college he played tennis for Stanford University, where he was a singles and doubles All-American in 1990 and 1991. He reached the NCAA doubles final in 1991, partnering Jared Palmer. On July 17, 1997, he married Dana, and they have two sons and a daughter. He was coached by Donald Bozarth and became one of the top juniors.== Professional tennis ==Stark turned professional in 1991 and joined the ATP Tour. In 1992, he won his first tour doubles title at Wellington. His first top-level singles title came in 1993 at Bolzano (beating Cédric Pioline in the final).In 1994, Stark captured the men's doubles title at the French Open, partnering Byron Black (the pair were also runners-up at the Australian Open that year). He reached his career-high singles ranking of World No. 36 in February. The following year, Stark won the Wimbledon mixed doubles title, partnering Martina Navratilova.Stark won his second top-level singles title in 1996 at Singapore (beating Michael Chang in the final). He was a member of the 1997 U.S. Davis Cup team. In 1997, Stark won the doubles title at the ATP Tour World Championships, partnering Rick Leach. The final doubles title of Stark's career came in 2001 at Long Island.Over the course of his career, Stark won two top-level singles titles and 19 tour doubles titles. His career prize-money totaled US$3,220,867. Stark retired from the professional tour in 2001, lives in Portland, Oregon, and coaches with Portland-based Oregon Elite Tennis. He was inducted into the Oregon Sports Hall of Fame in 2009.== Career finals ===== Singles: 3 (2 titles – 1 runners-up) ====== Doubles: 40 (19 titles – 21 runners-up) ====== Runners-up (21) ===== Doubles performance timeline ==== References ==== External links ==Jonathan Stark at the Association of Tennis ProfessionalsJonathan Stark at the International Tennis FederationJonathan Stark at the Davis Cup The Williams sisters are two professional American tennis players: Venus Williams (b. 1980), a seven-time Grand Slam title winner (singles), and Serena Williams (b. 1981), twenty-three-time Grand Slam title winner (singles), both of whom were coached from an early age by their parents Richard Williams and Oracene Price. There is a noted professional rivalry between them— between the 2001 US Open and the 2017 Australian Open tournaments, they met in nine Grand Slam singles finals. They became the first two players, female or male, to play in four consecutive Grand Slam singles finals from the 2002 French Open to the 2003 Australian Open; Serena famously won all four to complete the first of two "Serena Slams". Between 2000 and 2016, a 17-year span, they collectively won 12 Wimbledon singles titles (Venus won five, and Serena won seven). By winning the 2001 Australian Open women's doubles title, they became the fifth pair to complete the Career Doubles Grand Slam and the only pair to complete the Career Doubles Golden Slam. At the time, Venus and Serena were only 20 and 19 years old, respectively. Since then, they have gone on to add another two Olympic gold medals in the 2008 Beijing Olympics and the 2012 London Olympics. Nearly a decade later, the duo would go on to win four consecutive Grand Slam doubles titles from 2009 Wimbledon through 2010 Roland Garros, which would catapult them to co-No. 1 doubles players on 7 June 2010. Two weeks later, on 21 June 2010, Serena would hold the No. 1 singles ranking, and Venus would be right behind her at No. 2 in singles. Their most recent Grand Slam doubles titles came at the 2012 Wimbledon and 2016 Wimbledon events. They remain very close, often watching each other's matches in support, even after one of them has been knocked out of a tournament.Both sisters have been ranked by the Women's Tennis Association at the world No. 1 position in both singles and doubles. In 2002, after the French Open, Venus Williams and Serena Williams were ranked No. 1 and No. 2, respectively, marking the first time in history that sisters occupied the top 2 singles spots in the world rankings. During the 2010 French Open, they became the co-world No. 1 players in women's doubles. On 21 June 2010, Serena and Venus again held the No. 1 and No. 2 rankings spots in singles, respectively, some eight years after first accomplishing this feat. At the time, Serena was three months shy of her 29th birthday and Venus had just celebrated her 30th birthday.Both players have won four gold medals at the Summer Olympics, one each in singles and three in doubles—all won together—the most of any tennis players. Venus has also won a silver in mixed doubles at the 2016 Rio Olympics. As a duo, they have also completed the Career Golden Slam in doubles, twice. Between the two of them, they have completed the Boxed Set, winning all four grand slams in singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles. They won all of the mixed doubles titles in 1998 to go along with their titles in singles and women's doubles.== Doubles: 23 (22 titles, 1 runner-up) ==== Team competition finals: 1 (1 titles) ==== Performance timelines ===== Women's doubles ===Neither withdrawals nor walkovers are included in wins and losses.Note: Serena Williams did not play at the 2004 Olympics because of injury. Venus partnered with American Chanda Rubin and lost in the first-round to eventual gold-medalists Sun Tiantian and Li Ting.== Boycott of the Indian Wells Masters ==During the 2001 Indian Wells Masters tournament in Indian Wells, California, controversy erupted when Venus Williams withdrew four minutes prior to her semifinal match with her sister Serena.The following day, Serena played Kim Clijsters in the final. Venus and her father, (coach to her and Serena) Richard Williams were booed as they made their way to their seats. Serena was booed intermittently during the final, in which she defeated Clijsters, 4–6, 6–4, 6–2, and even during the presentation ceremony.Richard accused the crowds at Indian Wells of overt racism, saying, "The white people at Indian Wells, what they've been wanting to say all along to us finally came out: 'Nigger, stay away from here, we don't want you here'". However, no other reports of verbal racism were reported to tournament officials, although Venus has stated without elaboration, "I heard what he heard". Oracene Price (mother and coach of Venus and Serena) accused the crowd of "taking off their hoods".=== Effects and criticism ===After the initial controversy, neither Williams sister played the tournament in Indian Wells for 14 years. The Women's Tennis Association currently classifies the Indian Wells tournament as a Premier Mandatory event for all eligible players. Exceptions are made when players engage in tournament promotions, but Venus and Serena both declined to promote the tournament; WTA Tour CEO Larry Scott agreed he would not, promotionally, "put them in a position that is going to be awkward," and tournament director Charlie Pasarell has stated he would accept the WTA tour's ruling.Allegations had been made before Venus's withdrawal that Richard Williams decided who won the matches between his daughters. Those allegations continued and increased as a result of her withdrawal.Richard has said that racial epithets were used against him and Venus as they sat in the stands during the final, but no official complaints were recorded by the tournament. Venus and Serena have been criticized for refusing to discuss the controversy, as some believe that their silence perpetuates racism.Serena discusses what happened in her view at Indian Wells in detail in an entire chapter titled "The Fiery Darts of Indian Wells" in her 2009 autobiography, On the Line. She says that on the morning of the semifinal, Venus told the tour trainer that she had injured her knee and didn't think she could play and tried for hours to get approval from the trainer to withdraw, but the tournament officials kept stalling.What got me most of all was that it wasn't just a scattered bunch of boos. It wasn't coming from just one section. It was like the whole crowd got together and decided to boo all at once. The ugliness was just raining down on me, hard. I didn't know what to do. Nothing like this had ever happened to me. What was most surprising about this uproar was the fact that tennis fans are typically a well-mannered bunch. They're respectful. They sit still. And in Palm Springs, especially, they tended to be pretty well-heeled, too. But I looked up and all I could see was a sea of rich people—mostly older, mostly white—standing and booing lustily, like some kind of genteel lynch mob. I don't mean to use such inflammatory language to describe the scene, but that's really how it seemed from where I was down on the court. Like these people were gonna come looking for me after the match. ... There was no mistaking that all of this was meant for me. I heard the word nigger a couple times, and I knew. I couldn't believe it. That's just not something you hear in polite society on that stadium court ... Just before the start of play, my dad and Venus started walking down the aisle to the players' box by the side of the court, and everybody turned and started to point and boo at them ... It was mostly just a chorus of boos, but I could still hear shouts of 'Nigger!' here and there. I even heard one angry voice telling us to go back to Compton. It was unbelievable ... We refused to return to Indian Wells. Even now, all these years later, we continue to boycott the event. It's become a mandatory tournament on the tour, meaning that the WTA can fine a player if she doesn't attend. But I don't care if they fine me a million dollars, I will not play there again.However, on February 3, 2015, Serena Williams wrote an exclusive column for TIME magazine stating her intentions to return to Indian Wells for a tournament on March 9, 2015. She did indeed return and won her opening match. Williams withdrew before her semi-final match with Simona Halep because of a knee injury.The WTA announced on January 27, 2016, that Venus would return to Indian Wells for the first time in 15 years.== Best result in Grand Slam singles (combined) ==== Year-end WTA ranking ==== See also ==Williams sisters rivalryKlitschko brothers - similarly dominant boxing brothers== References ==== Further reading ==Edmondson, Jacqueline (2005). Venus and Serena Williams: A Biography. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-33165-0 The 1986 German Open, also known by its sponsored name Ebel German Open, was a men's tennis tournament of the 1986 Nabisco Grand Prix and played on outdoor red clay courts. It was the 77th edition of the event. It took place at the Am Rothenbaum in Hamburg, West Germany, from 15 September through 21 September 1986. Fourth-seeded Henri Leconte won the singles title.== Finals ===== Singles === Henri Leconte defeated Miloslav Mečíř, 6–2, 5–7, 6–4, 6–2It was Leconte's 2nd singles title of the year and the 6th of his career.=== Doubles === Emilio Sánchez / Sergio Casal defeated Boris Becker / Eric Jelen, 6–1, 7–5== References ==== External links ==Official websiteAssociation of Tennis Professionals (ATP) tournament profileInternational Federation (ITF) tournament editions details Li Na (born 26 February 1982) is a Chinese former professional tennis player.She achieved a career-high WTA ranking of world No. 2 on 17 February 2014. Over the course of her career, Li won nine WTA Tour singles titles including two Grand Slam singles titles at the 2011 French Open and 2014 Australian Open. Those victories made her the first Grand Slam singles champion from Asia, male or female. She also became the first player representing an Asian country to appear in a Grand Slam singles final, finishing as the runner-up at the 2011 Australian Open. Li was also the runner-up at the 2013 Australian Open and 2013 WTA Tour Championships, a three-time quarterfinalist at Wimbledon and a semifinalist at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and 2013 US Open. Among her other most notable achievements, she was the first Chinese player to win a WTA tour title at the Guangzhou International Women's Open in 2004, the first to reach a Grand Slam singles quarterfinal at the 2006 Wimbledon Championships, and the first to break into the world's top ten.Li retired from professional tennis on 19 September 2014, at the age of 32. In 2019, she was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame.== Personal life ==Li Na was born on 26 February 1982 in Wuhan, Hubei. Her mother is Li Yanping (李豔萍); her father, Li Shengpeng (李盛鵬), was a professional badminton player and later worked as a sales rep for a Wuhan-based company. He died from a rare cardiovascular disease when Li was fourteen. Her mother did not tell her that her father had died for many weeks, thinking it would affect her game.At age six, Li followed her father's footsteps and started playing badminton, which honed her reflexes. Just before she turned eight, Li was persuaded to switch to tennis by coach Xia Xiyao of the Wuhan youth tennis club. Her instructors taught tennis through negative reinforcement, which affected Li's confidence in later years. Li joined China's National Tennis Team in 1997. The following year, Li, sponsored by Nike, went to John Newcombe Academy in Texas to study tennis. She studied there for ten months and returned to China. Growing up, her favourite tennis player was Andre Agassi. She turned professional in 1999 at the age of sixteen.At the end of 2002, Li left the national tennis team to study part-time at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), where she completed her bachelor's degree in journalism in 2009. The Chinese media cited various reasons for this. Some reported that the relationship between her and her teammate and future husband, Jiang Shan (姜山), was opposed by the national team's management, some reported that her coach, Yu Liqiao (余丽桥), was too strict and demanding, while other reports claimed that her request for a personal coach did not go through. However, some regarded that it was just the health problem leading to the retirement. The New York Times reported that one of the reasons was that a team leader wanted her to play through by taking hormone medicine as Li struggled with her performance due to hormone imbalance.Li returned to the national team in 2004. On January 27th, 2006, Li married Jiang Shan who then became her personal coach. Li quit the national team as well as the state-run sports system in 2008 under an experimental reform policy for tennis players. This change was called "Fly Solo" (单飞) by Chinese media. As a result, Li had the freedom to hire her own coaching staff and she would be solely responsible for the cost of training and coaching and tour expense. She could keep more of her winnings, with only eight percent of her winnings going to the Chinese Tennis Association development fund as opposed to 65 percent previously. In the summer of 2012, the requirement of contribution to the Chinese tennis development fund was lifted and Li kept all her prize money.On 5 June 2016, Li was commissioned by Special Olympics as a Global Ambassador.On 19 January 2015, Li announced that she and her husband were expecting their first child. She gave birth to her daughter Alisa in June 2015. Her second child, a boy, was born on 23 December 2016.== Tennis career ===== 1999–2002: Dominance on the ITF Circuit ===Li turned professional in 1999, and won three of the first four singles tournaments she entered on the ITF Circuit, two at Shenzhen and one at Westende, Belgium. She also won all of her first seven ITF doubles tournaments she entered.In 2000, she won 52 singles matches on the ITF circuit, more than any other player, notching another eight tournament titles, including one at the $50k level, two at $25k, and a run of four $10k tournament wins in March and April.Notable individual victories in the course of the year included wins over Flavia Pennetta, Emmanuelle Gagliardi, Maria Elena Camerin, Tamarine Tanasugarn and Yayuk Basuki.In June, after Li's world ranking had risen to No. 136 on the strength of her ITF performances alone, she gained direct entry into her first WTA Tour event at Tashkent. Despite winning the first set, Li lost her first WTA singles match to Anna Zaporozhanova in three sets, but she captured the women's doubles title at Tashkent with Li Ting against Zaporozhanova and Iroda Tulyaganova.By the end of 2000, Li had won four WTA singles matches, this brought her cumulative ITF singles title count up to 11. That year, she also won seven more ITF doubles events, six of them with Li Ting.Li was mostly absent from the tour in 2001. She won two further $25k ITF singles tournaments, defeating Roberta Vinci in the final at Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and Liu Nannan in the final at Guangzhou in July, but then played only one further match for the rest of the year, leading her ranking to fall to no. 303 by the year's close.She won her 15th career ITF doubles tournament at Hangzhou in March.In 2002, she came through qualifying to win her first $75k singles tournament at Midland, USA in February, defeating Laura Granville, Tatiana Perebiynis, and Mashona Washington en route to the title, the 14th of her career. But she then played only one more match (a loss to Zuzana Ondrášková in the $50k event at Dinan, France that April), followed by a lengthy absence from the circuit for the next 25 months.Sources vary as to the causes of this absence, the Chinese media mostly cited the conflict between her and the China's National Tennis Team's administration and coaching staff. Some claimed that she just wanted a break from professional tennis so she could concentrate on her studies at university.=== 2004–2005: Successful return to professional tennis ===In May 2004, Li returned to competition after having not played since 2002. Although she was unranked, she won 26 successive matches to notch three further $25k tournament wins and another $50k title, increasing her career singles title count to 18, only to have her winning streak finally snapped by Evgenia Linetskaya in the semifinal of the $50k Bronx tournament that August. However, she won her 16th ITF doubles tournament at the same event, the 17th overall doubles title of her career.That September, she lost in the final of a $25k tournament to compatriot Zheng Jie, before returning to the WTA Tour, thanks to a wild-card entry into qualifying at the Beijing. There, she defeated Antonella Serra Zanetti, Marta Domachowska, and Nicole Pratt before losing in the deciding-set tie-break after a very close second-round main-draw tussle against newly crowned US Open Champion Svetlana Kuznetsova, during which she held match points against Kuznetsova. The Russian afterwards praised her Chinese opponent, stating that she had felt as though she was up against a top-five player.The very next week, Li battled her way through qualifying into the WTA event at Guangzhou (a Tier IV event at the time, though since has been upgraded to Tier III), then beat Vera Dushevina, Jelena Janković, Kristina Brandi, and Li Ting in the main draw to reach the final, where she overcame Martina Suchá to win her first WTA Tour title. By doing so, Li became the first Chinese tennis player to win a WTA event.On the back of the ranking points accrued through this result, on 4 October 2004, she broke into the WTA top 100 for the first time.To cap off her most successful year as a singles player yet, she competed in two $50,000 ITF tournaments at Shenzhen, winning the first outright to bring her the 19th ITF singles title and 20th overall singles title of her career, but losing in the quarterfinals of the second to lower-ranked country-woman Yan Zi. These results elevated Li Na to world No. 80 by the close of the year, a year in which she won 51 singles matches and lost just four.2005 saw Li finally abandoning the ITF circuit to focus solely on WTA-level events. She began the year with a second-round performance at Gold Coast and a semifinal showing at Hobart, but losing to fellow Chinese player and eventual tournament champion Zheng Jie. She then made her Grand Slam debut at the 2005 Australian Open, advancing to the third round with wins over Laura Granville and Shinobu Asagoe before losing to Maria Sharapova. In early February, she reached the quarterfinals at Hyderabad and qualified for Doha where she was narrowly beaten by Patty Schnyder in the first round of the main draw. After a victory over Ai Sugiyama in the first round at Dubai the following week, it was Schnyder once again who stopped her from reaching the later stages of the event.After taking a month off from competition, Li returned at Estoril in late April, defeating Stéphanie Cohen-Aloro, Nicole Pratt, Dally Randriantefy, and then crushing Dinara Safina to reach her second WTA Tour final. Li was denied the title by Czech qualifier Lucie Šafářová, who prevailed in a close three-set match. At Rabat in May, Li reached the semifinal stage, but further success ultimately proved elusive for her. With the score leveled at 3–3, she retired due to a right ankle sprain while clashing with Zheng Jie. Reaching this semifinal propelled her to a career-high singles ranking of world No. 33, but the injury she had sustained was destined to keep her out of action for the next three months. On her return at Los Angeles in August, she fell in the first round to Anna Chakvetadze of Russia. The following week, however, at the Canadian Open, she once more beat Jelena Janković and María Vento-Kabchi, before losing to Nadia Petrova in the third round.It was Lindsay Davenport who proved her undoing in her next two tournaments, beating her in the first round of the US Open, and at the semifinal stage in Bali in September, but not before Li Na had avenged her previous year's defeat by Yan Zi in the second round of the same tournament. The following week, another highly ranked American player, Jill Craybas, narrowly defeated Li Na in a close three-set first-round match at Beijing. Li commenced her defense of her Guangzhou title; but she was prevented from completing it in the quarterfinals by eventual champion Yan Zi, who thereby edged out in front in their head-to-head record once again. This second loss in three head-to-heads against Yan proved to be Li's last match of 2005; and in her absence from the Shenzhen $50k tournaments where she had notched up some ranking points late the previous year, she found herself slipping further in the rankings from the high-point of No. 33 that she had reached in the spring before her injury break, to No. 56 at the year's close.=== 2006: First Chinese Grand Slam quarterfinalist ===With nearly all her remaining ranking points to defend concentrated in a little over the first four months of the year, Li began the year faced with the challenge of equaling her strong results from the early part of 2005 in order to maintain her position in the middle reaches of the WTA top 100. Early-round draws against high-ranked players towards the beginning of 2006 took a heavy toll on Li's singles ranking, bringing it slipping down to No. 71 by the end of February.She returned with a career-best performance at Tier I events by reaching the semifinal at Berlin. On the way there, she achieved her first victory over a current top-10-ranked player as she ousted Patty Schnyder for the first time at the quarterfinal stage. However, this match left her with a muscle sprain, and she lost to Nadia Petrova in the semifinal. Nonetheless, her performance at this high-level tournament saw her ranked No. 39. Joining the WTA grass-court season for the first time at the DFS Classic tournament at Birmingham in June, she managed another third-round finish with wins over Mashona Washington and grass-court specialist Eleni Daniilidou, both in straight sets, then lost for the third time in three meetings to Maria Sharapova. Her ranking following this tournament was no. 30, which was at that time the highest ever ranking achieved by a Chinese woman.At the same event, partnering Jelena Janković, she notched up her second career WTA doubles title, almost exactly six years from her first at Tashkent. An early retirement against Alona Bondarenko in the first round of the Ondina Open at 's-Hertogenbosch the following week curtailed her final competitive preparations for her debut appearance at Wimbledon. But with an entry ranking of 30th, she found herself seeded 27th after some withdrawals, and thus achieved another first for her country in becoming the first Chinese woman ever to be seeded for entry into a Grand Slam tournament.At Wimbledon, she reached the fourth round with comfortable straight-sets wins over respected grass-court players Virginie Razzano and recent Birmingham semifinalist Meilen Tu, followed by victory against 10th seeded Svetlana Kuznetsova, resulting in her being the first Chinese player ever to reach any Grand Slam quarterfinal. Li rose to a new career high WTA ranking of no. 20 following the tournament, even though she ultimately lost her quarterfinal match against Kim Clijsters in two close sets. She reached the quarterfinals at Stockholm, and the fourth round at the US Open, where, as the 24th seed, she was beaten by eventual champion Maria Sharapova in two sets. She then reached the quarterfinals at the China Open, where she was beaten by Svetlana Kuznetsova, and in Guangzhou.=== 2007–2009 ===Li started the year by participating at Tier III event in Gold Coast, Australia, where she reached the second round. The next week, she competed in Sydney. She defeated Francesca Schiavone in the first round, Elena Dementieva in the second, saving five match points, and Katarina Srebotnik in the quarterfinal. Then, she made it to the semifinals, losing a tough match to Kim Clijsters, 5–7 in the third set. However, she rose to a career high of No. 16 afterwards.Li Na followed her strong showing at the Medibank tournament with an equally strong showing at the Australian Open, where she advanced to the fourth round. Seeded 19th, Li dispatched Elena Bovina and Lourdes Domínguez Lino in straight sets through the first two rounds, leading to a matchup with No. 9 Dinara Safina. The match was postponed due to rain, but Li handily beat Safina to advance to the fourth round to play Swiss star, No. 6 Martina Hingis. Due to a rain delay and the fact that Hingis played on Rod Laver Arena, a roofed court, on the originally scheduled day, Hingis had an extra day of rest. The match the previous day seemed to have no effect, as Li took the first set from Hingis. However, Na faded as the match went on and lost while committing 69 unforced errors. Despite the loss, the tournament was a success for Li, as it marked the third straight time in a Grand Slam that she advanced at least to the fourth round.At the Tier I Pan Pacific Open in Tokyo, Japan, Li advanced to the second round, defeating Lilia Osterloh before losing to Samantha Stosur in two sets, converting zero of eleven break points. At the important Pacific Life Open in Indian Wells, California, Li made a strong showing, advancing to the semifinals. She lost to Daniela Hantuchová in the semifinal. She continued her good form at the Miami Masters, losing just three games in her first two matches against Tamira Paszek and Katarina Srebotnik, before stunning fourth-seeded Kim Clijsters in three sets. She then lost in the quarterfinals to Anna Chakvetadze.She then moved onto the green clay of Amelia Island, where she suffered a shock second-round exit, after receiving a first round bye, to former top-20 player Karolina Šprem in straight sets. At the Family Circle Cup held in Charleston, South Carolina, she fell in the third round to Anabel Medina Garrigues. After losing in a grass tune-up event in Birmingham, Li pulled out of every tournament she was to play in the summer, including Wimbledon and the US Open, citing a rib injury.Li had not played a professional match in half a year and had resultantly slipped to No. 29 in the WTA rankings when she returned from her rib injury in January 2008 to compete at the 2008 Mondial Australian Women's Hardcourts in Gold Coast. In the first round, she narrowly defeated seventh seed Sybille Bammer. After a comfortable second round victory over wild card Monique Adamczak, she was drawn to meet the top seed Nicole Vaidišová in the quarterfinals. Li won their encounter in straight sets, advancing to the semifinals, where she edged past Patty Schnyder.In the final, she narrowly prevailed against Victoria Azarenka, not only ending her 3-year title drought (since Guangzhou 2004) but scoring her second WTA singles title of her career.Despite rising back up to world No. 24 following this victory, she then withdrew from the 2008 Medibank International in Sydney, after suffering a right knee injury. Her failure to defend her previous year's semifinal performance at this event cost her 125 ranking points, which dipped her ranking back down to No. 30 for the week beginning 14 January. Going into the 2008 Australian Open, she had a further 140 ranking points to defend from her fourth-round performance in 2007. Faced with a relatively lenient draw in the early rounds, she survived a close three-set tussle with Séverine Brémond in the first round, before surpassing Maria Elena Camerin in straight sets in round two. A revitalised Marta Domachowska remained between her and the defence of her ranking points, and although Li won the first set convincingly, she faltered thereafter and finally ceded the match to her Polish opponent by a single break of serve in the closely fought deciding set.Having slipped three places to world No. 33 by the time she entered the Tier II tournament at Antwerp in early February, she nonetheless progressed to the semifinals with back-to-back-to-back straight-sets wins over Russian veteran Elena Likhovtseva, Slovak world No. 45 Dominika Cibulková, and on-form Swedish world No. 66 Sofia Arvidsson. However, she withered in the semifinals against world No. 47 Karin Knapp, despite having taken an early lead with a break of service in the first set, ultimately ceding the match to her Italian opponent in two sets. This tournament brought her back up within the top 30 at world No. 29.The next week in the Tier I Qatar Open, Li met Likhovtseva again in the first round. This time, after taking the first set comfortably, she was challenged to a much tougher battle, but eventually won in three sets. In round two, she scored her second straight-sets victory in four career head-to-heads against Russian world No. 6 Anna Chakvetadze, saving a set point in the first set tie-break, before recovering to win. In the third round, she enjoyed a more comfortable victory over Israeli world No. 17 Shahar Pe'er, recovering from a 1–3 deficit in the second set. In the quarterfinals, she met her old rival and friend world No. 4 Jelena Janković, coming into the match with a winning 3–1 head-to-head record to her credit against the Serbian player. By defeating Janković she extended this record to 4–1 and moved into the semifinals, where she played Vera Zvonareva, against whom she had won both of her previous encounters. Despite taking the first set, Li lost the second by the same scoreline; and although she was 3–2 up in the final set, she then ceded four successive games to her opponent to lose the match.Her ranking having risen back to no. 23 on the strength of this performance, she was prevented from consolidating on this recovery by suffering a right knee injury, which forced her to pull out of her scheduled entries into both the Tier II event at Bangalore in early March and the Tier I tournament at Indian Wells in the middle of the month. She returned to action at the International Women's Open in Eastbourne, winning one round before losing to Nadia Petrova. She then contested Wimbledon, defeating Anastasia Rodionova before losing to Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova.At the Beijing Olympics, following early-round victories against world No. 3 Svetlana Kuznetsova, Ayumi Morita, and Kaia Kanepi, she went on to defeat one of the favourites, Venus Williams, in the quarterfinals. Li was trailing 1–4 in the first set, but managed to strengthen her game to win in straight sets. Li lost her semifinal match to sixth seed Dinara Safina and was then defeated in the bronze final by Vera Zvonareva. At the following US Open, Li was defeated by the Beijing Olympics gold medalist Elena Dementieva in the fourth round.In the 2008 Porsche Grand Prix, the unseeded Li defeated No. 1 ranked Serena Williams in the second round in three sets. Li thus became only the second Chinese player to defeat a world No. 1 player, following Zheng Jie's victory over Ana Ivanovic at Wimbledon in 2008.Li withdrew from both the inaugural Brisbane International, where she was defending champion (as she won the title at Gold Coast in 2008), and the 2009 Australian Open because of a right-knee injury. She made her comeback at the Paris Open. In the first round, she beat Ágnes Szávay, but in the second round she lost to second-seeded Jelena Janković.In the first round of the Dubai Tennis Championships, Li lost to Elena Vesnina in three sets. Unseeded at the Monterrey Open, she defeated world No. 10 and top seed Agnieszka Radwańska in a first round match that lasted over two hours. In the second round, she beat Petra Cetkovská and then advanced to the semifinals after defeating Lucie Šafářová. Li then moved into her fifth career tour final, after beating sixth-seeded Iveta Benešová. However, Li lost to second-seeded Marion Bartoli in the final in straight sets. Li then played in the Premier event at Indian Wells, where she defeated Tamarine Tanasugarn, Patty Schnyder, and Amélie Mauresmo, all in straight sets, to advance to the fourth round, where she lost to eventual champion Vera Zvonareva.She then reached the quarterfinals of the Premier event in Miami, where she beat qualifier Urszula Radwańska in the first round and upset 29th seed Aleksandra Wozniak to reach the third round, where she caused a big upset by defeating the previous week's Indian Wells champion, sixth-seeded Vera Zvonareva in three sets. This victory was particularly important for Li, as she had been beaten by Zvonareva the week before at Indian Wells. She then faced unseeded Russian Ekaterina Makarova in the fourth round and beat her in three sets to set up a quarterfinal match with the top seed and world No. 1 Serena Williams, a match which she lost in a tight three-setter. Because of her strong performance, her ranking went up to world No. 29 from world No. 40.Na's next event was the second Grand Slam of the year, the French Open in Paris. As the 25th seed, she won her first round against Polish Marta Domachowska. She then defeated Timea Bacsinszky and Olga Govortsova. She then lost to unseeded, former world No. 1 Maria Sharapova in the fourth round. After this impressive result, she jumped six rankings up to no. 20. She started her grass-court season as the fourth seed at the Aegon Classic in Birmingham and advanced to the final with a win over Maria Sharapova in the semifinals. However, Na was defeated by Magdaléna Rybáriková in the final. Na was seeded 19th at the 2009 Wimbledon Championships. She defeated Galina Voskoboeva in the first round and Olga Govortsova in the second round, but lost to No. 11 Agnieszka Radwańska in the third round.At the 2009 Bank of the West Classic, she lost to Serena Williams in the first round, and at the LA Women's Tennis Championships, she withdrew due to injury during her match with Urszula Radwańska of Poland. Seeded 18th at the US Open, she reached her first US Open quarterfinals, where she lost to eventual champion Kim Clijsters. En route to the quarterfinals, she defeated Ioana Raluca Olaru, Michelle Larcher de Brito, Maria Kirilenko, and Francesca Schiavone all in straight sets. Seeded 15th at the Toray Pan Pacific Open, Li won her opening match against Alizé Cornet. She then defeated Vera Dushevina before beating Kateryna Bondarenko. In the quarterfinal, she defeated Victoria Azarenka in three sets, two of which were tiebreaks where though she failed in serving for the match twice in the last set. Li lost in the semifinals to Jelena Janković, and finished the year at world No. 15, her career-high year-end ranking.=== 2010: First Grand Slam semifinal & ascent to top 10 ===Li's first tournament of 2010 was the ASB Classic in Auckland, where she was seeded second. She was defeated by Kaia Kanepi in the first round. In the Medibank International, she defeated fourth seed Caroline Wozniacki but lost to Flavia Pennetta in the second round.Li was seeded 16th at the Australian Open. She defeated world No. 4 Caroline Wozniacki in the fourth round and then came from a set and 3–5 down to defeat world No. 6 Venus Williams, in her first Australian Open quarterfinal and only her third Major quarterfinal. In the semifinals, she lost to Serena Williams in two highly competitive tiebreaks. As a result of this performance, Li was the first Chinese woman ever to be ranked in the top ten of women's professional tennis.At the Barclays Dubai Tennis Championships, Li, the eighth seed, defeated María José Martínez Sánchez in the second round. She then came from a 6–3, 5–2 deficit to defeat Marion Bartoli in the third round. Li was forced to retire in her quarterfinals match against Shahar Pe'er. Li continued her season at the inaugural Malaysian Open. As second seed, she fell to Tatjana Malek in the first round. As seventh seed at the BNP Paribas Open, Li fell to Elena Baltacha in the second round. Li was eighth seed at the Sony Ericsson Open, but fell to Timea Bacsinszky in the second round.At the Porsche Tennis Grand Prix, Li defeated defending champion Svetlana Kuznetsova in the second round, before falling to eventual runner-up Sam Stosur in the quarterfinals. Li was 11th seed at the French Open. She fell to eventual champion and world No. 17 Francesca Schiavone in the third round. Li was seeded first at the Aegon Classic. She defeated 4th seed Aravane Rezaï in the semifinals, and 2nd seeded Maria Sharapova in the final to win the tournament. With the win, Li returned to the top 10 in the WTA rankings. Seeded seventh at the Aegon International, Li retired in the first round with a knee injury after winning the first set against Elena Baltacha. Li was seeded ninth at Wimbledon. She defeated seventh seed Agnieszka Radwańska to advance to the quarterfinals at Wimbledon for the second time in her career, where she lost to world No. 1 and defending champion Serena Williams. In doing so Li once again returned to the top 10 in the WTA rankings.At the US Open, she started off as the eighth seed, but fell at the first hurdle to Kateryna Bondarenko. Li was an alternate at the WTA Championships, but did not receive a chance to play. Instead, she played at the Tournament of Champions as the first seed. However, she was defeated by Japanese Kimiko Date-Krumm in the first round, putting an end to her 2010 season, her best season to date. She finished just outside the top 10 at world No. 11. At the end of the year, Li's coach Thomas Högstedt chose to leave her in order to coach Maria Sharapova.=== 2011: Major breakthrough & historic victory at French Open ===Li played in the Medibank International Sydney as the eighth seed, making fast work of Australian wildcard Anastasia Rodionova and winning a tough three-set match against Virginie Razzano in the first two rounds. In the quarterfinals she met two-time Grand Slam winner Svetlana Kuznetsova and came through with a win. She defeated surprise qualifier Bojana Jovanovski in the semifinals to advance to her eighth WTA final. Li faced world No. 3 Kim Clijsters in the final, and despite trailing 5–0 in the first set, Li went on to defeat Clijsters, capturing the fourth WTA title of her career.Li was the ninth seed at the Australian Open, where she reached her first Grand Slam singles final, the first tennis player representing an East Asian and Asian country to achieve that feat. On the way she ousted eighth seed Victoria Azarenka in straight sets. She defeated world No. 1 Caroline Wozniacki in the semifinals to reach the final, after saving a match point in the second set. She faced No. 3 seed Kim Clijsters (whom she had defeated at the Medibank International). Although Li claimed the first set, Clijsters was able to rally back and claim the championship. Despite the loss, Li's ranking rose to a career high of world No. 7.Despite a good early start to the season, Li then had a five-match losing streak. After receiving byes into the second rounds, she lost in a hardly fought match against Yanina Wickmayer at the Dubai Tennis Championships, lucky loser Klára Zakopalová at the Qatar Ladies Open and countrywoman Peng Shuai at Indian Wells. Despite this, after Indian Wells she peaked at a career-high ranking of world No. 6 due to Janković's failures to defend her points.Li's losing streak continued, when she was upset in the Miami Masters by Johanna Larsson. With this loss, and Andy Murray's loss at Miami, both Australian Open finalists had yet to win a match since their first major final. She fell back to No. 7. Li then broke her losing streak by winning her first-round match against Anastasija Sevastova in Stuttgart. However, she lost to Sabine Lisicki in the second round. Even though she was not able to defend all her Stuttgart ranking points, she rose back to No. 6. However, due to her disappointing results, Li Na sacked her husband as coach and hired Dane Michael Mortensen.She entered the Madrid Open as sixth seed. In the first two rounds, she defeated María José Martínez Sánchez and Iveta Benešová without much difficulty. In the third round she got the better of Roberta Vinci coming back from a set deficit. She then defeated Bethanie Mattek-Sands after recovering from a break down in the deciding set. This victory marked her first semifinals appearance in Madrid, where she lost to eventual champion Petra Kvitová.Li's resurgence continued into the Internazionali d'Italia. Seeded fourth, she received a bye in the first round. She won her opening match against Lourdes Domínguez Lino and defeated Jarmila Gajdošová and Gréta Arn in the next two rounds en route to back-to-back semifinals on clay. However, she lost to Samantha Stosur in two sets.Li won her first major title at the French Open on June 4; by doing so she made history and became the first tennis player from an East Asian and Asian country to win a Grand Slam singles event. Seeded sixth, she defeated Barbora Záhlavová-Strýcová, Silvia Soler Espinosa, Sorana Cîrstea, ninth seed Petra Kvitová, fourth seed Victoria Azarenka, seventh seed Maria Sharapova, and fifth seed and defending champion Francesca Schiavone in the final, a match that was watched by 330 million viewers worldwide.After the match, Li Na was praised by the Chinese media, and her popularity throughout China was expected to grow significantly in the coming months, as she became the first Chinese national, male or female, ever to win a tennis Grand Slam title in singles, ensuring her place in the sport's history. Following the French Open, Li rose to a career high ranking of world No. 4.As the second seed at the Aegon International, Li fell in the second round to Daniela Hantuchová. By virtue of the withdrawal of Kim Clijsters, Li was the third seed at Wimbledon, her highest seeding at a Grand Slam. She beat Alla Kudryavtseva in the first round but lost in the second round to eventual semifinalist Sabine Lisicki of Germany even though she had two match points at 5–3 and served for the match twice at 5–4 and 6–5. Li suffered a surprise knock-out at the 2011 US Open at the hands of 53rd ranked Romanian teen Simona Halep and she ended the coaching of Mortensen. Then at the China Open, Li suffered a first round defeat by Romanian player Monica Niculescu. However, as a result of Vera Zvonareva and Samantha Stosur's inability to go past the third round, she was able to qualify for the 2011 WTA Tour Championships for the first time in her career.Li made her debut appearance at the WTA Championships in Istanbul. She was drawn in the White Group along with Maria Sharapova, Victoria Azarenka and Samantha Stosur. She beat Sharapova in her opening match but lost her other two matches, failing to make the semifinals. She finished the year as the world No. 5 after a memorable yet very inconsistent season. Li Na was nominated for two ESPY Sports Award categories: the "Annual Breakthrough Award" and "Annual Award for best female tennis players". She lost to Blake Griffin and Serena Williams, respectively. On 17 and 18 December, Li participated in the Li Na & Friends Tennis Exhibition 2011 in Wuhan, China.=== 2012: First Premier-5 event champion ===Li started her 2012 season in the Hopman Cup with countryman Wu Di, who was also from Hubei Province, where she won all three single rubbers against Marion Bartoli, Anabel Medina Garrigues and Jarmila Gajdošová. It was her first win over Anabel Medina Garrigues in four meetings. It was a return to her form after being plagued by losses and early round exits in almost all her tournaments during the second half of 2011 following her Roland Garros triumph. Li then played in the Sydney to defend her title. She defeated Ekaterina Makarova, Chanelle Scheepers and Lucie Šafářová to reach the semifinals. In the semifinal, she came back from one set down to eke out the win against world No. 2 Petra Kvitová, the favorite to win the tournament. In the final, Li failed to defend her title, losing the match to Victoria Azarenka in three sets.Li began her Australian Open campaign by cruising through the early rounds of the tournament, dispatching Ksenia Pervak, Olivia Rogowska, and Anabel Medina Garrigues (after Garrigues retired due to an injured ankle), en route to meeting her 2011 Australian Open final conqueror Kim Clijsters in the fourth round. Kim Clijsters rolled her ankle at 3–3 and Li took the first set comfortably. Li held four match points at 6–2 in the second set tiebreak, but dropped six consecutive points to give Clijsters the second set due to unforced errors and poor shot selection. At 1–5 in the final set, Li began a resurgence by reeling off the next three games to close the gap to 4–5, but the Belgian managed to close out the match. Her unexpected loss left her in tears in her post-match press conference.After the disappointing Australian Open campaign, Li participated in the 2012 Fed Cup and won all three of her matches on home soil. She defeated Kei-Chen Changand and Nigina Abduraimova during the round robin stages to push China to the promotional play-offs against Kazakhstan. She next played Galina Voskoboeva and won in three sets. This win sealed the tie and secured China's spot in the World Group II play-offs.Li then participated in the Open GDF Suez in Paris, but retired against Tsvetana Pironkova in the first round of the tournament due to a back injury she sustained during her Fed Cup matches. She made back-to-back quarterfinal appearances at the BNP Paribas Open and Sony Ericsson Open. At the BNP Paribas Open, Li got a first round bye and faced a rematch with Galina Voskoboeva in the second round, which she won in three sets. Li recorded her first win over Zheng Jie, after losing the five earlier meetings. In the fourth round she comfortably won against Klára Zakopalová, who was on a roll, upsetting Vera Zvonareva and Daniela Hantuchová. In the quarterfinals she faced Angelique Kerber and lost in two sets. At the Sony Ericsson Open after receiving a first round bye, Li defeated Melinda Czink, Iveta Benešová, and Sabine Lisicki to secure a spot in the quarterfinals. Li's win over Lisicki avenged her loss to the big serving German in the previous year's second round of the Wimbledon Championships. Li lost to world No. 2 Maria Sharapova in the quarterfinals, her first in their last four meetings, where the Chinese beat the Russian all in straight sets.Li reached the final of the 2012 Internazionali BNL d'Italia, defeating Iveta Benešová, Chanelle Scheepers and Dominika Cibulková without dropping a set before receiving a walkover from Serena Williams in the semifinals. In the final she lost to Maria Sharapova in three thriller sets despite being a set up and leading 4–0 in the second and failing to convert a championship point in the final set. Li was seeded 7th at the French Open, where she was the defending champion. She began her title defence by defeating Sorana Cîrstea, Stéphanie Foretz Gacon and Christina McHale in the first three rounds before suffering a fourth round upset bid by qualifier Yaroslava Shvedova. She fell out of the world top ten due to her French Open result. Li lost to Sorana Cîrstea in the second round of Wimbledon – her first loss against the Romanian.At the 2012 London Olympics, Li, seeded 10th, crashed out in the first round to Slovakian Daniela Hantuchová. Her poor performance caused her to drop out of the world top ten for the second time in the year following the conclusion of the Games. After the Olympics, Li announced that she and Carlos Rodríguez, coach of former world No. 1 and seven-time major winner Justine Henin, have commenced a coaching relationship.Li's next tournament was the Rogers Cup, where she made it all the way to the final. She received a first round bye before seeing off home crowd favourite Eugenie Bouchard in the second round. In the third round, she fended off world No. 9 Sara Errani and ended the hopes of Agnieszka Radwańska rising to No. 1 in the rankings by beating her in the quarterfinals. In the semifinals, Li rallied to come back from a 5–1 deficit in the third set to overcome Lucie Šafářová before losing to Petra Kvitová in the final. After the tournament she returned to the world top ten at No. 9.At the Western & Southern Open in Cincinnati, Li had a first round bye before eliminating Sorana Cîrstea in the second round, avenging her loss to the Romanian in the second round of the Wimbledon Championships. In the third round Li proved to be too strong for Johanna Larsson and in the quarterfinals she convincingly defeated world No. 3 and top seed Agnieszka Radwańska in a match where Li only surrendered two games. She then edged Venus Williams in the semifinal (bringing their head to head to 3–0), before defeating fifth seed Angelique Kerber in the final; her fifth win against Kerber in six matches. This was her first title since the 2011 French Open and the sixth WTA title in her career. By winning this tournament, she moved up one place in the rankings to world No. 8.At the US Open, Li cruised through the first two rounds with easy wins over Heather Watson and Casey Dellacqua. However, her tournament run came to an abrupt end in the next round, when she upset in three sets by rising British teenager Laura Robson, who had defeated three-time champion Kim Clijsters in the previous round. This result meant that this was her first season since 2008 in which she failed to reach the quarterfinal stage at a Grand Slam tournament.Li then travelled to Tokyo to participate in the Pan Pacific Open. She received a bye in the first round, and won her second round match against Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova to book a meeting with former world No. 1 Caroline Wozniacki in the third round. She won the first set, but eventually lost the match. Her exit from the tournament meant that her chances of participating in the upcoming 2012 WTA Tour Championships depended on her performance at the China Open. Li won the first round match against Francesca Schiavone. In the second round she recorded her first victory against Russian Nadia Petrova after six previous losses, who was coming off a title run at the Pan Pacific Open a week ago. She played compatriot Peng Shuai in the third round for a place in the quarters and emerged victorious in a topsy-turvy three set match lasting 2 hours and 28 minutes. In the quarterfinals, she faced defending champion Agnieszka Radwańska and played some high-quality tennis to defeat her for the third time this season. She lost her semifinal to Maria Sharapova; the Russian reeling off eight consecutive games to take the match. With this performance, she became the eighth and final player to qualify for the season-ending championships.For the 2012 WTA Tour Championships, Li was placed in the red group along with Victoria Azarenka, Serena Williams and Angelique Kerber. She played Serena Williams in her opening match and lost in two sets after failing to capatalise on her 4–1 first set lead. She defeated Angelique Kerber in her second match before losing to Azarenka in her third match; in the latter match, she had served for the first set at 5–4, but was broken and lost the set in a tie-break. This was the final match of her 2012 season, finishing the year ranked world No. 7.On 29 December 2012, Li beat Victoria Azarenka in an annual exhibition event in Hua Hin, Thailand.=== 2013: Second Australian Open final, return to top four & year-end No. 3 ===Li commenced her season at the first edition of the Shenzhen Open. She cruised to the final with straight-sets defeats over Mandy Minella, Julia Cohen, Bojana Jovanovski and Peng Shuai, putting her in prime position to claim her seventh WTA title. Li saw off 5th seed Klára Zakopalová in three sets in the final to claim her first title of 2013 and seventh of her career.Li next played at the Apia International, at which she made consecutive finals the two previous years, winning in 2011. She was pushed to the limit by Christina McHale but had little trouble with Ayumi Morita. She met young American Madison Keys in the quarterfinals who proved to be a tougher challenge, with Li prevailing in three tight sets to book a semifinal showdown with world No. 4, Agnieszka Radwańska. Li looked the winner in the early stages of the match, but somewhat faltered, producing a high number of unforced errors which handed Radwańska the first set. She saved four match points on Radwańska's serve in the ninth game of the second set and three on her own serve in the tenth game. However, eventually she succumbed to the pressure and a half-volley into the net sealed the win for Radwańska in an hour and 32 minutes, putting an end to Li's Sydney reign.At the Australian Open Li easily stormed through to the quarterfinals, where she faced world No. 4 Agnieszka Radwańska, who had not dropped a set during a 13-match winning streak. Li became the first player to defeat her this season and advanced to the semifinals where she ousted world No. 2 Maria Sharapova in straight sets, who had only dropped a record-low nine games in the tournament. This marked Li's second Australian Open final appearance in three years, finishing runner-up to Kim Clijsters in 2011. In the final, Li was hampered by injuries, falling over on two occasions. The first of which occurred at 1–3 in the second set, a fall that saw Li incur a 10-minute medical timeout. She fell over a second time after the Australia Day fireworks break, not only twisting her left ankle once more but also heavily knocking the rear of her head on the court, causing a momentary black-out. Despite being severely hindered in her movement, she continued playing but eventually lost the match in three sets to Victoria Azarenka.The left ankle injury she sustained in the Australian Open decider forced her to withdraw from subsequent tournaments including the Qatar Total Open, the Indian Wells Masters, plus an exhibition match at the BNP Paribas Showdown in Hong Kong in which she was scheduled to play former world No. 1 Caroline Wozniacki.After being sidelined for seven weeks, Li made a return to the competition at the Miami Masters as the fifth seed. After a first round bye, she won her second round against Kiki Bertens in two quick sets without dropping serve in her first match since the Australian Open final. Next up she faced Varvara Lepchenko and Garbiñe Muguruza and defeated both in straight sets to set up a quarterfinal match against world No. 1 Serena Williams. Despite leading 5–2 in the second set and holding a set point on Williams' serve, she did not manage to find a way to capitalise and went on to lose the match in a tiebreak.Li's next tournament was the Porsche Tennis Grand Prix, the first major clay-court event of the season. As the second seed, she received a bye in the first round. She swept past qualifier Mirjana Lučić-Baroni in the second round, setting up an encounter with Petra Kvitová in the quarterfinals. She disposed of Kvitová and then surprise semifinalist Bethanie Mattek-Sands both in straight sets to advance to the final for the first time, seeking her eighth career title. The final was a contest between her and Maria Sharapova, whose passage to the final included three three-set matches each lasting over three hours. She, however, handily defeated Li in just over 90 minutes, increasing her clay-court winning streak to 16 and avenging her Australian Open semifinal loss to Li earlier in the year.Li was then stunned by lucky loser Madison Keys in the first round of the Madrid Open the following week, her first early tournament exit of the season. Li returned to the Italian Open as the defending finalist. After a first round bye, she defeated Zheng Jie in straight sets then squared off with former doubles partner Jelena Janković, who defeated Li in a marathon match in which Li's inconsistency proved to her be undoing, committing 62 unforced errors. As one of the favourites, Li's quest for a second Grand Slam title began when she played Anabel Medina Garrigues in the opening round of Roland Garros, winning in two sets. Her struggles on clay continued, however, as she fell victim to Bethanie Mattek-Sands, ranked 67th, in a rain-interrupted second round match – losing in three sets, bringing her disappointing clay court season to a close.Li got her grass court season off to a winning start by beating Alizé Cornet in the first round of the Aegon International, at which she was seeded second. A quarterfinal berth against Elena Vesnina was secured after her second round opponent Marion Bartoli pulled out due to a viral illness. The Russian ended Li's run and went on to win the tournament.Li was the sixth seed at Wimbledon. She defeated Michaëlla Krajicek in the first round and Simona Halep in a rollercoaster three set match. In the third round against the No. 32 seed Klára Zakopalová, Li lost the first set, but won the match in three sets after Zakopalová failed to serve out the match. In the fourth round she dispatched Roberta Vinci to secure a spot in the last eight for the third time. After the match, she revealed that the secret to her success was the slice practice that her husband Jiang Shan gave her prior to the match. In her quarterfinal clash with Agnieszka Radwańska, she was leading 5–4 in the first set and was a set point up when she hit an ace that was wrongly called out. Li didn't challenge the call, and lost the set in a tiebreak where she was also leading 5–3. She mounted a comeback to win the second set, coming from 4–2 down. A brief rain delay halted proceedings at the beginning of the third. When play resumed, it was Radwańska who raced to a 5–2 lead. Li saved eight match points, but eventually lost the 2 hour 47 minute match.Li then competed at the Rogers Cup in Toronto, at which she made the final last year. After enjoying a bye in the first round, she defeated Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova in two easy sets, followed by hard-fought wins over in-form players Ana Ivanovic (in a final set tie-break, after surviving 2–5) and Dominika Cibulková to reach the semifinals, where she lost to Sorana Cîrstea. At the Western & Southern Open, she notched wins over Lauren Davis and Angelique Kerber before receiving a walkover from Agnieszka Radwańska in the quarterfinals after the Pole pulled out due to personal reasons. In her semifinal against Serena Williams she was broken when serving for both sets and was beaten by the eventual champion.Seeded fifth at the US Open, she defeated Olga Govortsova and Sofia Arvidsson in straight sets and then got revenge on Laura Robson in the third round, the same stage where Robson defeated her last year. She then breezed past former world No. 1 Jelena Janković in straight sets. Upon defeating Janković, she reached the quarterfinals of the US Open for only the second time in her career. There she beat Ekaterina Makarova to reach her first US Open semifinal (as well as it being the first time a Chinese woman made the US Open semifinals) before Serena Williams again ended her run in straight sets, needing six match points to do so.She then headed to Beijing to take part in the 2013 China Open as the home crowd favourite, defeating Daniela Hantuchová, Bojana Jovanovski and Sabine Lisicki in straight sets before falling to Petra Kvitová in the quarterfinals.On 27 September, Li successfully qualified for the 2013 WTA Tour Championships, as the fifth qualifier. She won all three of her round robin matches against Sara Errani, Jelena Janković and Victoria Azarenka, thus qualifying for the semifinals for the first time. Upon beating Petra Kvitová her ranking rose to a new career high of world No. 3, the highest-ever ranking for a female tennis player from an East Asian and Asian country and overtaking Maria Sharapova and Agnieszka Radwańska. In the final she made a strong start, blasting 10 winners en route to winning the first set against Serena Williams, but ran out of gas at three-all in the second, losing nine games in a row to lose the match.=== 2014: Australian Open champion and retirement ===Li started her 2014 season as the defending champion at the Shenzhen Open. She defeated wild-card and former world No. 2 Vera Zvonareva in the first round, Nadiia Kichenok in the second round, Monica Niculescu in the quarterfinals and Annika Beck in the semifinals to reach her first final of the year and setting up the second all-Chinese final in WTA history in the process, where she defeated Peng Shuai in straight sets to win her eighth career singles title. This marked the first time in Li's career where she had successfully defended a title of any kind.At the Australian Open, Li competed as the fourth seed. She made quick work of current junior top-2 players Ana Konjuh and Belinda Bencic in the first two rounds. Having lost the first set against Lucie Šafářová, she fended off a match point when trailing 5–6 in the second before rebounding in the tiebreak and decisive set to avoid the upset. She then cruised past Ekaterina Makarova, Flavia Pennetta, and Eugenie Bouchard to reach her third Australian Open final, where she defeated first-time Grand Slam singles finalist and 20th seed Dominika Cibulková in straight sets to claim her first Australian Open title, thus becoming the first East Asian and Asian Australian Open champion and fourth woman to win the title after being match point down.Li extended her winning streak to thirteen consecutive matches by defeating Magdaléna Rybáriková in her opener at the Qatar Open. She then suffered her first loss of the season to qualifier Petra Cetkovská in a tight three set contest in the third round. After the tournament, Li reached a new career high singles ranking of world No. 2.Li's next scheduled event was the BNP Paribas Open, where she was unable to compete the previous year due to injury. Seeded first at a Premier Mandatory event for the first time, she received a bye in the first round before registering straight set victories over countrywoman Zheng Jie, Karolína Plíšková and Aleksandra Wozniak en route to a quarterfinal clash with Dominika Cibulková, a rematch of the Australian Open final. Though Li committed 54 unforced errors, she prevailed in three sets and faced Flavia Pennetta in the semifinals. There, she was upset in straight sets by the 20th-seeded Italian and eventual champion.At the Sony Open Tennis, Li received a first round bye and walkover in the second round due to the withdrawal of Alisa Kleybanova. Li defeated Madison Keys, Carla Suárez Navarro and Caroline Wozniacki en route to a semifinal against Dominika Cibulková, who was projected to make her top 10 debut with her previous win over Agnieszka Radwańska. Li improved her perfect record against the Slovakian to 7–0 and booked her place in her first Premier Mandatory final. In a final featuring the world's top-2 players, Li raced to a 5–2 lead in the first set and wasted a set point, before her opponent world No. 1 Serena Williams rallied to steal the set 7–5. Li only managed to win a single game in the second set, meekly surrendering the title.Following a 21–3 start to the season, Li was forced out of the 2014 Porsche Tennis Grand Prix due to a left knee injury, where she was the finalist in 2013. She started her clay court campaign at the Madrid Open, where she recorded wins over Kirsten Flipkens and Zheng Jie in the first two rounds. Li then battled past Sloane Stephens in three sets, and was again involved in a narrow three setter in her quarterfinal against Maria Sharapova, eventually succumbing to the Russian after taking the first set comfortably. At the 2014 Internazionali BNL d'Italia, Li beat Australians Casey Dellacqua (for her 500th career win) and Sam Stosur, before suffering her first loss to Sara Errani in the quarterfinals. After the match, Li told reporters that she had vomited less than 20 minutes prior to stepping onto the court due to food poisoning. At the French Open, she was upset by French youngster Kristina Mladenovic in the opening round. This was also Li's earliest loss in the tournament. Li's first round loss contributed to three negative tennis records. Due to fellow 2014 Australian Open men's champion Stanislas Wawrinka losing in the first round as well, it was the first time in the history of tennis that the reigning Grand Slam winners were ousted in the opening round of their next major. Due to number one seed Serena Williams losing in the second round, it was the first time in Open Era history that the top two seeded women have lost before the third round at any Grand Slam tournament. After No. 3 seed Agnieszka Radwańska lost in the third round, it was also the first time in the Open Era that none of the top-3 seeds advanced past the third round.Li chose not to play a warm-up event before the third Grand Slam of the season got underway. Her dip in form continued at the 2014 Wimbledon Championships, where she was eliminated in the third round by Barbora Záhlavová-Strýcová, having beaten Paula Kania and Yvonne Meusburger in the first and second rounds, respectively. In July, Li and coach Rodríguez parted ways.Having not played since Wimbledon due to a left knee injury which required surgery, Li announced her retirement from professional tennis on 19 September 2014. She ended her career ranked world No. 6 by the Women's Tennis Association. That year she was named one of ESPNW's Impact 25.== Popularity and endorsements ==As the most successful East Asian, and Asian tennis player ever, Li has become one of the most well-known and marketable athletes in the world. In 2013, Li appeared on the cover of Time magazine, which named her to its annual list of the 100 Most Influential People in the World; Li being one of only four athletes to be named on the list. Former world No. 1 Chris Evert writes: "Tennis has exploded in China. The country now has some 15 million tennis players; 116 million watched Li win the French Open. That kind of exposure is crucial to our sport, and it never would have happened without Li. At tournaments, I've seen her charm the crowds. When she smiles, everyone melts. She's just such a breath of fresh air. Her friendly on-court demeanour as well as her hilariously-witty post-match interviews brings a smile to everyone's face." Li also appeared on the cover of 26 May 2014 edition of Time magazine, which featured an article titled "The Passion of Li Na", in which author Hannah Beech described Li as a world class sports idol, inspiring millions of Chinese people to regard her as an icon of pursuing independent character and freedom of thought. In 2012, Forbes listed Li as No. 85 in the Forbes Celebrity 100 list. Li, along with the fellow tennis players Maria Sharapova and Serena Williams, were the only three female athletes who cracked the Top 100 earning list. Li was ranked No. 5 and No.8 on the Forbes China Celebrity 100 list in 2012 and 2014 respectively. Li is affectionately called "Big Sister Na" (Chinese: 娜姐; pinyin: Nàjiě) among Chinese communities and is considered a "strong, unbending and unyielding" role model. She has not only become a household name across China but a global icon, with her Sina Weibo microblogging having over 23 million followers as of October 2014. Her perceived rebelliousness, exemplified by the rose tattoo on her chest and her previous run-ins with government sports programs, also helped boost her popularity. On 15 April 2015, Li received the Laureus Academy Exceptional Achievement award at the Laureus World Sports Awards held in Shanghai. She was also a nominee for the Laureus World Sportswoman of the Year award, alongside Serena Williams.Nike was Li's clothing and footwear sponsor for many years, dating back to her early tennis career. Li used Babolat Pure Drive GT rackets. In 2009, Li was signed by IMG. She rose to fame after her Roland Garros triumph, and since had signed seven endorsements in multiple-year terms. Her agent, Max Eisenbud, also managed to negotiate a deal allowing Li to wear other sponsors' patches on her Nike tennis shirt, something not usually permitted by the sportswear giant.In 2019, Peter Chan directed a biopic about Li Na's life, based on her autobiography, with a release date yet unknown.== Playing style ==Li was an aggressive baseliner whose game was founded upon her quick reflexes, athleticism and powerful groundstrokes that achieved precision, placement and depth. Li's crosscourt forehand tended to be her favourite shot, hit with great accuracy and pace, although her backhand was said to be the more consistent and reliable groundstroke, both of which she was known to unleash unpredictably to all areas of the court to dictate play. She boasted an exceptional backhand down-the-line, which was very effective at producing winners or setting up a weak reply from the opponent. Many tennis analysts considered Li one of the cleanest and hardest hitting players on tour, capable of overpowering and outgunning opponents from the baseline. Although she did not possess an overwhelmingly powerful serve, it was very well placed, earning her aces or unreturnables on occasion, however it often became a liability when she lost confidence under pressure, resulting in many double faults. Li employed a solid defensive game combining great footwork, speed and lateral movement. Her ability to turn defense into offense was one of her biggest assets as she hit well on the run and scrambled around the court with ease. Having been an accomplished doubles player, she was comfortable when playing at the net, often moving forward to take advantage of a short ball or finish off an extended rally. Li's inconsistency was cited as her main weakness throughout her career, as she was prone to streaky and erratic play accompanied by a high unforced error count. Since her shots were usually hit hard and flat with minimal topspin or slice, her game lacked variety. Her emotions on court have hurt her game during tight moments. Under the tutelage of Carlos Rodríguez, Li adopted more of an all-round game, implementing a forehand with additional topspin and frequent net approaches into her arsenal, as well as improved consistency, mental stability, mobility and coordination.== Rivalries ===== Li vs. Sharapova ===Li Na had a see-saw rivalry with Maria Sharapova, with the latter winning their first five matches dating back to 2005, including Li's Grand Slam debut at the 2005 Australian Open. Li won her first match against Sharapova in the 2009 Birmingham semifinals, starting a series of four consecutive wins against Sharapova. Li beat Sharapova again in Birmingham in 2010, this time in the final, and in the semifinals of the 2011 French Open, on her way to winning her maiden Grand Slam. At the Year-end Championships later that year, Li defeated Sharapova in the round robin stage. In 2012, Li and Sharapova met three times, with Sharapova winning all three of their matches, the most notable being the final of the clay-court tournament in Rome. Li won the first set and looked headed for victory when she went 4–0 up in the second due to an effectively aggressive gameplan which saw her take 15 of 17 points. With victory nearing Li suddenly saw her accuracy shatter and 24 unforced errors let Sharapova back into the match to eventually take a three set win over Li. They met again in the 2013 Australian Open semifinals, where Li achieved her most notable victory over Sharapova, winning in straight sets and giving up just four games (Sharapova had lost just nine entering the match). A few months later at the 2013 Porsche Grand Prix Tennis in Stuttgart, Sharapova defended her title by defeating Li in the final. The pair was involved in another three set battle in the 2014 Mutua Madrid Open quarterfinals, where Sharapova eventually triumphed even though Li was up a set and a break. Sharapova led Li in the head-to-head 10–5.=== Li vs. Radwańska ===Li and Agnieszka Radwańska first played each other in 2009. Li led the head-to-head 6–5. After their first four matches in 2009 and 2010 the head-to-head was even at 2–2. This included a victory each at the Wimbledon Championships; Radwańska winning in 2009 and Li in 2010. In 2012 Li and Radwańska met 4 times, with Li taking 3 victories. Li lost their meeting in the Stuttgart quarter-final in three sets, but dominated in Montréal, Cincinnati and Beijing. Li prevented Radwańska from taking the world No. 1 ranking off Victoria Azarenka with the first two victories, whilst she also ended her title defence in Beijing, securing the eighth and final place in the year-end championships in the process.In 2013 both won the first tournament they entered. They were both undefeated when they met each other in the semifinals of their second tournament of the year at Sydney. Radwańska beat Li and eventually won the tournament. This was Li's first defeat of 2013, while Radwańska remained unbeaten. In the 2013 Australian Open quarterfinals, Li handed Radwańska her first loss of the season. They met again at Wimbledon in the quarterfinals, with Radwańska eking out a close three set win.=== Li vs. Clijsters ===Li and Kim Clijsters formed a well-known rivalry, having met eight times between 2006 and 2012. Clijsters won their head-to-head 6–2, including 4–0 at Grand Slams. Li's maiden Grand Slam quarterfinal was at Wimbledon in 2006 in which she was defeated by the second-seeded Clijsters in straight sets. Li's second Grand Slam quarterfinal was at the 2009 US Open, and again it was against Clijsters, who had recently launched a comeback after starting a family, who prevailed in straight sets.One of Li's two wins against Clijsters came in the final of the 2011 Sydney International. Li had trailed 0–5 in the first set before coming back to win the set in a tiebreak en route to complete a remarkable straight-sets victory and deny Clijsters a third Sydney title. They would meet again only two weeks later, in the final of the 2011 Australian Open, a match which had historical proportions because Li would have become the first player from an Asian country to win a Grand Slam singles title or Clijsters would win her first non-US Open Grand Slam title. Both players came into the match having defeated the world's top two players in the semifinals: Li over Caroline Wozniacki and Clijsters over Vera Zvonareva. After Li took the first set, she proceeded to lose the next two, giving Clijsters her only Australian Open title.The pair met again at the same tournament twelve months later, this time in the fourth round. Similar to the previous year's final, Li won the first set before eventually losing in three sets; this time around she had held four match points in the second-set tiebreak.=== Li vs. Azarenka ===List of all matchesLi and Victoria Azarenka met eleven times between 2008 and 2013. Azarenka led the head-to-head 6–5 overall, and 2–1 in championship matches, but Li led 2–1 in Grand Slam matches.Their first meeting was in the final of the 2008 Mondial Australian Women's Hardcourts tournament (which has since been renamed the Brisbane International), which Li Na won in three sets after Azarenka had won the first. Azarenka's first victory over Li was in the third round of the 2010 Rogers Cup. They met three times in 2011, two of which were at Grand Slams, with Li winning on both occasions, before Azarenka won their third meeting at the 2011 WTA Tour Championships, en route to reaching the final.They met a further three times in 2012, with Azarenka winning each time. They met in the final of the Sydney International, where the Belarusian won in three sets after breaking the defending champion Li at 4–3 in the decider. Azarenka was also victorious in their meetings at Madrid and the year-end championships.Their most notable meeting to date was in the final of the 2013 Australian Open. Both players entered the championship match with one Grand Slam title each (Azarenka won the 2012 Australian Open, whilst Li won the 2011 French Open), and in very good form, with Azarenka only conceding one set during the tournament and Li not having dropped a set and also having defeated two top-4 players (Agnieszka Radwańska and Maria Sharapova) en route. After Li won the first set, she suffered serious head and ankle injuries and eventually lost in three sets.Their last meeting at the 2013 WTA Tour Championships was a lopsided affair, with Li recording a straight sets win and losing just three games in the process.== Career statistics ===== Grand Slam finals ======= Singles: 4 (2 titles, 2 runners-up) ======= Olympic Games ======= Singles: 1 Bronze Medal match ======= Grand Slam performance timelines ======= Singles ======== Doubles ====== See also ==Tennis in ChinaList of female tennis playersList of Grand Slam women's singles championsTennis performance timeline comparison (women)== References ==== Further reading ==Li, Na (2014). Li Na: My Life. Penguin. ISBN 978-0143800057.== External links ==Li Na at the Women's Tennis Association Li Na at the International Tennis Federation Li Na at the Billie Jean King Cup Li Na at Sina Weibo"

[ "Jonathan Stark"]

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"The Dutch-Belgian television series that "House of Anubis" was based on first aired in what year? Das Haus Anubis is a television program produced jointly by Belgian broadcaster Studio 100 and Nickelodeon Germany. The first remake of Het Huis Anubis aired in The Netherlands and Belgium. Another English remake called House of Anubis aired in 2011. With a seven-figure production budget, it is one of Nickelodeon's largest in-house productions, and the first German daily soap opera specifically aimed at older children. From 29 September 2009 to 4 May 2012, the show had been running both on children's channel Nick (daily at 7:40pm, and repeated in the afternoon and at weekends), and season 1 on music channel VIVA. Das Haus Anubis is aimed at children twelve years old and above, and is the German remake of the successful Dutch television programme, Het Huis Anubis. This 2006-2009 series was one of the most successful children's series in the Benelux countries.== Summary ==The show focuses on eight young people living at a boarding school, Haus Anubis, of which Nina is the newest occupant. On the day of her arrival, the surly steward, Viktor, shows her her room. What she does not know is that her room previously belonged to Linn, the best friend of classmate Luzy; Linn has disappeared without a trace. Nina's first encounter with Luzy is not exactly cordial; Luzy, who is very concerned for Linn, would rather throw the frightened Nina straight out.But this is not the only secret in the school. The walls of the house, in which the eight students live together, seem to hide another secret. A fellow student disappears, the caretaker seems on his guard and the teachers begin acting strangely when talking about the Haus Anubis. A little anxious, but driven by curiosity, the students set out to discover the secrets of their home.== Differences with the original version ==There were several changes made from the original Dutch version. The first major difference is the character’s names. Apart from Victor, everyone has another name, however their personalities and taste in clothes stay the same as in the Dutch version. Another thing to note is that the synopsis of season one was identical to the Dutch version.== Actors ===== Main Cast ====== Supporting Characters ===== Discography ===== Songs ===The television series The House Anubis - Nothing is as it seems is a joint production of the Belgian broadcaster Studio 100 and Nickelodeon, the 29th since the September 2009 with great success on the TV station Nickelodeon is sent. It is the German version of the Dutch-language television show Het Huis Anubis . This series 2007/2008 was one of the most successful children's series in the Benelux countries.With a seven-figure production amount, the series is the largest in-house production of Nickelodeon Germany since its launch and the first daily soap opera or Daily soap, which is aimed specifically at children. The start of series production studio 100 book, audio drama, DVD and PC game, will follow with less success offer classic products. The age of the target group was in Belgium and the Netherlands, eight to 14 years. The series Anubis is released in Germany since 6 years.== Additional Information ===== Production ===The original Belgian series Het Huis Anubis has in their country of origin and in the Netherlands achieved their greatest successes. For example, the series has reached an average of 35% market share in the target group and also won international awards. The success of the series goes beyond the traditional merchandising area, so there's been a roller coaster for the 2008 series.Even in Germany, holds licenses for merchandise were awarded. Online, there are the browser game "Pirates Victors" and the end of October 2009 brought the Jumbo Games GmbH, a board game out of the series.The TV series has numerous offshoots like the year 2008 caused twisted movie, with its 700,000 visitors representing one of the most successful films of the Netherlands as well as a theater show, with 170,000 visitors. But also a book series was published, has sold over 500,000 copies of.Therefore, the television station decided to create a German version of the series. The series will not sync it, but with German actors in the original scenes filmed again. The sender would like the house as well as Anubis in the Benelux countries, an extensive and generate spin-off merchandising program. The German actors have any time for stage, film or other versions are available and easily usable also for his actions Merchandise. On the first broadcasting day saw 350,000 viewers (total market share of 1.5 percent) and 330 000 viewers (market share of 1.4 per cent). In the "key demographic" there were market share of 2.2 percent and 2.3 percent.Like the Belgian original version was inserted in the German version, by episode 61, a short winter break. During this interval, the previously aired episodes were repeated.Following the success of the series in Germany, gave Nickelodeon announced the production of a second season. The filming started in May 2010. According have on 3 March 2011, the filming of a movie by Anubis started. In the Belgian version, there was the first feature film as a transition to the third season and was called Anubis en het Pad der 7 Zonden, which in Dutch means Anubis and the path of the 7 sins.Although a third season was Nickelodeon has not announced, the agency by Karim Günes let know that the series went into extra time on 14 March 2011. In addition, Franziska Alber confirmed in an interview that the shooting would go for its third season until January 2012. In addition, the preview of the season finale of Season 2, an excerpt from episode 235 (the first episode of season 3 shown), and then yet another trailer for the third Season; in it Delia and Victor are talking about the fact that Delia had been in Egypt.=== Season 1, Part 1: The Secret Club of the Old Willow Tree ===Eight teenagers are living in a boarding school called ‘the Anubis House’. Nina is the new resident of the Anubis House. On the day of her arrival, the grumpy custodian Victor shows her around the school. What she does not know is that her room formerly belonged to Linn, the best friend of her classmate Luzy. And Linn has disappeared without a trace. So, the first meeting with the others does not exactly go smoothly. Luzy, who is very worried about her best friend Linn, would much rather throw the timid Nina straight back out again. She believes Nina has something to do with Linn's disappearance. The teachers and Victor behave more strangely whenever Linn's disappearance is mentioned. But these are not the only secrets in the boarding school. The walls of the house where the eight students are all living seem to be guarding a mystery. While Nina is visiting her grandmother Edith in a nursing home, she finds, in the corridor, a painting of the Anubis House. An older lady suddenly speaks to her and tells her that a valuable treasure lies hidden within the Anubis House. Nina receives a medallion from the lady and finds a picture of a young girl inside it.The other students decide that in order to become one of them, Nina will have to go up to the forbidden attic of the house as a test of courage. There, she finds a sliding wall, and behind it she discovers a painting of the girl from the medallion. Behind the painting is an old piece of paper with a riddle on it. Daniel, whom Nina is beginning to confide in, is able to decipher for her the hieroglyphs for ‘stairs’ and the number ‘three’. One night, Nina sneaks down the stairs into the hall and looks underneath the third step of the staircase. She discovers an envelope labelled ‘Sarah’ with a key, as well as a new riddle. In the new theatre and history teacher Mr Petkovic's history class, she learns from a slide show that the new hieroglyphs are in fact the symbols for ‘on/above’ and ‘house’ respectively. With the key, she goes to the old lady, who thinks that ‘there is no turning back now’. Daniel, whom Nina has brought along, observes the conversation, and afterwards Nina tells him what she knows. Together they sneak into the attic, because the new riddle is pointing to the attic. There they find, inside a locked chest, some very old rolls of recording tape, on which a girl named Sarah is speaking about the alleged accidental death of her parents, the Winnsbrügge-Westerlings - and she mentions a man whose description exactly fits that of Victor. She also mentions a large, black raven, just like Victor's raven, named Corvuz (from the Latin word for raven). Victor's voice is even heard on the tape. Furthermore, Sarah talks about her life in the Anubis House as well as a treasure that lies hidden there. The riddles which she gives out in the recordings should lead to it.Luzy remains firmly convinced that Nina had something to do with Linn's disappearance and asks the teachers, who, however, do not want to know anything about Linn. Furthermore, Linn is missing from all the school photos. Victor also behaves strangely when it comes to Linn. Luzy overhears a conversation between her teacher Mrs Engel and the headmaster Mr Altrichter, whereby she learns that they know more about Linn's disappearance than they are admitting. Luzy wants to make contact with Linn and tries to do so by leading a spiritual séance. From then on, a mysterious man by the name of Rufus Malpied seems to be following her. He knows of Linn, he claims to want to find out what happened to Linn and he says that he is on Luzy's side. But when he tries to meet with Luzy again, he is beaten up by Victor, ends up in a care home and remembers nothing more. Yet Luzy has also contacted other people, such as Luka Petkovic. He believes Luzy and even finds evidence, but after a conversation with Mr Altrichter, who shows Petkovic the Secret Files of Anubis, he, too, thinks that Luzy just made up the story and that no Linn ever existed.Victor, Mrs Engel and their leader Mr Altrichter (and also, later, Mr Petkovic) are members of the secret Brotherhood of Anubis. Obviously they are not keeping Linn hidden for no reason. Thus, in the first episode, Victor immediately tears up a sticker bearing the label ‘Linn’ as soon as he sees it, burns her stuffed bunnies and disposes of her bicycle. Mr Altrichter secretly empties her locker at school. Quite often, there are secretive telephone calls between Victor and Mr Altrichter.Meanwhile, Nina, Delia and Daniel establish a secret group called ‘The Club of the Old Willow Tree’ and make it their job to find out what happened to the girl discussed on the tape recordings. They find out that Sarah's parents were famous Egyptologists and were the founders of the ‘Anubis’ boarding school. From a history book and a photo album belonging to the old lady, they find out that the old lady is in fact Sarah. In addition, they find Victor in a picture that was taken in 1933. Since then, Victor has not aged. Convinced that Victor is brewing an elixir of life in the basement, the three of them sneak into the basement and steal a small bottle. When Felix mistakenly drinks it, however, it turns out that what was in the bottle was merely cleaning fluid.Luzy, who after the incident with Rufus tries unsuccessfully to get in touch with him, finds him again in a care home and shows him a photo of Linn, but after that, he suddenly disappears without a trace.Later, the club is busy trying to solve the riddle from one of the wax-cylinder tape recordings. Separately, they search the basement and the attic for clues, but find none. The eight occupants of the house want to perform the story of Sarah in the annual musical, and for additional inspiration and research, they visit the Delmar Mining Museum of Dr Zeno Trabas. They ask him about Horus (in a secret museum department where there also happens to be a picture of the Winnsbrügge-Westerlings) - whereupon he shows them a picture of the Eye of Horus. It turns out that Zeno Trabas is the strange man who has visited Sarah in the nursing home. When he sees Nina's locket, he wants to examine it immediately because it is such a valuable piece from Ancient Egypt. He speaks of the curse of the pharaoh, just as Mr Petkovic did in a lesson. As the club members run away from Trabas, they can hear him yelling from behind them that the Winnsbrügge-Westerlings had desecrated the grave of the pharaoh and died of the curse. He shouts at them menacingly, saying that they should leave the matter alone.The following night, Daniel solves the riddle. It is about the two dark cavities under the two spherical knobs of the staircase. Under one of them he finds the last wax cylinder. Suddenly, Victor rushes out of his office and confiscates the cylinder. He asks menacingly what drove Daniel to go to see Trabas at the museum. Daniel has to follow him into his office, where Victor hides the cylinder in his safe. Daniel notices a monitor through which the entire house is kept under surveillance. Luzy informs Nina and Delia that she heard how Daniel was caught by Victor and that Victor is now in the attic looking for a tape player. They fail to hide the unit, but Nina manages to disconnect the crank. Victor finds the unit and takes it with him. With Felix's help, the club succeeds in hijacking the cameras on a laptop and they then use the cameras to figure out the numeric combination to Victor's safe. They decide that during the performance of the musical, Nina will go to the boarding house and retrieve the wax cylinder, since Victor will be busy attending the musical.The musical is about Sarah's story, and through it, Nina, Delia, Daniel and Luzy want to show Victor that they know part of his secret. During the intermission of the show, while Victor is still at the recital hall, Nina hurries back to the boarding house and searches Victor's safe, where the last tape recording is located. As she does, she is filmed by Victor's camera. Thanks to an anonymous letter containing a seat number, Luzy notices during the show that Linn is in the audience! Moreover, an apparently fully recovered Rufus Malpied is there as well! Victor leaves the musical at intermission and goes back into the Anubis House. In the meantime, the confused Luzy lets the name ‘Linn’ slip out, at which point Mr Altrichter turns around and spots Linn, then leaves the hall immediately. Meanwhile, Nina listens to the tape recording, and on it, Sarah tells her that Victor killed her parents.Nina hides when she sees on the monitor that Victor is coming into the house. Suddenly, Mr Altrichter rings Victor's office. Victor, who has noticed that someone was in his office, gets Mr Altrichter's message that Linn is in the recital hall, and immediately heads back to the school to eliminate the problem. Victor enters the hall and is angered when it strikes him that the caretaker played by Daniel is based on him. Furthermore, he is startled when Daniel mentions his elixir of life. But when Victor discovers Linn and lunges at her, she warns Luzy with a loud scream. Linn rushes out of the hall and Victor follows her. She takes refuge in a classroom where she feels safe, but Mrs Engel suddenly appears behind her, and just then, Victor storms in as well. The Brotherhood has surrounded Linn.=== Season 1, Part 2: The Secret of the Tomb ===As the musical draws to a close, Luzy, under the watchful eye of Rufus Malpied, finds a message underneath Linn's seat, stating that Linn wants to meet with her. The ‘Brotherhood of Anubis’, consisting of Mr Altrichter, Mrs Engel, Victor and Mr Petkovic, is furious with Linn for resurfacing on the very day that Tom, Dick and Harry are wandering all over the school. She is not just putting herself at risk, declares Mr Altrichter, who has just arrived in the classroom. Victor and Mrs Engel then carefully escort Linn out of the school, so that she will not be seen by anyone and they will be safe again.Rufus speaks to Luzy in the girls’ lavatory. He thinks that Victor wants him out of the way so that he won't be able to find Linn, but he does not want to give any details about his hospital stay. Rufus knows that Luzy has received a letter and he tells her that she can trust him. As a result, Luzy shows up with Rufus Malpied at the meeting place agreed upon with Linn. When Linn unexpectedly fails to show up, Rufus kidnaps Luzy. Rufus now attempts to exchange Luzy for Linn and makes contact with the ‘Brotherhood of Anubis’. But the brotherhood members (Mr Altrichter and Victor) refuse to go along with it. Rather, they tell the other students that Luzy has gone to visit her aunt and uncle in Spain.Students Nina and Delia do not believe, however, that Luzy is staying abroad; rather, they suspect that Luzy is in trouble and they begin researching her whereabouts. Rufus finds out and moves with Luzy to another location, but not before luring Nina and Delia to an abandoned factory building and locking them in there. A little later, they are both freed by Daniel. He had noticed their disappearance and had also managed to eavesdrop on a conversation between Rufus and Victor.Daniel, Nina and Delia now confront Victor and accuse him of doing nothing to free Luzy. But Victor still denies that any abduction took place and insists, on top of all that, that Luzy really is with her relatives in Spain. Victor wants the three students temporarily out of the way, so he punishes them with three days of ‘house arrest’.The next day, the three students meet with Mrs Engel. They are able to convince her that the time has come to meet with Rufus. Rufus does agree to a meeting, but he demands, in exchange for Luzy's release, the folder containing Linn's personal data. Mrs Engel warns Linn before her meeting with Rufus. This gives her and her family time to hide from Rufus. It comes time for the meeting between Mrs Engel and Rufus. While Mrs Engel stalls Rufus, Daniel, Nina and Delia set the kidnapped Luzy free. To enable Luzy and Linn to speak to each other, Mrs Engel arranges a web chat. Linn takes the opportunity to inform the school that of course, she will never go back there again.But the boarding school, there are other problems that have nothing to do with Luzys kidnapping. Felix keeps his friend then hid Mon. But through a misunderstanding Mon thinks that Mara would be the friend of Felix. But this is indeed along with Kaya. When he comes back from England now, hugs and kisses his girlfriend welcome. But Mo thinks that Mara would betray his friend Felix and he proposes Kaya KO . But the friendship between Felix and Magnus is put to a severe test, because both love Mara.But Delia has her heartache . She is still in love with Kaya and wants to win her back. It begins now, Mara make bad before it occurs and, as this does not help, at the election of the student speaker against this.Even the "club of old pasture" is still very active. This will still find out, what message has left Sarah on the capstans. But Victor has since them on their heels.After their liberation Luzy suffers from nightmares and feels threatened by Rufus. Daniel now trying to get the envelope, which is hidden behind the painting. To make this possible, by all means directs Nina from Victor. But Felix finds out by accident that his friend has escaped from a marriage to Nabila Mon and has been hiding because of the boarding school.Victor succeeds in Nina's doll with the Grammofonkurbel to bring in themselves. The friends are now considering how they can once again approach the doll. Rosie looks in the meantime a new hiding place for Mo, because Victor had almost caught them. When Victor gets a package by accident while the alarm is triggered, this leaves his office. The package contains an old organ and Victor takes a liking to this. Since Victor is now busy for a while with the organ, the "Sibunas" penetrate into his office and listen to the guard role.Later, when Daniel tried to hide the envelope back behind the painting, he is being watched by Felix. This observation tells his Magnus. Delia goes to play a full role as student president-nominee, while Mara is considering withdrawing her candidacy. Mon hiding still in the kitchen preparing Rosie difficulties there.The disappointed by Mo Nabila asks Felix meanwhile they get married. This marriage is to restore the family honor. But Felix has a better suggestion. He wants to make sure that Mo and Nabila can meet in the washroom. But there Nabila not recognize this. In the meantime, Daniel finds out that you pull the disc out of Victor's Clock must.Victor is now the hideout of Mo and Nabila found. Felix can still save the situation but barely. When Victor comes home, he noticed that his clock is broken. Felix received the order to investigate the Clock. Luzy is now trying to influence Felix then to blur any traces left on the clock. The "Club sibunA" finds out that the note is visible on the paper with heat. So they keep the sheet over a candle. Because they are disturbed by Felix. He's on the Clock fingerprints found and now threatens to tell Victor everything if it would not solve the club. It is said in the "Club sibunA" everything. Delia appears unimpressed, however, their biggest concern is winning the elections. The "Sibunas" are now considering to take Felix, Luzy but has concerns in this regard.Delia Mara and get another job. But as Delia imagines the same country as Mara, now they must choose a new one.After several unsuccessful attempts, the window to pull out of the Clock, Daniel can get hold of this with the help of Felix finally. He is now a new mystery. When Daniel wants back in the cellar, Felix gets now problems with Victor. The "Sibunas" Felix told the secret. That is why this gets emotional problems and can not sleep at night. He is given a sedative by Magnus. But because Felix now sleeps through his appointment with the "Sibunas" because he should be the next morning included officially in the club.Luzy helps Mara at the oriental theme day. Meanwhile, Victor and Sarah meet. He asks her out on the treasure. Delia performs her speech to Mr. Petkovic one, but this convinced them. Nina receives a dream sudden visit from Sarah and she warns them not to trust anyone on the boarding school, because Magnus has learned that the house is a treasure, because Felix talks in his sleep about it. When Nina wakes up the next day, she is very worried about her dream.The "Sibunas" talk with Delia. They accuse her lack of effort. Delia is insulted and leaves. Later they will be asked of Magnus. Nina gets a call from her grandmother, Sarah had died in the night. Since Nina is clear that it was probably Sarah's spirit, who had warned in a dream. Felix is in the basement and finds an empty document. Victor now has a suspicion and brings an additional lock to the cellar door.Nina receives a visit from her grandmother. This brings with her photos of Sarah. Da Mara does not know how they make their flyer to make, she asks for help Magnus. A few days later succeeds Nina, sneaking unnoticed out of boarding school and go to Sarah's funeral. Still, it is seen by Trabas Zeno, who is now under pressure. Nina and Daniel agreed that she gets anxious from the cemetery.Delia does not know how they will make their theme day. Since Daniel and Nina decide help her. But unlike Delia seems to run everything well at Marah. Rosie has it even a soothsayer organized. At the end wins but Delia just the first round of elections to the student speaker. Daniel gets his information while at the fortune tellers without suspecting that this is bribed by Magnus. Magnus finds out so that he could Zeno Trabas from Delmar Bergmann contact museum. Felix, meanwhile, has seen the corruption of the fortuneteller.Daniel continues to work on solving the riddle and finds a new clue. Victor now receives a mysterious package delivered, which makes strange noises. Magnus calls for Trabas, because he has information about the treasure. He does not, however, to what a treasure it is, and agrees to any question of Trabas. Magnus demanded 10,000 euros for the information. Magnus, who has been a mystery for Felix gets the money from Zeno and now buys a new DVD player as well as many new clothes. Trabas but will have more information.Felix shares the "Sibunas" with that he has noticed, like Magnus has bribed the soothsayer. Through its information from the soothsayers inspired, Daniel will now start its investigations. Above all, it interested him where Magnus has a lot of money. Meanwhile, the soothsayer with Mara and Kaya talking about their relationship.After school also blackmailed the soothsayer Magnus. But this can save his money again just out of this. Victor now leaves the house to visit his dying aunt located. The "Sibunas" seize the opportunity and send Felix again in the basement. But they are observed by Magnus. While Felix looks for clues in the basement, Daniel tried to reach him by radio. But Felix has forgotten his radio in his room, and Magnus, who is staying in this moment there can overhear everything.Felix is an important clue, but Victor shows up unexpectedly. When he comes into the basement, Felix has been hidden in a crate. Felix is there witness to a mysterious ritual . While the others sleep together with fatigue, Felix stayed in the basement forced into the crate. The next morning, Magnus Felix appears in the basement and noticed in the box. Magnus asked Felix what he had driven all night in the basement and he can talk his way out with a fabricated reason. Thus freed Felix Magnus. Felix is back at school by the "Sibunas" celebrated, because it has found a new track.The school superintendent announced that the candidates are scheduled to open the school representative selection kiosk. Since Delia but forgets this task, she panics. But thanks to her father, she can win again. Mara has had enough of the election and wants to resign.Delia in the night dreams of a passionate kiss with Mr. Petkovic. Nina however, dreams about Sarah, she warns. Felix is happy in the "club of old pasture" to be taken. But when he falls asleep, Magnus asks him out on the treasure. As Felix begins to act weird, Nina has doubts about his trustworthiness. Delia thinks, however, that is blaming her failure in choosing their appearance, and created with Luzy a new outfit.But even as she copied the outfit from Mara Delia, she is not good, and is ridiculed. Kaya even laughs about it until later and tried to comfort her. Magnus, meanwhile, is blackmailed by Zeno, and Felix is thus under pressure to get new information about the treasure. Felix now has to decide what is more important to him: the club or his friend Magnus.Daniel can now solve the puzzle with the disc. You should become familiar with the telescope, the constellation Orion view. Since they no longer trust Felix, locking it with a perverse mystery on the wrong path. Victor is still in search of the disk and comes in between them, as he leaves free mice in the house Anubis. In consultation with Mr. Altrichter the eight residents now have to move into the school.Nina and Daniel decide to return to the house that night, Anubis, to the constellation to look. But the two are caught by Mr. Altrichter. Nina, Daniel, Delia and Mr. Altrichter Luzy lock in his office, so Nina and Daniel can go to the house of Anubis. There, they are almost discovered by Victor, who hurries to school to free Mr. Altrichter. When Nina gets the disc, it finds that Victor has made the whole room upside down, the disc could not find it. Nina and Daniel look at Orion and Daniel get to see a text with a string of numbers. That night Felix Magnus also sent into the house Anubis, to the wrong puzzle that Felix Magnus immediately told to solve. Felix is looking to the attic after a disappearing wall. But Felix is caught by Daniel and Nina, as they look at the constellation Orion. You know now certain that Felix on Magnus' side.Felix, however, confesses to Nina and Daniel's plan for the Great, and what he has told him about the treasure. The five "Sibunas" develop a plan to bring to Magnus from the track. Magnus Felix will provide you with all puzzles and finds that they have found so far, starting with the label behind the painting from the attic.The next day meet Magnus, who has the puzzle there, and Zeno. Zeno told him of a ring that has given him Sarah. On this ring is engraved with today's date. Felix, Magnus pursued, is hiding in a dumpster and overheard the two. Later he tells Nina, Daniel, Delia Luzy and what he has heard: Zeno says that the treasure would be in the Anubis and the time would just slow. Felix adds the numbers of the sequence of the constellation and is on today's date. Meanwhile, Daniel finds out about the Internet that you Corvuz exactly where a water snake - that is in the tower room - is, at eight clock must hang so that the Grail appears. They rush to the house of Anubis, while Victor studied at the school after Mr. Altrichter. Victor finds out that Daniel and Felix have recently found out and rush to Anubis.There, Daniel invents a puzzle that leads to the basement to distract the house also appeared in Trabas and Magnus. After Corvuz was hung in the tower below the water line, and Victor come Altrichter. Delia, Daniel Luzy and obstruct their way, as suddenly explodes Corvuz when it is illuminated by eight clock by light. Nina then sees the ghost of Sarah and her parents for a short time. Luzy and Victor and Delia can Altrichter not stay longer. When Victor sees the remains of Corvuz, Nina takes the Grail and now appeared with Daniel and Delia escapes upwards. At the same time Felix Magnus and Zeno Trabas storming out of the cellar, which is now under water. Victor starts to Zeno. Daniel and Nina are hiding in the bathroom followed by Victor. Victor wants to break the door. Meanwhile, Luzy takes a vase and deceives Mr. Altrichter, who believes that the Grail has Luzy. As Luzy destroyed the vase intentionally wants to hurt Mr. Altrichter Luzy. But Felix and ridiculed Mr. Altrichter Luzy can save it. Meanwhile, Victor gets to the bathroom, but Nina has disappeared, to the surprise and Victor Daniels with the Grail. Daniel sneaks into the room to Delia and the four "Sibunas" can escape through the window at the school dance.Daniel and the others are concerned about Nina. But suddenly, Nina is displayed on the school dance. She and Daniel are then explained by students spokeswoman Mara's prom queen and king ball. On the dance floor tells Nina Daniel, where she has hidden the Grail and Daniel kissing. Magnus is threatened in his room in the school of Zeno, as this recognizes that the Grail is gone. Victor gets a call from the Grand Prior. This freaks out when he hears that the Brotherhood of the Grail and has not demanded to be told who brought the Grail in his possession.=== Season 2, Part 1: The mysterious curse ===After the club in the old pasture has found the Grail, they have to hide it, because Victor and including even Dr. Zeno Trabas, Magnus is still under pressure, are also on the lookout for him. Magnus has therefore recurring nightmares of Trabas. In a manuscript of Winnsbrügge-Westerling, Daniel finds behind the plate in the tower room, the club experienced the Old Pasture, what they need the Holy Grail. According to the legend of Tutankhamun and his secret love, Amneris, Tutankhamun built out of love filled her in a secret location in Egypt with a love grave treasures. This secret place she could find only when they only push with the Grail at a certain time at a particular location. Time and place they could find out by it solved the riddle, which he had made for them. Shortly after accident Tutankhamun and his real wife, Ankhesenamun, avenged themselves of Amneris, whereupon she and her illegitimate daughter disappeared. According to legend, Amneris will be no peace until she is reunited with the love of Tutankhamun's grave. Daniel is using this manuscript the hieroglyphics on the Grail and deciphered it. In addition, the members of the Old Willow learn of a secret wall full of mystery, apparently - was hidden somewhere in the house of Anubis Winnsbrügge Westerling - along with the Grail. Daniel deciphered the hieroglyphics on the Grail, and concludes from them that something is hidden in the Grail: This is the gate to my heart. Open me and you'll find love. When they open the Grail at midnight, they put the manuscript mentioned in the curse of the pharaoh's free, which is to lie on the grave, and loving the Holy Grail. Also reveals a new roll of papyrus with hieroglyphics. Exactly at that time, Nina's grandmother Edith a seizure and is now in a coma . In addition, Nina's and Daniel's friendship is marred by the kiss at the ball.Luzy learns of Rosie, who recently engaged with the supernatural, predicted that an incredible person will come into their lives. Luzy believes that this person is her great love. But it turns out that this person is a girl named Charlotte Bachmann. Luzy friends with her. When Victor is Charlotte a room in the attic, looks Luzy the spirit of Amneris in the mirror and insists that Charlotte with her and Mara in the room sleeping. Since this is not Victor, but allowed to Mara of victim and pulls up to the attic.The five Sibunas decipher the characters on the papyrus-roll, which was hidden in the Grail. A new puzzle: You must within seven days of the four elements are and follow them to find the secret wall. There would be time and place at which the chosen one could find out where is the love grave. By Felix's Laser Technology Nina, Delia and Daniel know a secret message on the note. Standing on her: open your heart for me . Finally, the club missed the elements earth, fire and air. When they find the water element, this leads the club in the basement, where they discover a very wet spot behind Victor's cabinet. They set it aside and open the secret passage to the award. In the secret room, they find the secret behind a curtain wall on which the Grail is depicted. Daniel deciphered the hieroglyphics on her and found out that seven jobs are run in order to make the whereabouts of the grave find love. All they need during a full moon with three cups of water, a concoction made from six ingredients, the drink of the six beauties, assemble and paint it on the second compartment of the secret wall.Magnus, meanwhile, is set to remain under pressure from Trabas observed precisely at the request of him, making Felix. His observations led him to make the assumption that the Grail was hidden in the bathroom. One night, he sneaks up with Felix's espionage tool by the laser in the hallway and enters the bathroom through an oversight on the Grail. He hands over to him and demands his reward Trabas. But after drinking a sip of wine has Trabas from the Grail, this breaks down. Magnus gets scared and runs away. For a long time in Trabas' Delma Mining Museum, all conduct between him and Magnus on camera from a black-clad man seen with a raven mask. The next day the newspapers say that you have Trabas' body was found motionless and he later disappeared without a trace. This example parallels to the disappearance, in which Lord Carnarvon visited the grave of Pharaoh Tutankhamun and then has fallen mysteriously into a coma after he was hit by the curse of the pharaoh.Nina's Medallion of Eye of Horus, which she had been given by Sarah, is found by Victor. Victor as it drops during sleep, Magnus finds it lying on the floor in Victor's office. He took on him and is haunted by nightmares ever since by increasing Trabas. The new history teacher, Wolf Radu, who replaced Luka Petkovic, then prevent him giving a pyramid, the nightmares will.Victor, meanwhile, has a meeting with the man who wears a raven mask over his head after this Victor has contacted over telephone. This is called Raven . Raven explains Victor Anubis lying about the house in secret rooms and secret on the wall and asks him to help him in finding it. It turns out that Raven brought the Grail in his possession. Victor thereupon ordered a floor plan of Anubis. Nina and Daniel can forge this plan, so that Victor is not looking for the secret room in the basement, but in the garden. Again and again, Raven and Victor will contact unexpected visit, to find out how much Victor is in finding the secret room. He put him under pressure when he threatens him, he would lose the house Anubis. In search of a gray hair involuntarily eavesdrop Nina and Delia a conversation between Raven and Victor in his office and find out that Victor is working together with someone.Meanwhile, Luzy mentioned in a conversation with Charlotte the club. Experienced as the other Luzys betrayal, Luzy rises out of the club. When everything goes wrong Mara: Kaya has no time for them. When she asks Magnus if he helps her in designing her room, he says yes. The two develop feelings for each other and Mara do not know if she's still in love with Kaya. At the farewell party for Mr. Petkovic, Magnus kisses Mara. As Kaya learns about the kiss that is pissed at Magnus. In order to please Mara, Mara's sister Malika Luzy calls to persuade her to attend Mara. Mara is pleased with the visit from her sister. As Kaya separates from Mara, she announces that she with Malika in Switzerland goes. Charlotte, Luzy and Rosie can talk about a Halloween Victor's farewell party for Mara to make.Magnus, who finds his nightmare is going on regularly in his locker and Anubis again innumerable threatening letters. Here, the author is unknown. Magnus is to have something that belongs to the author. He threatens to Magnus, who do not know what he should do so, to lose everything that is dear to him, including Mara. As the author makes contact with Magnus on a chat program, it turns out that he is looking for a role - and not, as assumed by Magnus, after the medallion.The Club of Old Willow manages to concoct the trunk of the six beauties. At the Halloween party is Delia goes to the basement and the purple concoction smeared on the secret wall. On the surface, a faceless, dark-haired girl reveals in a white dress holding the Grail above their heads. Right next to the girls dive on new hieroglyphics, so that the entire wall with Nina photographed. Felix finds out that this is the second order. Three Egyptian Dominoes lead to the code, it says. The way of Amneris, the Egyptian game of dominoes from the year 1300 before Christ. Because they cost Stones 1000 € per piece, decisions of the club, they steal from the antique shop of Daniel's uncle Per. The club finds out that also a pyramid out of certain ingredients must be created which belong to the dominoes.Meanwhile, Daniel comes out of the club because he wants to be close to Nina's not just her good friend. He will be replaced by Luzy. When Mr. Daniel and Nina Altrichter the chicken Ingrid entrusted to a Bioligieprojekt, the two are forced to work together. Nina is furious with Daniel, who has kissed at the Halloween Party Charlotte. The two decide to take turns to look after the chicken, but when it steal into the same night in which Felix Luzy and the dominoes begin, to crow, Victor rushes into Nina's room and takes the chicken. Nina asks Victor to call Mr. Altrichter, which confirms the biology project. It turns out that it is an Ingrid Hahn. The night of Nina and Daniel have to spend in the bathroom along with Ingrid. Only when Nina sees in the wall mirror the spirit of Amneris, to reconcile the two again.Felix forgets his key ring in the antique shop, which is Daniel's uncle on the school of Mr. Altrichter attention. This reports the theft of Mr. Altrichter and calls to pull Felix accountable. Daniel has been notified to get, as the club has reached the rocks and take the blame upon himself to calm his uncle. Daniel tells him he was going to this one girl. Daniel's uncle, understands the situation and expected to return the stones when they are no longer needed. He learns that even Zeno Trabas has been asking about these stones. On the same day visited Raven Daniels uncle, who apparently already knows Raven, in his business. Raven then poisoned him with the poison in his blue ring, so that it falls into a coma.Daniel uses the printed photos of the secret wall to decipher all the hieroglyphics. He finds out that the dominoes must be made on the basis of their numbers in a specific order on the pyramid, before you let them fall over. Thus, the three dominoes reveal that belong to the secret wall. He writes a love letter with Nina simple hieroglyphics and submit it along with the photos on her desk. Victor, who is working on behalf Ravens continue to search for the secret room is, this letter, opens it and puts it on.Once the Club has mixed together the right ingredients for the pyramid, a sort of blue liquid, which is to sound. Set the dominoes in the correct order to the built, blue-tone pyramid and flip it around. Three light up the fallen stones. Back in the basement, they put the three stones in the appropriate compartments. At the same moment, the pyramid will disappear from the secret wall and a drawing is visible: The girl with no face is now on an increase in addition to black characters. In a book, Daniel finds out that they need to plant for the third order three lotus seeds in the soil of a deceased person.Victor is Rosie's son Benny, a heartthrob, as gofer one. Except for all the girls at the home of Mara are very pleased with him. Benny throws especially since an eye on Nina and this is no longer aware of their feelings is, they eventually all hidden under her bed, stuffed animals, because Benny is sent to repair her window. Victor wants to control as Benny's work, he finds all the stuffed animals at Nina's bed and pulls out her. He finds the papyrus scroll and takes it out of the Grail itself. Since Victor investigated further and any stuffed animals sewn back together wrong, the club suspects that Victor is on his verses. When Victor Benny instructions for Waste Disposal brings Benny burns a pile of newspapers, among which is the role. The role of burns, but Raven takes it anyway.Nina questioned by Benny's presence on their feelings about Daniel and faints, as Benny suddenly take a job with Mr. Altrichter in school. The latter asks Benny, to care for Nina and invites him as a thank you to the movies this one. As Daniel trusted her, he agrees. Return as Benny and Nina at midnight, watching Daniel as it comes almost to a kiss between the two. Furious, he goes back to his room and no longer notices that Nina prevents the kiss.Luzy and Felix manages to steal the necessary ground in a cemetery, while Daniel, who now acts against Nina repellent, notes that the seeds have to buy the Egyptian lotus flower only in India. He contacted a dealer who sold him the seed.Rosie finds a book by Victor left school and wants to organize a birthday party for him, while Charlotte, Luzy and Max are working on a school newspaper. They believe that Mr. and Mrs. Altrichter Angels have a relationship and they go unnoticed in Mr. Altrichter office in order to make the front-page photograph.Victor's birthday to find the images of Mr. Radu's secret wall that Victor still has hidden in his office. Shortly after, Victor discovered his gifts at an invitation by Raven, at a meeting in the garden to bring these images. Raven now knows where to find the grave and love how much time is left. It lacks, however, still the chosen one. Nina's diary from Victor suspects that this is Nina. Daniel discovers that the seeds are no lotus seeds. Nina is from Delia, Charlotte and Luzy informed about Benny, who wanted to arrange a meeting with all three at the same time.Magnus gets more and more threatening letters, and while distancing themselves from Mara, who is mentioned in them menacingly. She asked Mr. Radu to speak with him. He entrusts himself unceremoniously at his teacher. Magnus gets the tip to focus on one object, to make decisions and steals the requested copy of the papyrus scroll from Felix 'Save.Mr. Radu sends a copy of the student newspaper to a friend, she with the second award - honors - a camping trip. All boarders must come. Raven calls on Victor ride, because he needs him there for the Gralsritual. Victor makes sure that Rosie and Benny ill and leaves on the ground, to cook with.On the way to walk to the camping camp Nina is kidnapped. Raven, in the nearby castle Ravenstein passes again everything he needed for the ritual, states that the medallion of the Horus eye, which lacks the chosen one must wear. Magnus gets a text message with the invitation to go to the castle. There, he is visibly shocked at the medallion Raven. Magnus panics when he sees the blue ring on Ravens hand. It's the same ring, focusing on the Lord Radu. Magnus, flees as he understood that Mr. Radu's the man with the raven mask and is the author of threatening letters, but can not leave the castle. Felix, Daniel and Luzy decide to look for Nina and land itself also in the chateau. There is now Victor, who is instructed by Mr. Altrichter to look for Nina.Raven and Victor pull the white-clad, shackled Nina the ceiling from the body and pull her mouth off the bandage, after which she begins to cry loudly. Raven succeeds, try to calm short, as he pointed to a day ago had become worse health status of their grandmother. He calls on them to raise their hands and hold up the grail, so that the Gralsritual can be completed.Victor and Raven are now about to perform the ritual.=== Season 2, Part 2: The Chosen One ===Nina is stuck with Raven and Victor in the castle. The two orders of the Grail Nina bound to raise their hands. But when the time nothing happens, Raven dismayed. Nina then begins to scream loudly. Raven befielt Victor eliminate all traces, while Nina hides the Grail under her pillow. Victor tries to prevent Daniel, Felix and Luzy can penetrate to Nina. Raven poisoned Nina, who then falls into a coma, and disappears. Magnus, meanwhile, tried to liberate. As all doors are locked, he takes the fire extinguisher and breaks the window. As he climbs down the wall, he gets to like Mr. Radu, known as Raven, the coat and take off the mask decreases. Mr. Radu then it creates with Daniel, Luzy and Felix to go to Nina. Victor, meanwhile, has called the ambulance. This notes that Nina has a weak pulse and brings her to the hospital. Mara Magnus writes a message in which he reported that he has to go underground for a short time.In the evening, Daniel will finally know how it goes and Nina decides to visit her in hospital with Delia. Nina will then be too short, but can not remember anything. Mr. Radu, who is also studied there, the medallion and the eye of Horus Grail. Daniel and Delia are then caught by Victor as they try to sneak back into the house Anubis.In an interview with Kaya Benny learns that Victor's birthday is the last of the recalls Nina. He senses a chance to rest and Daniel Nina visited her in hospital. Since Benny has spent on Nina's friend, the nurse can no longer Nina Daniel, because he is not a relative. Daniel wants to prove that he is not Nina's friend and Benny. Kaya helps him find the letter that Nina has written for Daniel, where she apologized officially. Luzy watched Benny, as he hides the medallion and the letter in his safe. Daniel Kaya, and Charlotte Luzy hatch a plan to distract them long enough to Benny to bring Nina's stuff from Benny's safe. After Daniel has taken the letter and the locket by Nina in itself, Benny is furious. When Victor learns of a nurse that Benny has Nina's stuff, Benny Victor threatened to throw him out of the house, he should not immediately give him things Nina. Since it no longer has Benny and Victor scolds him, Benny has had enough. He packed his things and leaves the house Anubis. All but Rosie, are happy that Benny is gone. Daniel loses his visit to Nina and Nina's letter reads it. You may remember something. She disappears from the hospital and rushes to lock Ravenstein. There they sought the Grail, which she has hidden in the pillow and goes back inside Anubis.The relationship between Mara and Magnus is also not so good: Magnus, who has since resurfaced, Mara just will not say why he has disappeared. Mara thinks that you are not familiar with Magnus and can rebuff him.When Victor finds out that Nina is back in the house Anubis, he locked her in her room and Delia must spend the night in room of Luzy and Charlotte. Luzy Delia and Nina want to watch and try not to fall asleep, lest Victor Nina can eavesdrop. But when sleep Luzy and Delia and Charlotte disturbs the creak of the door, she makes them. Daniel sneaks while already on Nina's room. Rosie went back a few incantations and joined in the bathroom, whereupon Victor she was bathing, so Rosie comes back to mind. Fearing that Rosie might be ill, Mara Rosie lets her sleep in the room. But then Rosie will find another Amneris cries together and the whole house and makes the house ghost fixed. Nina's memories are not complete and Victor tries to spy on them, in which he asks for, inter alia, the Grail and the medallion.Victor has to pursue at the cemetery on a date with Raven, the Felix and Delia behind a bush. Daniel is very worried and drives to the ropes, as Felix and Delia tell him about the event. Meanwhile, Luzy gets love letters and love poems. They hypothesized that Kaya wrote her letters and poems. Then Charlotte becomes jealous, because she is likeable Kaya. When Magnus not visited the classroom of Mr. Radu, Mara did not understand at all.Mr. Radu's lead with Magnus a long talk in the school. About the family history of Mr. Radu Magnus is well informed. He offers his help when Magnus meets his return, which was not yet known. To learn more about the seeds of blue lotus flower, Daniel visited his uncle in the hospital and is confident that his uncle knows about it. When Charlotte finds out that Max is the admirer of Luzy, they will help both to happiness. Max and Charlotte tinkering therefore a plan to prove Luzy that Kaya is not right for them. When Luzy will agree with Kaya, but says this off.During his visit to the hospital by his uncle, Daniel gets the key from the antiques store. Together with Delia and Felix find there the seeds of the lotus flower. Felix finally finds her in a casket in a bird cage. Then suddenly emerges as a Raven, Felix steals the seeds from the box and runs away unnoticed. Raven takes the box itself and vanishes as well. After Raven has found that the Sibunas have tricked him, contacted Mr. Radu's the health department, which will look in the past Anubis. Rosie, who is just carrying out another of her wraith is, by the Health Inspector as "crazy" means. He requested leave Rosie and Victor set a new housekeeper. Mr. Radu Daphne calls and asks them to apply for Victor.When Daphne quickly applying for the post of housekeeper, Victor holds none of it first. But when he noticed that Daphne has a stuffed dog as a pet, it is striking that they have the same likes and he falls in love with her. All residents of Anubis will find the new housekeeper Daphne likeable. All except Delia. Delia says she just wants to Victor einschleimen. Meanwhile, the club of old pasture planted the seeds of the lotus flower, which is growing dangerously fast. At night, Amneris visited the plant and they can grow. On the morning scare Nina and Delia. The plant has spread over Delia's dressing table. As they report them and Felix Daniel, Daniel said that the plant is dangerous because it has already warned his uncle before.Luzy has an idea how they can find out if Kaya has her admirers. They organized a kiss in the school competition and ensures that participates Kaya. Max will photograph all participants. Luzy as the competition for a moment alone is, Max uses the opportunity and kisses Luzy. Luzy thinks out that Kaya has kissed her. After the Kaya Mister Kiss has received Cup dreams at night of Luzy Luzy Max is confused. Why she dreams of Max?Nina returns to school and take care of Mr. Radu's touching them. Suddenly Nina can remember something and gets a panic attack. She leaves applied to the teaching of history. Daniel follows her and tries to comfort her. When they come back from school, the plant is wilted and Nina picks the new seeds. This put them in the wall in the secret room. The Sibunas are however disturbed by Victor and Daphne, taste the Victors moonshine. Mr. Magnus Radus commissioned by Nina snooping around in the room and Delia. There Amneris makes visible and frightened Magnus enormous. Meanwhile, Daphne and hit Mr. Radu and discuss their approach.Luzy Kaya and finally have a date. This runs but does not expect Luzys boring. The two have nothing to say. And questioned whether Luzy Kaya is her dream guy. Charlotte and Max learn from this date, and draw hope again that maybe Luzy still in love with Max. Charlotte also noticed that Luzy has recurring dreams of Max. She persuades Max, Luzy in a letter asking for a date. Luzy then arises as to date and there Kaya expected, Max suddenly appears before her. Luzy it verschlägt the language. She wants to know nothing more of Max, because he has lied to them for weeks. Luzy crying out in Charlotte. This tries to persuade her to give Max a chance. But Luzy wants, Max leaves the office. Max gets wind of it and wants to leave the school. Experiences as Luzy that she wants Max to stop at first, but then realizes that she has a little bit in love with him. She makes it just in time to stop Max and confesses her love to him.Delia, according to Felix and the puzzles looking new musical twins. A stroll through the park, they hit them. Only by telling a lie they can to persuade the father of the twins to appear in Anubis. Nina and Daniel visit Uncle Daniel. His condition has not improved. The two then go to the store and search a book. Unfortunately they had anticipated, and Raven has torn the required pages from the book. Raven is under further pressure on the Victor. Victor is terrified that he will lose the house Anubis if he does not meet demands Ravens. Nina dreams of Amneris and the melody can complete the concert. Delia Felix and Mr. Eiffel visit to pick up the instruments. Delia has pity on the old man and invites him to the concert.Mr. Altrichter wants that Daniel and Charlotte join the physics competition. Because of all learning hours at school, Daniel has to stay there longer. The Sibunas try to stop the twins and their father. Daniel is dressed up just in time back to boarding school and the concert can take place. Magnus is to listen for the Lord Radus Sibunas. He steals Delia's scarf and builds up a bug and it returns Delia. Mara watched the two and is jealous. Your nerves Magnus' behavior and she has tired of his excuses and white lies, and separates from him. However you want to know what he hides from her and follows Magnus.Felix builds an antique camera to see the aura of people and the blood trace. He asks Luzy, Max if he could help. Luzy reacts funny. Even with a picnic, it behaves strangely. Daniel has a lot of fun with Charlotte at the physics experiments. He does not realize that Nina feels left alone. Luzy and Max have a date that is interrupted by Kaya. Max invents Luzy to love an excuse. Luzy ashamed no longer with Max and introduces him to the school. When they are in the office of Mr. Altrichter kiss, they are surprised by it.Victor gets a lot of bills and he does not know how he will pay for all. He asks a bank employee, whether they can give him a loan. Since this financial situation is not possible in Victor, Victor reviled him as a cutthroat. The bank employee reported the then Mr. Radu. Victor has a new plan: he brews a truth serum. This was replaced by Daniel. After Victor Magnus caught in the cellar, he persuades him to drink a little serum. Magnus realizes that Victor is crap and serum qautscht with Victor until he falls asleep. It opens the secret wall and told Mr. Radu of his discovery.Out of jealousy for Charlotte Nina sneaks into the physics competition and there is the theoretical part. As the practical part of her one mistake happened and scared, she accidentally loses her wig. Nina ashamed so much that she leaves the physics laboratory. Daniel follows her and apologizes, but he has not recently cared about them. Nina can no longer continue in the competition. Daniel and Charlotte to win the prize, and Mr. Altrichter is very proud.Mara Amneris sees in the mirror in the bathroom and when she is still terrified of Felix, she faints. Magnus is Mara with Felix and does weird problems. Magnus then meet with Mr. Radu. Mara follows him but is distracted by Daphne. Luzy to win a game of chess against Max Max Therefore, you imagine his father. Luzy in for a surprise. You can not believe that Mr. Altrichter is the father of Max. Felix is the old-fashioned camera ready and shoot photos with other club members. Meanwhile, Mr. Radu and Daphne are planning a further blow to destroy Victor. Daphne distributed in Anubis aggressive wood worms. She is disturbed by Amneris, and follows her. In developing the photos and see the club members Amneris now know that Rosie was right. Sibunas hear the song from Maras rooms and visit them there. Daphne is locked in the closet of Amneris. Magnus sneaks into the secret room and there steals the Grail and the medallion.After Victor Daphne freed from the closet, he gets a visit from the bailiffs. He takes refuge with a white lie. Mr. Radu discovers that Mara's tuition is paid by an Arab account. Daphne will overshadow Mara. You will witness how they will meet with the secretaries of her father and gets a lot of money. Magnus Mara offers to 100 000 € to get his father out of jail. Magnus can not accept this gesture. Nina visiting her grandmother in the hospital. The nurse tells her that she has to live only two or three weeks. Daphne cheer on Nina.Victor Felix presented his ghost suckers. The demonstration is done with a little accident and Victor Felix forbids to use the vacuum cleaner. He also shows that Daniel and Delia. He travels from one curtain and smashed two chairs. Victor is furious and Daniel noticed the wood worms. Victor gets his insect spray and polluted the house of Anubis. As he searched the rooms of Magnus Felix and he is caught by Mara. Mara wants to see what Victor has sought and is caught by Magnus. Magnus thinks now that he spied Mara. Felix Mara consoles and offers itself as a ghost hunter. Luzy and Max and Charlotte want to Kaya's luck a helping hand. Luzy is reading Charlotte's diary that she can be with Kaya not together, because her father will not allow this relationship.Magnus recognizes that not the Grail and the locket safely in his room and he decides to bring the two treasures in the secret room. There, caught him and the Holy Grail and Victor took on him the medallion. Nina, Delia and Daniel have the same dream of Amneris, where she shows up. When Magnus wants to apologize to Mara, where Felix does, he is furious and wants the two have nothing to do. Delia calls on Rosie to ask them for advice. Nina visits her grandmother and gets support from Daphne. Daphne has agreed to meet with Victor. This happens no more. For Mr. Radu has found that Mara is related to Amneris and therefore is the chosen one. Delia and Felix want to listen to Rosie's advice and get in touch with Amneris. Amneris makes the two realize that Mara is the chosen one. Daphne stunned Mara with a poison and carries her off with Mr. Radu. Delia and Felix find the bloodline in Mara's room. Magnus, who is currently in the secret room sees Mara on the wall.Luzy and Max send Charlotte to an interview with Aylin. What Charlotte does not know, is the sister of Aylin Kaya. Aylin Charlotte is a ticket for her concert. Kaya is mad at Max, that the mystery of his sister he could not keep it to themselves. Charlotte and meet at the Kaya concert Aylin. After the representation, Kaya apologized to his sister Charlotte and both are on their way home. However, they are stopped by Luzy, Max, Mr. and Mrs. Altrichter angels that they invite to the Amusement Park. Max apologizes to Kaya.Daphne and Mr. Radu Mara caught hold in the lock. Mara realizes that Daphne has played to all and that Mr. Radu's just what is dangerous. The Sibunas noted that the Grail and the locket are gone and guess the things with Victor. Nina wants to reclaim the property and is caught by Victor. You can take the stone medallion in the Grail is not. Rosie will also appear and still finds Victor's bills. The bailiffs can come and evacuate the house Anubis. The Sibunas can fulfill the final task. You have to heat the stone from the medallion so long until it is golden brown. Daniel Felix and dress up the table and pick out hardwood from the secret room in the basement. As Nina inhales the smoke from the gem, she faints. Magnus is put under pressure by Mr. Radu. After he brought him to the Grail and the locket, he will now also get the gem. While Nina is impotent and obsolete Delia assistance, exchanges Magnus from the stone, and hurries back to the castle. He visited Mara, who tells him that he should close by the wall Close your heart to me says. He overhears Daphne, as with Radus phone and tells him that it was naive to believe him Magnus.The bailiff is appalled by the woodworm infestation and can block the Anubis. No one may enter it. Nina has now regained her memories and she knows where Mara is. The Sibunas decide to ask for help, and Mr. Radu's get him to the house of Anubis. There they meet Magnus. The five residents have no idea that Victor is watching them. Suddenly, Raven and the Sibunas learn that Mr. Radu's the man with the raven mask and that Magnus puts him under a blanket. Magnus and Raven go into the secret room. Raven puts the gem into the right field in the wall and the two learn that the time is at sunrise. Magnus comes to ponder and decide. He takes the Grail from Raven and the medallion and locks it using Mara's spell Close your heart to me in a secret room. In the hall he meets Nina, Daniel, Delia, and Felix, where he confesses everything to them, Nina returns the treasures and apologized to Felix. The five set off on the way to the castle, while Raven will be released by Victor. Raven tricks from Victor and locks him into the secret room.Charlotte, Kaya, Luzy, Max, Mr. and Mrs. Altrichter angels have great fun in the amusement park. After a roller coaster ride that threatens to suffocate Mr. Altrichter hard candy. Kaya and Mrs. Engel to help him, whereupon Mrs. Hubert kissing angel and asking them later to a dance. Mr. Altrichter takes the opportunity and makes angels wife to marry him. Mrs. Engel is not ready to marry Mr. Altrichter and disappears. Mr. Altrichter is in mourning. Max now writes with his wife Angel and tries to persuade her to marry Hubert yet. Max's plan works and Ms. Engel is in a wedding dress in the theme park.On the way to the castle to meet Nina, Daniel, Felix and Delia at Daphne, who is facing the Sibunas in the way and attacking them with a stick. Delia distracts Daphne, while Nina, Daniel Felix and sneak into the castle. Magnus looks like Raven Mara holds in its talons and wants to help her. On top of the tower then meet all the Raven has tied up Mara and Magnus tries to liberate. Nina, Delia, Daniel and Felix are threatened by Daphne with a spear. Raven attacks as Magnus, Mara did not want that something happens and Magnus holds up the Grail. Amneris and Tutankhamun appear. Raven Amneris is the Grail. Raven suddenly burns and dies. His remains will disappear. Daphne is furious and pulls away from. Amneris Tutankhamun and disappear, leaving a papyrus scroll with the coordinates of the grave love.Everything has changed for the better: Mr. and Mrs. Engel Altrichter have married Nina's grandma is again awakened from the coma, the relationship between Mara and Magnus runs well again, Charlotte and Kaya are now together and Magnus' father was released.=== Broadcasting in other countries ======= Sweden / Denmark ====In Sweden and Denmark for some time under the name of Anubis Huset / Huset Anubis aired the original series.==== Mexico ====Even in Mexico since the original longer series from Belgium is on the transmitter Once TV shows. The Mexican title is La Casa de Anubis .==== USA, Great Britain ====In the United States and Great Britain since the first January 2011 English remake called House of Anubis broadcast.=== Albums ===== Books ==== Awards ==The names of the categories are translated into English Het Huis Anubis (English: The House of Anubis) is a Dutch-Belgian children's television mystery drama based on elements of Egyptian mythology created by Studio 100 and aired on Nickelodeon in the Netherlands and Flanders. It first aired in September 2006 and the last episode was broadcast on December 4, 2009. The show was a large commercial and criticial success in the Benelux and obtained a cult status in the Dutch-language television world. The series was dubbed and released throughout Scandinavia as well. In the Netherlands, the series quickly attracked around half a million viewers per episode. In Flanders, the series was watched by over 300.000 viewers at its peak. The series was nominated for a Rose d'Or and won numerous local television award, including the Gouden Stuiver, the most prestigious Dutch children's television prize of its time. The series finale attracked 477.000 viewers in the Netherlands, easily becoming Nickelodeon's most-watched programme in 2009.The European success of the series made the American branch of Nickelodeon interested in producing their own remake, which eventually became House of Anubis, which was broadcast between 2011 and 2013. The American Nickelodeon producers stated to Studio 100 that they had no interest in broadcasting the original version.== Premise ==In Huis Anubis, a building dating from 1900 serving as an internaat, eight young people live together under the supervision of the strict manager Victor and sweet housekeeper Trudie. When newcomer Nienke Martens moves into the house, another resident, Joyce, suddenly disappears. Joyce's best friend Patricia does not trust Nienke and links her to the strange disappearance. Hoping to get Nienke expulsed out of the house, Patricia challenges Nienke to spend a night in the attic, which is forbidden terrain for the residents.There, Nienke later makes a bizarre discovery: the recorded diary of Sarah Winsbrugge-Hennengouwen, a young girl who previously lived in the house. She discovers that Sarah's parents were archaeologists in Egypt and the original owners of Huis Anubis, who later mysteriously died in a tragic car crash after an expedition into the tomb of a pharaoh. It is revealed that the house has a secret history in relation to the expedition of the Winsbrugge-Hennengouwen pair to Egypt. Nienke decides to investigate, together with fellow resident Fabian, a nerd interested in the history of Ancient Egypt, and her roommate, Amber. Meanwhile, Patricia searches for answers about Joyce's disappearance.While each resident has their own way of dealing with school, friends, love and growing up, some of the residents bond together to solve the mystery hidden within Huis Anubis.== Cast ===== Main ===¹ Character was seen during the entire series. ² Character left the show before it ended. ³ Character appeared later. === Supporting ===¹ The characters of Rufus Malpied and Zeno Terpstra would later be merged into one character (Rufus Zeno) for the English remake. == Episodes ==== Spin-offs ==After its finale, the show was followed by a spin-off, called Het Huis Anubis en de Vijf van het Magische Zwaard (The House of Anubis and the Five of the Magical Sword). This series followed another group of friends, who moved into the house from the original series after the original residents moved out and went to college. None of the actors from the original returned. The spin-off was based on Celtic mythology as opposed to Egyptian mythology.The series started re-airing all episodes in fall 2011, after the spin-off had its finale. Even though the majority of the episodes stayed the same, the episodes were aired in widescreen (the first two seasons were originally broadcast in fullscreen) and some of the old music was replaced with newer songs. Also, other small changes and cuts were made to make the seasons look a little bit more like the later seasons (which had higher budgets).On 6 January 2018, Spike and MTV Netherlands aired a reunion special called: #TB Het Huis Anubis in which certain cast members looked back on their time on the show. The day after, Nickelodeon started re-airing all the episodes again, starting with season 1. Just like in 2011 the first season is being aired in widescreen and some of the music has been replaced. The old opening credits were also replaced with newer visuals. The logo for the show was also slightly modified.== International ===== Remakes ===The series was remade for Germany. The German remake, called Das Haus Anubis, debuted in September 2009 on Nick. It is filmed on exactly the same sets they used for the Dutch version and even used some of the same costumes. This version was almost identical to the original, except for the character names. However, they did make some changes to the storyline for season 2. The series was finished after the third season.In January 2011, an English language remake, called House of Anubis (recorded in Liverpool) debuted on Nickelodeon in the US. It used an all new set (and house) but kept almost all original character names (except Nienke, which became Nina; Appie, which became Alfie; Jeroen, which was changed to Jerome; and Joyce, which became Joy). The script was a rewritten version of the original script. This version also had a Spanish dub for Nickelodeon Latin America called El Misterio de Anubis. The second season premiered on January 9, 2012 and the second season's last episode was on March 9, 2012. The third season started airing on January 3, 2013, and ended on April 11th, 2013.=== Dubs ===in Swedish as Huset Anubis on Nickelodeon (Sweden)in Danish as Huset Anubis on Nickelodeon (Denmark)in Spanish as La Casa de Anubis on Canal Once (Mexico)Other countries have dubbed the English adaptation of the series House of Anubis instead of Het Huis Anubis.== Movies ==There have been three movies, each with a stand-alone story, but with the same actors: Het Pad der 7 Zonden (The Path of the 7 Sins), is the first Anubis movie, released in theaters in December 2008.De Wraak van Arghus (The Revenge of Arghus), is the second Anubis movie, released in theaters in December 2009.De Terugkeer van Sibuna (The Return of Sibuna), is the third and last Anubis movie and debuted on Nickelodeon in October 2010. The movie aired almost one year after the series ended. It showed where the characters went after they moved out of the house and what they are doing. Despite airing only one year after the last episode, the third movie takes place three years after the series finale, roughly around the same time the spin-off takes place. Some characters from that series also make (non-speaking) cameo appearances.== Books ==The story of the series:The story of the movies:Additional books:== References ==== External links ==Official website (Dutch) The original page is updated in November 2011, it is now a sub site after the finale of the series House of Anubis is a mystery television series developed for Nickelodeon based on the Dutch–Belgian television series Het Huis Anubis. The series was created by Hans Bourlon and Gert Verhulst and premiered on Nickelodeon on 1 January 2011 in the United States and on 25 February 2011 in the United Kingdom. The series is the first series from the network to be filmed outside the United States and the first telenovela-format series for the network. The show aired from 1 January 2011 to 17 June 2013.== Plot ===== Season 1 ===Anubis House is a residence at an English boarding school, built in the 1890s as part of an estate by Egyptologist Robert Frobisher-Smythe. The house is now the boarding house for nine secondary school children under the watch of the boarding school's strict caretaker, Victor Rodenmaar Jr (Francis Magee). As an American girl named Nina Martin (Nathalia Ramos) moves into Anubis House, another resident, Joy Mercer (Klariza Clayton), disappears without warning, along with all evidence of her existence. Joy's best friend, Patricia Williamson (Jade Ramsey), is saddened by Joy's disappearance and accuses Nina of being involved with her disappearance.Nina meets an elderly woman after moving in, who gifts her with a locket shaped like the Eye of Horus. The woman identifies herself as Sarah Frobisher-Smythe, the daughter of Robert. Afterwards, Nina's locket proves to function as a key to open a secret panel in the attic, in which she finds a collection of antique phonograph cylinders and a portrait of Sarah as a girl. The cylinders are diary recordings made by Sarah during and after her parents' trip to Egypt to uncover Tutankhamun's tomb in 1922, and offer, alongside Egyptian hieroglyphs on the back of the portrait, clues to the location of a number of Egyptian relics. Nina and her classmates Fabian Rutter (Brad Kavanagh) and new roommate Amber Millington (Ana Mulvoy Ten) form a secret group, 'Sibuna' (Anubis backwards), and later initiate Alfie Lewis (Alex Sawyer) and Patricia, who is eager to learn how the relics are connected to Joy's disappearance.After finding seven relics, the Sibunas intuit that they must be put together to make the Cup of Ankh, a mythic cup capable of producing an elixir of life. However, the cup can only be assembled by one born on seven o'clock of the seventh day of the seventh month. As Joy's birthday is the seventh of July, it is revealed that Victor and his secret society, consisting of staff from the school, a police officer, a nurse, and Joy's father, conspired to force Joy to assemble the Cup of Ankh. They removed Joy from school, and destroyed evidence of her existence, to protect her from a former society member Rufus Zeno (Roger Barclay), who will stop at nothing to get the cup. However, on the 'chosen hour' of the cup's assembly, Joy realises that, as she was born at seven PM, she is not able to assemble the cup; Nina, however, shares Joy's birthday and was born at seven o'clock in the morning. Nina assembles the cup and, with the rest of Sibuna, fool Rufus into believing himself immortal.=== Season 2 ===While hiding the Cup of Ankh, Nina unknowingly sets free an Egyptian spirit, Senkhara. Senkhara curses Nina with the Mark of Anubis, bending her to her will, and instructs her to find the Mask of Anubis, an artifact able to "weep tears of gold" in addition to an elixir of life. The Sibunas discover a chamber of tunnels underneath the house that contain a series of puzzles and tasks in order to progress, including swinging scythe-like pendulums over a chasm and a game of Senet using players as pieces. Senkhara is displeased with Nina's slow pace and gives the Mark of Anubis to the rest of Sibuna, and to Nina's grandmother, as a threat. Alongside the group, Victor is also searching for the mask as he believes that it holds the missing ingredient for the elixir of life – tears of gold. To obtain the Book of Isis that contains the recipe for the elixir, Victor instructs Mr Sweet to gain an Egyptian Exhibition. Jerome locates his father in prison, who tells him that in order to reverse his bad luck, Jerome must find the Frobisher Gem and put it into the Frobisher shield after he stole it as a child. New American pupil Eddie (Burkely Duffield) becomes rivals with Patricia, even though they are just hiding the fact that they are attracted to each other. Victor teams up with Anubis House's new housemother, Vera, who 'helps' him with locating the mask. Unbeknown to Victor, Vera is in fact working with Rufus Zeno. It is a race against each other as Sibuna and Victor try to outwit one another on the quest for the Mask of Anubis that will lead to eternal life. In the end, Nina leaves for good to live with her grandmother.=== Season 3 ===A new teacher, Miss Denby (Susy Kane), arrives at the school. New American student K.T. Rush (Alexandra Shipp) comes to the school. Eddie has a vision of K.T.'s dying grandfather giving her a key and telling her to go to Anubis House. Eddie and K.T. do some snooping around the house while Fabian tries to decipher a series of codes mistakenly given to Amber. Eddie, K.T. and Willow become new members of Sibuna. When Amber leaves for fashion school, Sibuna is revived with Eddie as a leader and Fabian, K.T., Patricia and Alfie and Willow as members. They find out that the adults are trying to reawaken a sleeping Robert Frobisher-Smythe, with Denby being the "Keeper" [she keeps Frobisher in the tank room in the gatehouse (her home on the school property)], Victor being the "Enabler", and Mr. Sweet being the "Seeker". The Sibunas discover that Miss Harriet Denby's name is actually Caroline. Her sister is actually Harriet – and the original Keeper. However, she is locked in a mental hospital because of her sister. It turns out that K.T. is the great-granddaughter of Frobisher. Jerome, Joy, Alfie, and Patricia are the descendants of Frobisher's friends and are needed for the ceremony, but because of Caroline Denby lying about her identity, Frobisher is reawakened evil.Everybody thinks that the ceremony didn't work out since Sibuna intervened just in time, but when Caroline goes to the gatehouse to pack her bags, she meets Frobisher, who is reawakened and evil. Caroline does not tell Eric Sweet or Victor about this. Robert explains to Caroline that he needs to capture five sinning people for Ammut at midnight or noon, so that they could become evil. The sinners captured are Victor, Patricia, Mr. Sweet, Fabian and Alfie. Ammut rises, but needs more souls. She gives Frobisher a book that easily captures people's souls. A fake assembly is organized as an attempt to capture more souls. Willow (Louisa Connolly-Burnham) is the only person who didn't become a sinner. Willow, Eddie and K.T. are chased by Frobisher and the soul-less students but Harriet comes to the rescue with a stolen ambulance. She explains that Willow didn't become a sinner because she had K.T.'s moon key, and that Ammut can be sent back with Caroline's sun key and K.T.'s moon key. Willow becomes a sinner when she and K.T. try to steal the sun key because Harriet slipped the moon key into K.T.'s pocket. In the end, Ammut is sent back, devouring Caroline. Frobisher is not evil again and old. All the sinners are back to normal and don't remember what happened during the time they were sinners. Willow doesn't even remember the short time that she was good, so she forgot about the whole mystery. The Sibunas, of course, are told by Eddie and K.T. about what happened. Frobisher and Harriet set off for Egypt, and Jerome and Joy finally get together after a lot of drama, involving Jerome cheating on Mara and Willow. Mara and Fabian flirt. The group enjoys a fireworks display.In the finale special Touchstone of Ra, the Anubis House residents are preparing for their graduation; however, their joyous celebration plans are cut short with the arrival of four [freshmen] fourth years who move in early – Cassie, Erin, Dexter and Sophia. Patricia instantly antagonizes Sophia because she spotted her flirting with Eddie. On their trip to an Egyptian museum, Eddie, Dexter and Sophia discover a special artifact known as the Touchstone of Ra. Back at the house, Victor announces that an artifact from the museum was stolen, and the Touchstone suddenly appears to be in Eddie's possession. Victor confiscates the Touchstone but has no intentions of returning it. Later, the Sibunas (along with Sophia and Mara) overhear Victor speaking to Mr. Sweet about what happens when the Pyramid of Ra is built. They plan to prevent him from building the Pyramid, retrieving the Touchstone for good measure. Eventually, Eddie discovers that Sophia has betrayed them when she plans to complete the Pyramid of Ra herself. At the graduation ceremony, Mara is manipulated by an unknown force when she wears the valedictorian medal (which is actually an artifact discovered by Alfie). At the house, the Sibunas team up with Victor to find the remaining pillars of the Pyramid to stop Sophia from accomplishing her goal. In the final showdown, the Pyramid is incomplete and the students are saved. Since Sophia fails, she is transformed into stone as a punishment from Ra. Eddie loses his Osirian powers in the process. Since Victor's "destiny" was to prevent the pyramid from ever being built, he decides to leave the house for good that evening as the students celebrate their graduation party.== Cast and characters ===== Main cast ====== Supporting cast ===== Production and development ==Production on the pilot episode began in August 2009, though with a different cast and a different title than the eventual series. In March 2010 Studio 100 announced that the series was sold to Nickelodeon in the United States, and Nickelodeon confirmed that House of Anubis was in development for a planned fall 2010 debut. The series was filmed in the summer of 2010 in Liverpool, and was first broadcast in the United States on 1 January 2011. Nickelodeon included House of Anubis in its 10 March 2011 press release for its annual Upfront presentation to advertisers and media.The series is the first original series produced for the flagship U.S. Nickelodeon channel to be produced outside of North America. The series is structured in a different manner from other live-action television series in that each episode consists of two eleven-minute segments, a format commonly used in half-hour animated series (although the events of each subsequent segment pick up from the events of the previous segment); and the series' episodes are formatted to be broadcast in the five-day-a-week format that is typically common with soap operas or telenovelas.On 29 June 2011, Entertainment Weekly confirmed that Nickelodeon had ordered a second season of House of Anubis and that production would begin on 21 July 2011 in Liverpool. A total of forty-five half-hour episodes (ninety 15-minute episodes) were aired, premiering on 9 January 2012.On 16 April 2012, a third season was confirmed by Nickelodeon and Lime Pictures. Nathalia Ramos, who played lead character Nina Martin, did not return for the series' third season so that she could focus on finishing college. Eugene Simon confirmed that filming of the third season would begin in the summer of 2012. On 16 July 2012, Nickelodeon (UK & Ireland) announced on their Twitter page and the website's blog that filming of season 3 would begin that month. Bobby Lockwood announced on his Twitter page that he would not be returning for the series' third season, but instead that he had a new show called Wolfblood coming out on CBBC later in 2012. It was announced on the House of Anubis Facebook page that there would be new characters named KT Rush, played by Alexandra Shipp, and Willow, played by Louisa Connolly-Burnham.The series was filmed in Liverpool with Ye Priory Court standing in for Anubis House, the gardens are filmed in Croxteth Park and Peckforton Castle Lodge, located in Chester, standing in for the gatehouse.== Episodes ==== Anubis Unlocked ==Anubis Unlocked is a behind the scenes show which aired in and produced by Nickelodeon UK. Ten episodes were commissioned for the first series of House of Anubis, which featured cast interviews, behind the scenes clips, tours of the set, and exclusive previews. These ten episodes were presented by Anna Williamson and Jamie Rickers. Anubis Unlocked was not commissioned for the second series of House of Anubis, though a short behind-the-scenes segment aired at the end of series two. Anubis Unlocked was re-commissioned for the third series of House of Anubis.== Reception ===== Critical reception ===Youth Television News praised the series, commending Nickelodeon's attempt at a drama series, saying "a good story always outdoes a repetitive sitcom."=== Audience reception ===The hour-long series premiere on 1 January 2011 was watched by an average of 2.9 million viewers for the first two episodes. The series scored a 4.0 share (846,000 viewers) among teens 11–17, a 4.4 share (952,000 viewers) among kids 11–15 and a 3.5 share (1.2 million) among kids 11–18, ranking #1 amongst all broadcast and basic cable programs in its timeslot in all pre-teen and teen demographics.== Awards and nominations ==== References ==== External links ==Official websiteHouse of Anubis at IMDb Fish Police is an American animated television series produced by Hanna-Barbera and based on the comic book series of the same name created by Steve Moncuse. It first aired on CBS in 1992, broadcasting three episodes before being axed for low ratings. A further three episodes never aired in the United States, although the entire series ran in European syndication. The show had a decidedly more mature tone than most other animated Hanna-Barbara shows; episodes often contained innuendo and mild profanity.The series was part of a spate of attempts by major networks to develop prime time animated shows to compete with the success of Fox's The Simpsons, alongside ABC's Capitol Critters and CBS's Family Dog. Hanna-Barbera Productions pitched the series to CBS Entertainment, which agreed to pick it up. All three were canceled in their first seasons.== Plot ==Beneath the ocean, a fish named Inspector Gil works for his police department under Chief Abalone. He solves the various crimes in his city while tangling with Biscotti Calamari.== Characters ===== Main characters ===Inspector Gil (voiced by John Ritter) - The main protagonist of the series. Gil is a detective in a similar mold of classic film noir stylings. He sees things as very black and white demonstrated by his 'good/bad' narratives during episodes. He has been in a relationship with Pearl for five years (to which some have joked that they should have been married by now) and maintains a flirtatious 'friendship' with Angel. Dialogue in the first episode implies that he is friends with several other fictional characters such as Fred Flintstone and Kermit the Frog.Biscotti Calamari (voiced by Héctor Elizondo) - A squid crime boss who keeps his operations extremely discreet. He is confident that the police can never touch him for any of his crimes and even appears to contribute towards them occasionally, believing it is better to be on their good side should he ever need them. This has led Gil, Catfish, and Abalone to take a great disliking to him and his methods.Sharkster (voiced by Tim Curry) - Calamari's sleazy smooth-talking shark lawyer. He is quick to defend his client in whatever way possible, but does so in the slimiest of manners, seemingly knowing that his client can commit any crime and get away with it. Sharkster frequently uses his knowledge of the law to cause headaches and obstacles for Gil, causing the two to dislike each other greatly. Tim Curry and John Ritter had previously co-starred together in 1990 in It and later in a 1997 episode of Over the Top. The two remained good friends until Ritter's death.Mussels Marinara (voiced by Frank Welker) - Calamari's dim-witted and overweight bodyguard.Chief Abalone (voiced by Ed Asner) - The angry, ill-tempered chief of police at Gil's precinct. He appears to dislike his staff, but secretly has faith in them, particularly in Gil.Mayor Cod (voiced by Jonathan Winters) - As his title implies, Cod is the Mayor of Fish City. Despite this however, he is rather cowardly and somewhat inept when it comes to his job.Detective Catfish (voiced by Robert Guillaume) - An undercover officer at Gil's precinct, he's known Gil for quite some time and they appear to be good friends, demonstrated when he is visibly saddened when Gil is sent to prison for crimes committed by an impostor. Among his disguises, he occasionally dresses in drag. His design is identical to Gil's appearance in the original comics.Crabby (voiced by Buddy Hackett) - An old, bitter, crab taxi driver who frequents Pearl's diner as well as other areas Gil visits. He occasionally offers helpful information to related cases of Gil's during his rantings.Pearl White (voiced by Megan Mullally) - The owner of her own diner that Gil frequents; she is also his main love interest, with them having been in an on-again, off-again relationship for 5 years. She often wishes for Gil to become a more exciting person as she feels their relationship has become predictable. She finds a rival in Angel, getting jealous of her constant flirting with Gil.Angel Jones (voiced by JoBeth Williams) - The lead singer at Calamari's club and another love interest for Gil. Despite his protests in the first episode that they are just friends, Angel strongly hints at being interested in Gil with her constant seductive flirting with him throughout the entire series. She has a very voluptuous figure and seems to be slightly inspired by Jessica Rabbit. The series itself makes note of this in the first episode, where she parodies Jessica's infamous 'I'm not bad...' line.Goldie (voiced by Georgia Brown) - The secretary of the Police Station. Goldie is a widow, having been married at least 5 times. She usually makes very dry, witty, and sarcastic remarks towards her colleagues.Tadpole (voiced by Charlie Schlatter) - Pearl's younger brother who works at the precinct with Gil. He usually seems to know exactly what Gil or anyone else is thinking whenever he is given an order (a running gag in the series is a character wondering aloud, "How does [he] do that?!") and seems to work in forensics.Connie Koi - A news reporter, she often shows up to provide exposition.=== Guest characters ===Inspector C. Bass (voiced by Phil Hartman) - A casanova of a cop who is transferred to Fish Police and partnered with Gil to investigate the smuggling of gold bullion. He is secretly corrupt.The Codfather - A high-ranking mob boss on the run from FBI agents for unpaid taxes. He stages his own murder and frames Calamari for it, but his ego proves to be his downfall.Julius Kelp - One of the Codfather's subordinates who helps him forge his death certificate.Bill (voiced by John Ritter) - A small-time thug who resembles Gil. Calamari performs plastic surgery on him to make him into a doppelgänger for Gil and to serve as a mole for him.The Widow Casino (voiced by B.J. Ward) - A socialite who conspires with Calamari to murder her husband, Clams Casino, but later tricked by Gil into thinking Calamari betrayed her (which he had).Richie (voiced by Rob Paulsen) - Calamari's favorite nephew. He is intelligent and shares his uncle's business acumen, while his two younger brothers, Buddy and Elvis, are the exact opposite.Donna (voiced by Kimmy Robertson) - A waitress working for Calamari who begins committing robberies to gain Calamari's approval.W. K. the Weenie King (voiced by George Hearn) - The host of the annual Fish City Beauty Contest and an idol of Gil's since his childhood.Shelly - The original "Waltzing Weenie". After 20 years of service, W. K. fires her because she "couldn't cut the mustard" anymore, driving her to a life of crime.Father Fluke - The man who knows everything about everyone alive or dead. He is one of Gil's sources for information.== Episodes ==== Cast ==John Ritter as Inspector GilEdward Asner as Chief AbaloneGeorgia Brown as GoldieTim Curry as SharksterHéctor Elizondo as CalamariRobert Guillaume as Detective CatfishBuddy Hackett as CrabbyMegan Mullally as PearlCharlie Schlatter as TadpoleFrank Welker as Mussels MarinaraJoBeth Williams as AngelJonathan Winters as Mayor Cod== Critical reception ==Critics' opinions were mixed to negative. Ken Tucker of Entertainment Weekly gave the show a "C", saying that the "comics are a lot more varied and better constructed — their plots worked as mysteries, whereas here the stories are just excuses for more fish humor." Marion Garmel of the Indianapolis Star thought that the show lacked the "dark edge" of the comics. In a 2010 interview, Moncuse said of the show, "The less said about the animated series the better."== See also ==List of works produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions== References ==== External links ==Fish Police at IMDb Batibot is a Philippine television educational show produced by the Philippine Children's Television Foundation (PCTF). It debuted in 1984 as the replacement of Sesame, a co-production of PCTV and the Children's Television Workshop (CTW) from 1983 to 1984.== History ===== Sesame (1983-1984) ===The precursor of Batibot was Sesame, intended as the Filipino version of the American children's show, Sesame Street, which educates preschoolers through dance, song, and role-play educational skills through them. Sesame was a co-production of the Philippine Children's Television Foundation (PCTF) and the Children's Television Workshop (CTV) with support from the Philippine government. Sesame aired in 1983 as a bilingual (Filipino and English) program. The series featured two Muppet-style characters Pong Pagong and Kiko Matsing. Both characters were inspired from a Filipino fable, "The Monkey and the Turtle", which was annotated to English by José Rizal in 1889.Government support ended in 1984 and the co-production arrangement with CTW was cancelled.=== Batibot (1985-2003) ===PCTF decided to produce its own show titled Batibot and debuted in February 1985.Batibot was conceptualized and produced by Feny Delos Angeles-Bautista, a teacher from the Community of Learners Foundation and writer Rene Villanueva. Unlike the bilingual (Filipino and English) Sesame!, Batibot was done entirely in Filipino and featured stories in a Philippine context. An arrangement with CTW was made in order for the characaters Pong Pagong and Kiko Matsing to continue their appearance including one human character Kuya Mario.Airing on weekdays with a time slot of 10:30 AM, the series consistently ranked in 1985 among the top 10 daytime shows in the Philippines, outdoing the ratings of Sesame! and Sesame Street, which first aired in the country in 1970.By February 1989, the producers were experiencing financial constraints which placed uncertainty regarding the future airing of the show. PCTF were in negotiations for an Indonesian version of Batibot; coincidentally, CTW were also in negotiations for an Indonesian version of Sesame Street. Shortly thereafter, CTW informed PCTF of their decision to repossess the characters Pong Pagong and Kiko Matsing. PCTF negotiated with CTW for the continued use of the characters for four more years under a license arrangement. Despite, the extension to use the characters, PCTF decided to phase out their appearances because of the costs. By 1994, the two characters were returned to CTW and were never used again.In 1999, Batibot was relaunched as Batang Batibot airing on a Saturday morning timeslot.Batibot ended its run in 2003.=== TV5's Batibot (2010–2013) ===TV5 announced in 2010 that it would revive Batibot. It premiered on November 27, 2010. TV5's version of Batibot featured a different set of human characters, Ate Maya and Kuya Fidel. Instead of a Monday–Friday broadcast format, the new series was aired on Saturday at 8:30 a.m. The airing of the series lasted until 2013.== Cast and characters ==Batibot featured characters portrayed by puppets as well as human characters. Most of the puppets used for the show were locally made. Kiko Matsing and Pong Pagong who were among the main characters of the original Batibot were owned and crafted by CTW.=== Sesame ====== Batibot ===* – from Sesame=== Batibot (2010) ===* – from the original Batibot== Spin-offs ==Batibot has its own spin-off program Koko Kwik Kwak (named after a bird character), which also aired on GMA Network from 1999 to 2002 every weekday mornings.== Mobile app ==On August 14, 2015, Smart Communications launched a mobile app for Android devices based on the show. Smart together with the Community of Learners Foundation commissioned OrangeFix to develop the app. The development of the app content costed around ₱1 million.The Batibot app is specifically targeted to children from kindergarten to Grade 3. It is aligned with the Department of Education's kindergarten curriculum and is in Filipino. An iOS version of the app was released on July 5, 2017.== References ==== External links ==Batibot at IMDb This article is an episode list for House of Anubis, a mystery/comedy-drama television series broadcast on Nickelodeon. On March 10, 2011, Nickelodeon confirmed that it would make a second season of House of Anubis at its annual Upfront presentation to advertisers and media. On June 29, 2011, Entertainment Weekly came with the news that Nickelodeon had ordered a second season from production company Studio 100. They started shooting on July 21, 2011, in Liverpool.Season 3 of House of Anubis was confirmed on April 16, 2012, the same day as the Nick UK Season 2 premiere. Filming for the third season began in July 2012. The third season premiered in the U.S. on January 3, 2013. The series has aired 76 episodes (160 segments). It became the first Nickelodeon series to reach over 100 episodes and not be a sitcom. The promo on Nickelodeon (UK and Ireland) was released on February 11, 2013 during the UK and Irish premiere of Dance Academy. It premiered in April 2013. In Season 3, a major cast change occurred after the departure of Nathalia Ramos at the conclusion of the previous season and Ana Mulvoy-Ten, who left the series in Episode 10 of Season 3. Instead, two new actresses joined the cast – Alexandra Shipp and Louisa Connolly-Burnham.A special episode of House of Anubis titled "Touchstone of Ra" aired on June 14, 2013 (UK) and June 17, 2013 (U.S.) as the conclusion of the series.== Series overview ==== Episodes ===== Season 1 (2011) ===This season stars Nathalia Ramos as Nina Martin, Brad Kavanagh as Fabian Rutter, Jade Ramsey as Patricia Williamson, Ana Mulvoy-Ten as Amber Millington, Tasie Dhanraj as Mara Jaffray, Bobby Lockwood as Mick Campbell, Eugene Simon as Jerome Clarke, and Alex Sawyer as Alfie Lewis, and Klariza Clayton as Joy Mercer.This season was filmed from July 2010 to December 2010.Bobby Lockwood is absent for six episodes (18–19, 38–40, 47).Klariza Clayton has been absent for 51 episodes (2–29, 35, 38–46, 48–57).Tasie Dhanraj has been absent one episode (15).=== Season 2 (2012) ===This season was filmed from July 2011 to January 2012.This season stars Nathalia Ramos as Nina, Brad Kavanagh as Fabian, Jade Ramsey as Patricia, Ana Mulvoy Ten as Amber, Eugene Simon as Jerome, Alex Sawyer as Alfie, Tasie Dhanraj as Mara, Bobby Lockwood as Mick, Klariza Clayton as Joy, and Burkely Duffield as Eddie.Burkely Duffield joins the main cast in episode 15. He was absent for 5 episodes. (35, 37–38, 55-56)Bobby Lockwood was absent for 73 episodes. (3, 22, 13–81, 84–86)Klariza Clayton was absent for 8 episodes. (9, 31–34, 53–54)Alex Sawyer was absent for 3 episodes. (19, 53–54)Eugene Simon was absent for 2 episodes. (55–56)Tasie Dhanraj was absent for 4 episodes. (3, 35, 41, 58)=== Season 3: The Reawakening (2013) ===This season is subtitled The Reawakening.The season stars Brad Kavanagh as Fabian, Jade Ramsey as Patricia, Ana Mulvoy Ten as Amber episodes (1–10), Eugene Simon as Jerome, Alex Sawyer as Alfie, Tasie Lawrence as Mara, Klariza Clayton as Joy, Burkely Duffield as Eddie, Alexandra Shipp as KT, and Louisa Connolly-Burnham as Willow.Nathalia Ramos and Bobby Lockwood did not return to the series.Episodes are now 23 minutes each. (The first twelve episodes were aired over 6 weeks on Nickelodeon in an hour form, meaning 2 episodes aired on Nick every Thursday).The season was filmed from July 2012 through late January/early February 2013.There were 40 episodes in the season, adding up to a series total of 190 episodes.Susy Kane joined the cast this season as Caroline Denby, a new teacher who lives in the gatehouse.Tasie Dhanraj is now credited by her stage name Tasie Lawrence in the opening credits.Ana Mulvoy Ten leaves cast and doesn't appear in 30 episodes. (11–40)Francis Magee as Victor has been present in all episodes.Louisa Connolly-Burnham as Willow is absent for 2 episode (5,10).,=== Special: The Touchstone of Ra (2013) ===On May 21, 2013, Nickelodeon announced a special episode of House of Anubis, "Touchstone of Ra".On June 14, 2013, the special premiered on Nickelodeon (UK & Ireland), ahead of the U.S. premiere on TeenNick on June 17, 2013, and reached 90,000 views in UK and Ireland. Ratings of the premiere in other countries were never announced.== References ==General referencesShowatch at The Futon CriticHouse of Anubis: Episode Guide (Archived) at Zap2it== External links ==Official websiteList of House of Anubis episodes at IMDbHouse of Anubis at Majisuka Gakuen (マジすか学園) (lit. "Majisuka Academy") is a Japanese television drama series about high school delinquents, starring members of idol group AKB48. The first season aired in 2010 on TV Tokyo. A second season Majisuka Gakuen 2 was aired the following year. The 3rd Season was set in a different continuity from the previous seasons and was aired on July 13, 2012. In 2015, the series moved to NTV and the 4th Season, which returned to the same continuity as seasons 1 and 2, was aired on January 19, 2015. On the same year, a 5th Season was announced and for the first time will be aired exclusively on internet, by the streaming site Hulu (only in USA & Japan), because NTV will broadcast only the first two episodes (August 24), due to various scenes of violence, which does not justify full season showing on TV.A special spin-off from the fourth and fifth seasons of the series, titled Majisuka Gakuen 0: Kisarazu Rantōhen (マジすか学園0 木更津乱闘編, Majisuka Academy 0: The story of the Brawl at Kisarazu), is a prequel to season 4. It was the first to feature members of HKT48 as the main cast and was produced in collaboration with the rock group Kishidan. It was aired on November 28, 2015 on NTV at 25:05 JST and run for half an hour.Another spinoff titled Kyabasuka Gakuen was aired in 2016. It was set after the events of Season 4 and was an alternate continuity to Season 5. In a departure from the fistfighting theme of previous seasons, it saw the cast opening and running a hostess club. The latest iteration of the series is Majimuri Gakuen, aired in July 2018, which featured an entirely new cast and continuity and set at a different school.== Seasons ==== 1st Season Cast ===== Majisuka All-Girls High School ======= Homeroom 2-C ====Transfer StudentsAtsuko Maeda as Atsuko MaedaNachu as Daruma OnizukaTeam HormoneRino Sashihara as WotaRie Kitahara as UnagiAki Takajo as AkichaMoeno Nito as BungeeMika Komori as Mukuchi==== Rappapa (Wind Instrument Club) - "Top of Majijo" ====Yuko Oshima as Yuko Oshima, Rappapa HeadMariko Shinoda as Sado, Rappapa 2nd in CommandFour Heavenly QueensHaruna Kojima as TorigoyaRena Matsui as GekikaraYuki Kashiwagi as BlackTomomi Itano as Shibuya1st Year StudentsSayaka Nakaya as AnimeMiku Tanabe as JumboRumi Yonezawa as RiceHaruka Katayama as Showa==== Other Students ====3rd YearSayaka Akimoto as Chokoku2nd YearMinami Minegishi as Minami Minegishi, Student Council PresidentKabuki SistersTomomi Kasai as OokabukiAsuka Kuramochi as ShoukabukiSae Miyazawa as Gakuran1st YearSanshou ShimaiAika Oota as Love-tanManami Oku as ManamanaMiho Miyazaki as MyaoMayu Watanabe as NezumiErena Ono as ErenaJurina Matsui as CenterKumi Yagami as DanceKinmayu-KaiMiho Wakizawa as Leader (Unnamed)Mayu Co. as Unnamed OfficerAnzu Momoto as Unnamed MemberAnzu Ikehata as Unnamed MemberSHIN-YONG as Unnamed MemberSonomi Miyahayashi as Unnamed Member=== Yabakune All-Girls High School ===Asami Hihara as School Gang LeaderNatsu Andou as Migiude (2nd in Command)Amina Sato as ChiharuYukari Sato as Sanae=== Other Casts ===Eri Fuse as Yuriko Nojima (Majisuka all-girls school principal, ex-Rappapa Leader)Masahiro Komoto as Yoshiro Maeda (Maeda's father)Sawa Suzuki as Sachiko Maeda (Maeda's mother, ex-Yabakune Leader)Toru Tezuka as Kiken (Majisuka all-girls high school doctor)Susumu Kobayashi as Kuuki (Majisuka all-girls high school math teacher 2-C)Minami Takahashi as Minami Ono== 2nd Season Cast ===== Majisuka All-Girls High School ======= Rappapa (Wind Instrument Club) - "Top of Majijo" ====Yui Yokoyama as Otabe, Rappapa HeadAtsuko Maeda as Atsuko Maeda, Rappapa 2nd in CommandThe Big 4Rena Matsui as Amakuchi/Chuukara/GekikaraSae Miyazawa as YouranMinami Minegishi as Shaku (Ex.Student Council President)Kabuki Sisters (Nou・Kyougen Sisters)Asuka Kuramochi as ShoukabukiTomomi Kasai as OokabukiNachu as Daruma OnizukaTeam HormoneRino Sashihara as WotaRie Kitahara as UnagiMoeno Nito as BungeeMika Komori as MukuchiAki Takajo as Akicha==== Tsu no Ji Rengou ====Mayu Watanabe as NezumiJurina Matsui as Center==== Other Students ====2nd YearTeam UnderRumi Tonezawa as RiceMiku Tanabe as JumboSayaka Nakaya as AnimeHaruka Katayama as ShowaTeam FondueMina Oba as ToshimaHaruka Shimada as DocchiHaruka Shimazaki as KanburiSuzuran Yamauchi as TsuriMiori Ichikawa as Lemon=== Majisuka Graduates ===Yuko Oshima as Yuko Oshima, Ex-Rappapa HeadMariko Shinoda as Sado, Ex-Rappapa 2nd in CommandHaruna Kojima as Torigoya, Ex-Rappapa Big 4Yuki Kashiwagi as Black, Ex-Rappapa Big 4Tomomi Itano as Shibuya, Ex-Rappapa Big 4Sayaka Akimoto as Chokoku=== Yabakune All-Girls High School ===Hadashi no Kai (Habu)3rd YearTomomi Itano as Shibuya, Ex-Rappapa Big 4Amina Sato as ChiharuYukari Sato as SanaeMayumi Uchida as Janken2nd YearKumi Yagami as DanceMariya Nagao as MariyagiSumire Sato as SanshokuAyaka Kikuchi as ComebackAmi Maeda as MayugeSanshou Shimai NimaibaMiho Miyazaki as MyaoAika Oota as Love-tan1st YearKanon Kimoto as Miso==== Other Students ====Misaki Iwasa as MisakiShizuka Ooya as ShizukaHaruka Nakagawa as Haruka (ハルカ)Natsumi Matsubara as Natsumi (ナツミ)Ayaka Umeda as Ayaka (アヤカ)Tomomi Nakatsuka as TomomiMisato Nonaka as MisatoReina Fujie as ReinaSakiko Matsui as SakikoHaruka Ishida as Haruka (はるか)Kana Kobayashi as KanaShihori Suzuki as ShihoriNatsuki Sato as Natsuki (ナツキ)Natsumi Hirajima as Natsumi (なつみ)Yuka Masuda as YukaAnna Mori as Anna (あんな)Rina Izuta as IzuRena Kato as RenaRina Kawaei as RinaNatsuki Kojima as Natsuki (なつき)Marina Kobayashi as MarinaWakana Natori as WakanaNana Fujita as NanaAyaka Morikawa as Ayaka (あやか)=== Yabakune Graduates ===Asami Hihara as Ex-School Gang LeaderNatsu Andou as Migiude (Ex-2nd in Command)=== Sutegoro High School ===Shiori Nakamata as NakamataMaria Abe as MariaAnna Iriyama as Anna (アンナ)Miyu Takeuchi as MiyuMariko Nakamura as Mariko=== Others ===Minami Takahashi as Police InspectorYuko Oshima as Yuka / Yuki Oshima== 3rd Season Cast ===== Prison "HOPE" ======= Team Habu ====Haruka Shimazaki as ParuYuria Kizaki as PeaceMina Oba as DaasuKumi Yagami as KomimiRina Kawaei as NanashiKanon Kimoto as NanteneMaria Abe as TetsuoHaruka Shimada as UruseeyoJurina Matsui as Nobunaga==== Team Mongoose ====Anna Iriyama as An'ninMiyu Takeuchi as MiyuRena Kato as ShokakkuMiori Ichikawa as SudachiSuzuran Yamauchi as BunkerJuri Takahashi as MessiMariya Nagao as YagiAnna Murashige as Jovijovich==== Other Prisoners ====Rie Kitahara, Shiori Nakamata, Yuka Tano, Karen Iwata, Mariko Nakamura, and Akane Takayanagi as Unnamed Prisoners==== Prison Staff ====Yoriko Douguchi as Head of PrisonYasuji Kimura as Nozomu Dedokoro, Prison WardenKoiku Misawa, Tomoyasu Yamamoto, Daisuke Hibari, Yuichiro Suzuki, and Kenzo Fukutsu as Jailers=== Others ===Kazuki Fukuyama as Keita Yoyogi== 4th Season Cast ===== Majisuka All-Girls High School ===Sakura Miyawaki as Sakura Miyawaki, 2nd Year Transfer Student from Kagoshima==== Rappapa (Wind Instrument Club) - "Top of Majijo" ====Haruka Shimazaki as Salt, Rappapa HeadFour Heavenly QueensYui Yokoyama as OtabeRina Kawaei as BakamonoAnna Iriyama as YogaYuria Kizaki as Magic==== Team Hinabe (2nd Year) ====Juri Takahashi as UonomeRyoka Oshima as KusogakiMion Mukaichi as JisedaiRena Kato as DodobusuNatsuki Uchiyama as Kenpou==== Kamisori & Zombie (1st Year) ====Nana Owada as ZombieMako Kojima as Kamisori==== Other students ======== 3rd Year ====Rino Sashihara as Scandal (repeating 3rd Year)==== 2nd Year ====Karen Iwata as MasamuneChiyori Nakanishi as BusakawaMizuki Tsuchiyasu as YosakoiYuiri Murayama as DokuringoNana Okada as KatabutsuHikari Hashimoto as MuneatsuRena Nozawa as PeraperaSeina Fukuoka as HidarīRina Izuta as YanzunaSaho Iwatate as ErinkiWakana Natori as OjouRina Hirata as KurofuneMoe Goto as UirouMiyabi Ino as MeshiumaAyano Umeta as UmetaMoe Aigasa as YankeeMiki Nishino as OverMiori Ichikawa as LemonMitsuki Maeda as DekakawaNatsuki Kojima as EikōManami Ichikawa as SabasabaMayu Ogasawara as BirikenHaruka Shimada as Shimada=== Gekioko High School Nursing Department ======= 3rd Year ====Sayaka Yamamoto as Antonio, School Gang HeadMiyuki Watanabe as Coby, 2nd in Command==== 2nd Year ====Akari Suda as TsurishiMarika Tani as KYKaori Matsumura as ZakobossMiru Shiroma as ShirogikuFuuko Yagura as Kurobara==== Year Unknown (Most Likely 1st Year) ====Nao Furuhata as DivaRina Kondo as BukkomiKei Jonishi as DemekinNatsumi Tanaka as 170Anna Murashige as SiberiaShu Yabushita as KimotamaKanako Kadowaki as IbukuroAnna Ijiri as IjirīEriko Jo as JoeSae Murase as TekitōMai Fuchigami as OtenkiSerina Kumazawa as HamsterAiri Tanigawa as HandsomeMichelle Christo Kusnadi as Michelle=== Casual Diner: Asobina ===Minami Takahashi as Minami, Owner, Majisuka Graduate=== Majisuka Graduates ===Haruna Kojima as Kojiharu, Ex.Rappapa Big 4Nachu as Daruma Onizuka, HousewifeJurina Matsui as Center, NurseMayu Watanabe as Nezumi=== Yabakune All-Girls High School ===Mariya Nagao as Gekkou, New Gang HeadTomu Mutō as TsunSaya Kawamoto as Rookie=== 4th Season Gaiden ===EpisodesTeam Hinabe and Kamisori & Zombie, Seriously Battle (チーム火鍋とカミソリ&ゾンビ、マジでバトる, Chīmu Hinabe to Kamisori and Zombie, maji de batoru)Dodobusu seriously renamed!? (ドドブスがマジで改名!?, Dodobusu ga maji de kaimei!?)Kamisori is seriously a Slump!? (カミソリがマジでスランプ!?, Kamisori ga maji de suranpu!?)Seriously Gekioko Sneaks In! (マジで激尾高が潜入!, Maji de Gekiokō ga Sennyū!)Seriously Transfer Student Comes In! (マジで転校生がやってくる!, Maji de Tenkōsei ga Yatte kuru!)Uonome, Seriously Reasoning (ウオノメ、マジで推理する, Uonome, maji de suiri suru)== 5th Season Cast ===== Majisuka All-Girls High School ===Jurina Matsui as Center, Transfer Student; She quit being a nurse after she saw the news of Salt killed by an assassin.Haruka Kodama as Katsuzetsu, Transfer Student==== Rappapa (Wind Instrument Club) - "Top of Majijo" ====Haruka Shimazaki as Salt, Rappapa HeadFour Heavenly QueensSakura Miyawaki as Sakura Miyawaki, Vice-Rappapa HeadYui Yokoyama as OtabeAnna Iriyama as YogaYuria Kizaki as Magic==== Team Hinabe ====Juri Takahashi as UonomeRyoka Oshima as KusogakiMion Mukaichi as JisedaiRena Kato as DodobusuNatsuki Uchiyama as Kenpou==== 1st Year Students ====Nana Owada as ZombieMako Kojima as Kamisori==== Other students ====Nana Okada as Katabutsu=== Gekioko High School Nursing Department ===Sayaka Yamamoto as Antonio, School Gang HeadMiyuki Watanabe as Coby, 2nd in CommandAkari Suda as TsurishiMarika Tani as KYKaori Matsumura as ZakobossMiru Shiroma as ShirogikuFuuko Yagura as KurobaraAkari Yoshida as RedKei Jonishi as Demekin=== Yabakune All-Girls High School ===Megu Taniguchi as Head, Fifteenth generation GeneralNao Furuhata as SnakeMariya Nagao as GekkouTomu Mutō as KaibunSaya Kawamoto as RookieYuiri Murayama as CandyYuka Tano as Amon=== Casual Diner: Asobina ===Minami Takahashi as Minami, Owner, Majisuka Graduate=== Majisuka Graduates ===Rina Kawaei as Bakamono, Ex.Rappapa Four Heavenly Queens=== Cameo appearance ===Miyu Omori as Kaidan (ep.1), Cloud (ep.9)Ayana Shinozaki as Donkame (ep.1)Atsuko Maeda as Atsuko Maeda (ep.2)Yuko Oshima as Yuka Oshima (ep.2)Yuki Kashiwagi as Black (ep.2)Mayu Watanabe as Nezumi (ep.2)Haruna Kojima as Torigoya/Kojiharu (ep.2)Miyabi Ino as Meshiuma (ep.9)Ayaka Okada as Okamochi (ep.9)Haruka Shimada as Okami (ep.9)Karen Iwata as Anison (ep.9)Rena Nozawa as Speak (ep.9)Miki Nishino as Chicken (ep.9)Miona Hori as Nogi Female Student (ep.10)=== 5th Season Gaiden ===EpisodesLost Child Center (迷子センター, Maigo Sentā)Letter to Mother (お母さんへの手紙, Okāsan e no Tegami)Moving (引越し, Hikkoshi)Family Restaurant's Job Interview (ファミレスの面接, Fami Resu no Mensetsu)Graduation Ceremony (卒業式, Sotsugyōshiki)== Spin-Off Season: 0: Kisarazu Rantōhen ===== Kokorozashi Megumi Tōshika Joshi Shōgyō ===Sakura Miyawaki as Sakura Miyawaki; In prior to change school to Majisuka All-Girls High School, her hair is a long ponytail before it was cut short. She also tried to avoid fighting other Yankee.Haruka Kodama as Katsuzetsu; Always together with Sakura.Rino Sashihara as Ageman, Show's ex. girlfriend. She was previously a former Majisuka student of Team Hormone's leader as Wota.Chihiro Anai as NejiYui Kojina as NarushiRiko Sakaguchi as FukurotojiMeru Tashima as MegaphoneMiku Tanaka as OtonaNatsumi Matsuoka as OshiriNako Yabuki as NamaikiAika Ota as OgiMio Tomonaga as BōyomiMai Fuchigami as ChikokuAoi Motomura as GōkyūMadoka Moriyasu as KakuniEmiri Yamashita as Katakana=== Kisarazu Yankee Corps ===Show Ayanocozey as Show, Ageman's ex.boyfriendHikaru Saotome as MimiuchiHitomi Saionji as TeigakuHoshi Grandmarnier as TaigakuShouchikubai Shiratori as Master== Kyabasuka Gakuen (2016) ==== Majimuri Gakuen (2018) ==The story is set at Utopia Arashigaoka, a new town created by the real estate company Gosaki Land. In the Arashigaoka Gakuen private school, the students are divided into "elite" (選民, senmin) and "commoner" (平民, heimin) statuses with a strict social hierarchy, with Aran Gosaki, also known as Kaiser (Hinata Honma), at the top as the student council president. Sayuri "Lily" Shimizu (Yui Oguri), a mysterious girl with formidable fighting skills, transferred to the school and become friends with Hina Asahi (Rin Okabe), Ikumi "Bara" Kuwabara (Mion Mukaichi), and Sumire Yamamoto (Narumi Kuranoo). Calling themselves the Hana-gumi (花組, "Flower Group"), they fight to put an end to the school hierarchy and Kaiser's tyranny, while also facing the impending threat from the Arechi Technical School led by Manji (Yumiko Takino).Unlike previous installments, this season features co-educational schools and brawls between female and male students. Some of the male fighters are portrayed by real-life pro wrestlers and martial artists, such as kickboxer Yasuhiro Kido, pro wrestler Yukio Sakaguchi, and former Estonian sumo wrestler Baruto Kaito.The series was adapted into a stage play, which was performed on October 19-28, 2018 at the Nippon Seinenkan Hall, Tokyo. The stage play returned to an all-female cast lineup, and with the exception of Yui Kojina of HKT48 and the guest stars, all the named characters were portrayed by AKB48 members. Nana Okada portrayed the main antagonist, Nero.=== Majimuri Gakuen: Rai (2021) ===In February 2021, it was announced that a second stage play, titled Majimuri Gakuen: Rai (マジムリ学園 蕾-RAI-, Majimuri Gakuen: Flower Buds) would be produced and performed in the end of March. This stage play would be part of the seventh anniversary celebration of AKB48 Team 8, of which most of the series' main cast are members, and all the regular characters would be portrayed by members of that team.The play is set two years after the events of the first stage play, when the Hana-gumi have become senior students and gone their separate ways. While Lily is still the highly respected leader of the Hana-gumi, Hina has become the new student council president under the name "Null" and Sumire has reinvented herself as "Yasha" (夜叉) and formed her own group, the Hyakki Yagyō (百鬼夜行).== References ==== External links ==First season official website (in Japanese)Second season official website (in Japanese)Third season official website (in Japanese)Fourth season official website (in Japanese)Fifth season official website (in Japanese)Majisuka Gakuen at IMDb "Graduation Day" is the season finale of the WB Television Network's third season of the drama television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer, consisting of the twenty-first and twenty-second episodes. They were written and directed by series creator Joss Whedon. "Part 1" first aired on May 18, 1999 and "Part 2" first aired on July 13, 1999. The second part was to originally be aired on May 25, 1999, but was postponed due to the episode's content and the occurrence of the Columbine High School shootings one month prior.The episodes are the last to feature David Boreanaz as a series regular due to his starring in the spin-off series Angel. Fellow series regular Charisma Carpenter (Cordelia), who had been with the show since its first episode, also left the series to star alongside Boreanaz.== Plot ===== Part 1 ===The episode opens with the gang preparing for their graduation: Cordelia and Xander discuss the color of their gowns, and Willow speaks to Buffy about all she'll miss about high school. Buffy is considering skipping graduation to fight Mayor Wilkins, until Xander joins them and informs the two that the Mayor's to be the commencement speaker at graduation. Faith visits college professor Lester Worth on behalf of the Mayor, and kills him. She reports the kill to the Mayor, who has Faith change into a dress and tells her the ascension is her day as well as his. In class, Anya speaks to Xander and, when he mentions the ascension, her expression becomes grave.In the library, Buffy shows Giles and Wesley the newspaper which details the murder of Worth. Buffy suspects Faith to be the culprit and the three agree the professor must have known something the Mayor wanted kept secret. Xander and Anya arrive, Anya having experienced a previous ascension. She tells them about a sorcerer who became the pure-demon Lohesh - unlike human-demon hybrids like vampires, pure-demons are much stronger and much larger. The Mayor waltzes into the library and smugly comments that he'll eat Buffy come graduation day. Upon hearing this Giles, in a fit of rage, stabs him with a sword; but the Mayor is unharmed, and merely scolds Giles for his impetuous violence – a bad example in the presence of children. He leaves with the cheery promise that some of their deaths will be quick.At home, Buffy packs a suitcase for Joyce and convinces her to leave town for safety. Willow vents her worries to Oz, and chides him for his detachment; panic would be a more normal human response. Oz interrupts her with a passionate kiss, and when Willow asks what he's doing, he replies that he is "panicking". The two finally consummate their relationship.Buffy and Angel discuss Worth's work, which Buffy doesn't understand. The two discuss the confusing nature of their relationship, when Angel is struck in the back by an arrow fired by Faith, which misses his heart. At the library, the arrow is removed, and Giles and Wesley go over Mr. Worth's files, which indicate that Worth found a gigantic carcass underneath the rubble of a volcanic eruption, which he believed may have been a new type of dinosaur. The group assumes this must be some sort of demon, when Angel falls to the ground - the arrow has been poisoned with a toxin fatal to vampires. Faith reports her attack to the Mayor, and amuses him with a few stories from her childhood before he continues preparations for the ascension. Wesley tells Buffy the Watcher's Council refuses to help Angel because he is a vampire, but Willow's research reveals the poison has a cure - the blood of a Slayer.Buffy arrives at Faith's apartment intent on getting her blood. Faith warns Buffy that she'll never take her alive and a battle to the death ensues, eventually ending up on the roof. Meanwhile, Giles and Xander find that the Mayor will transform into the demon Olvikan, and find an unseen picture of him in a book - the illustration is four pages long. The Mayor is also alerted to the trouble at Faith's place. On the edge of the roof, Buffy stabs Faith with the knife Faith had received as a birthday gift from the Mayor. Faith congratulates Buffy for killing her, punches her to the ground with a brutal back hand, then leaps off the roof onto a truck on the street below to escape, denying Buffy her blood. The fall knocks her out, and Buffy watches as the truck carries her away.=== Part 2 ===Giles informs Cordelia that Buffy has quit the council and no longer requires a watcher. Buffy tells Angel that his only cure is the blood of a slayer and since he can not use Faith, he will have to use hers. Angel begs her to not make him drink, but succumbs after physical violence from Buffy, incapacitating her in the process. A fully healed Angel carries her to the hospital for treatment, meanwhile in a nearby room Mayor Wilkins is standing over Faith, beaten and comatose, being informed by the doctor that she may never wake up. The Mayor attempts to suffocate Buffy, but he is stopped by Angel and leaves.In a dream, Faith tells Buffy that "human weakness never goes away, even his". When Buffy wakes she approaches her friends, ready to go to war with the Mayor. In the library, Buffy finishes detailing a plan and the gang agree the plan is crazy, but is their only option. Angel remembers that the Mayor was seriously grieving over Faith. The Mayor and Buffy detail their respective plans to their allies, and Buffy's friends recruit other students to help. Wesley tells Cordelia that he will be returning to England following the ascension; they kiss.Buffy and Angel talk over weapons, and Angel tells Buffy he will not say goodbye after the battle. A grief-stricken Buffy unwraps the knife she used to stab Faith, still stained with her blood. The graduation ceremony begins and Principal Snyder welcomes the students before the Mayor takes the podium. During his speech he starts to convulse, an eclipse turns the sky into night, and the Mayor transforms into Olvikan, a giant snake-like demon. At Buffy's command, the entire student body removes their robes to reveal weapons and crosses. They attack Olvikan with flame throwers and arrows. The mayor’s vampires surface but Xander has a group fire flaming arrows at them, slaying many. They flee but run into Angel, Wesley and the sports jocks, who go hand to hand with them. Xander leads the students in an attack from the rear. One vampire feeds on Harmony. Olvikan strikes Larry and kills him, then devours the protesting Snyder.Buffy catches Olvikan's attention with Faith's knife, describing in graphic detail how she stabbed her. The demon chases Buffy through the school to the library, which has been filled with explosives. Buffy dives out a window and Giles detonates the explosives, blowing up the school and killing Olvikan. Giles presents Buffy with her diploma, rescued from the debris. Buffy then sees Angel and they share a final, longing look at each other before Angel leaves. The gang, minus Giles, gathers and Oz tells them all to take a moment to deal with what happened, that they all survived. Buffy agrees that it was a great battle, but Oz corrects her by saying it was high school they survived. The scene fades on a charred yearbook for Sunnydale Class of 1999.== Reception ==Reviews for the BBC said Part 1 lacked energy and the build-up to the Buffy-Faith confrontation was slow. It praised the humor and menace displayed in the library scenes. Part 2 was described as suitably epic for a season finale, preparing the ground for the Angel spin-off series and building to a fast-paced and large-scale climax. The final performances of Armin Shimerman as Principal Snyder, and Harry Groener as the Mayor, and throughout the season, were noted. Noel Murray of The A.V. Club said "Graduation Day" was a "wonderfully calibrated mix of life-lessons, dramatic moments, thrilling heroics and well-observed character interactions". He complimented the performance of Harry Groener.== Controversy ==During the time of its airing, the episode caused a great deal of controversy in the media. The Columbine High School massacre, which took place only four weeks before the airing of Part One, was widely blamed on violence in entertainment. The WB Television Network had already pulled the plug on an earlier episode, "Earshot" (which itself was not aired until September), and feared that several scenes in "Graduation Day, Part Two" would provoke high school students to do the same thing, especially those depicting the entire graduating class handling weapons against the Mayor.On May 25, 1999, only two hours before "Graduation Day, Part Two" was due to air, The WB suddenly decided to replace it with a re-run from earlier in the season, "Band Candy". This sudden move received huge attention in the media and thousands of letters were sent to the network demanding that the season finale be shown. Sarah Michelle Gellar publicly spoke out against the decision, Seth Green agreed that the episode should have been broadcast in its original slot. The incident was also lampooned in a segment on Comedy Central's The Daily Show in which then-host Jon Stewart joked that the episode was delayed "until the heat is off and networks can go back to being irresponsible". Stewart then quipped that "in addition to postponing the finale, WB executives are considering changing the show's name to Buffy, the Vampire Inconveniencer".The WB did not air the episode until July 13, 1999, almost two months after it was originally scheduled; since nearly all US schools end their term in May or June, it was then felt safe. The episode attracted 6.5 million viewers, which is typically high for the WB during summer, and comparable to what the other episodes of the season had received.As the episode was not delayed in Canada, many bootleg digital downloads were available.Joss Whedon, the creator of the show, stated, "Bootleg the puppy."== References ==== External links == Wolfblood is a British-German fantasy teen drama television series targeted at a young audience. Created by Debbie Moon, it is a co-production between CBBC and ZDF/ZDFE. The television series revolves around the life of the species known as wolfbloods. They are creatures that have enhanced senses and look like humans but can turn into wolves at will. Their transformation is uncontrolled during a full moon, and they are at their weakest during "the dark of the moon", at a new moon. The television series focuses on their daily life and the challenges that they face to hide their secret. Each series has new characters and concepts.The television series has won the Royal Television Society Award for the Children's Drama category in 2013. It also won the Banff Rockie Award in the category for 'Best Children's Programme (fiction)' in the same year. In 2015 the television series won the British Screenwriters' Award in the category 'Best British Children's Television'.== Cast ===== Main ===Aimee Kelly (series 1–2) as Madeline "Maddy" bucky boxBobby Lockwood (series 1–3) as Rhydian MorrisKedar Williams-Stirling (series 1–3) as Tom OkanaweLouisa Connolly-Burnham (series 1–3) as Shannon KellyLeona Vaughan (recurring: series 2, main: series 3–5, Wolfblood Secrets) as JanaLouis Payne (series 4–5, Wolfblood Secrets) as Terrence "TJ" CiprianiGabrielle Green (recurring: series 1–3, main: series 4–5, Wolfblood Secrets) as Katrina McKenzieJack Brett Anderson (series 4–5, Wolfblood Secrets) as Matei CovaciSydney Wade (series 4–5) as Emilia CovaciMichelle Gayle (series 4–5, Wolfblood Secrets) as Imara CiprianiRukku Nahar (series 4–5, Wolfblood Secrets) as Selina Khan=== Recurring ===Shorelle Hepkin (series 1–4) as Kay LawrenceRachel Teate (series 1–4) as Kara WatermanJonathan Raggett (series 1–3) as Jimi ChenNiek Versteeg (series 1–3, Wolfblood Secrets) as Liam HunterNahom Kassa (series 1–3) as SamMark Fleischmann (series 1–5, Wolfblood Secrets) as Mr. JeffriesMarcus Garvey (series 1–2) as Daniel "Dan" SmithAngela Lonsdale (series 1–2) as Emma SmithUrsula Holden-Gill (series 1–3) as Miss FitzgeraldSiwan Morris (series 1–3, Wolfblood Secrets) as CeriAlun Raglan (series 2–4) as AlricLisa Marged (series 2–4) as MeinirCerith Flinn (recurring: series 2–4, guest: series 5) as AranEffie Woods (series 2) and Letty Butler (series 3–5, Wolfblood Secrets) as Rebecca WhitewoodDean Bone (series 2–3) as Harry AverwoodRichard Harrington (series 3) as GerwynMandeep Dhillon (series 3) as Dacia TurnerJacqueline Boatswain (series 3–4) as Victoria SweeneyShaun Dooley (series 3) as Alexander "Alex" KincaidNatasha Goulden (series 4–5) as RobynChloe Hesar (series 4) as CarrieFraser James (series 4–5) as MadocRod Glenn (series 4-5) as Warrior WolfbloodAndrew Scarborough (series 5) as Joshua HartingtonLaura Greenwood (series 5) as HafrenRuby Barker (series 5) as Daisie== Plot ==Series 1 deals with Maddy Smith and Rhydian Morris trying to balance their lives as wolfbloods with their human sides, while trying to keep their secret from being exposed. The start of the show sees Maddy, who lives with her wolfblood family in Stoneybridge, Northumbria, coming ever closer to her first transformation. When new boy Rhydian arrives at Bradlington High School, Maddy recognises him as being a wolfblood too. Rhydian, who lives with his foster family, has only recently started changing into a wolf, having been unaware of wolfbloods prior to his move to Stoneybridge. The Smith family claim him as a distant cousin, and help him settle in and learn about the wolfblood way of life. Rhydian becomes friends with Maddy's best friends Tom and Shannon, who are unaware of Maddy's and Rhydian's secret. As the series ends Tom and Shannon finally learn the truth.A webisode titled The Scape Goat takes place between the first and second series. Jana, daughter of wild wolfblood pack leader Alric, persuades Rhydian to take her to a town so that she can experience the human world. Upon their return to the forest they are discovered and Alric, already disgusted by Rhydian's failure on his first hunt, sentences him to be tied to a rock without food or water for a fortnight. Sensing that Alric is bent upon Rhydian's destruction come what may, Rhydian's biological mother, Ceri, secretly helps him to escape.Series 2 is set three months after the series 1 finale. Jana arrives in Stoneybridge, claiming to have been exiled from the wild wolfblood pack. Despite occasional conflicts with Maddy, she befriends Maddy, Rhydian, Tom and Shannon and falls in love with the human world. Eventually she leaves to become the new wild wolfblood pack leader, her father having been exiled. It is discovered that Shannon is spying on the Smiths and collecting information on werewolves. When Maddy is almost killed as a result, she decides to destroy all of the data she has gathered. Liam, a boy at their school, then also begins investigating werewolves. Suspicious of the Smith family, he steals a dog chew from which Dr. Whitewood is able to extract and analyse a sample of the DNA of Maddy's father. With the results proving that the Smiths are not human they are forced to leave the country and, with the help of a contact, go to Canada. At the series' conclusion Maddy says goodbye to her friends and confesses her love for Rhydian.Between series 2 and series 3 seven webisodes known as Jana Bites take place. They tell the story of Jana's adventures as pack leader of the wild wolfbloods, and end with her being shot and injured while trying to lead hunters away from the pack. This leads to her reappearance in series 3.Series 3 is set two months after Maddy and her family leave Stoneybridge. Rhydian is heartbroken after Maddy's departure. Jana returns from the wild wolfblood pack in dire need of help, bringing with her new allies. Together with his friends, Tom, Shannon and Jana, Rhydian attempts to focus on life beyond school and Stoneybridge. Rhydian meets a new wolfblood named Dacia from a biotech company called Segolia, which assists wolfbloods and helped the Smiths to leave the country. She tells him that Maddy and her parents are safe in Canada, and offers him a job with the company which is secretly run by wolfbloods and their human allies. It transpires that Segolia is researching the medical uses of wolfblood DNA. They are particularly interested in Jana and her wild pack because they have special abilities, verging on telepathy or magic, that are lost to other wolfbloods. Dr. Whitewood reappears, still desperate to find evidence of wolfbloods, but Dacia prevents her from revealing the wolfblood secret by bribing her with the offer of a job at Segolia. As the series accelerates towards a climax, Rhydian must unite the wild wolfblood pack or their species will face extinction. The series ends with Rhydian reuniting with Maddy (both in wolf form) in the snow in Canada.Set between series 3 and 4 is an animated motion comic on the CBBC website known as New Moon Rising. Victoria Sweeney, the head of Segolia's security, sends Jana to investigate an elderly wolfblood and his nurse, while Shannon and Tom visit Rhydian and Maddy in Canada. This comic makes a "happy ending" for Rhydian, Maddy, her family and friends, as the characters all left the show.Series 4 is set in a big city that Jana moves to after leaving Stoneybridge, where she joins her former classmate Katrina (who now runs her uncle's "Kafe" café) and Mr Jeffries (her ex-head teacher turned author of "Bloodwolf" young adult novels). The city is unnamed, but the Tyne Bridge in Newcastle appears in some scenes and also the new animated opening credits.Jana meets three new wolfblood families - brother and sister Matei and Emilia from Eastern Europe, TJ and his mother Imara who are Afro-Caribbean, and Selina and her parents who are Muslims. They become the catalyst for the formation of a new pack. With the wolfblood secret looking increasingly fragile, the pressures on Jana grow, forcing her to question where she truly belongs and who she can trust. This leads to a cataclysmic decision that will change all of their lives forever.Set between series 4 and 5 is an animated motion comic on the CBBC website known as Hunter's Moon.Also between series 4 and 5 ten mini-episodes known as Wolfblood Secrets take place. It consisted of scenes set in an office run by an unnamed organisation where members of the series 4 cast were interviewed by 2 mysterious characters - Mr. Smith, and his superior, Ms. Jones - who want to know all they can about Wolfbloods. This was intercut with clips from Wolfblood episodes to illustrate what they are talking about. Jones returns as a character in series 5.Series 5 begins with the secret no longer a secret, and the world has changed for Jana, Matei, Selina, TJ, and Imara. Suddenly they're the most visible wolfbloods on the planet, and everyone has an opinion about what they did. Some humans are excited by the reveal of this new species – and some are hostile and scared. As tensions rise on both sides, difficult choices lie ahead.== Production ==Wolfblood was created after series creator Debbie Moon, during a visit to a bookshop, saw the words "wolf" in one book title and "blood" in another and blended them together. The series was commissioned after the BBC Writersroom website announced an open call for children's drama scripts. Moon was among eight writers taken to a conference centre in Kent, and, after a few days of intensive development, it became one of two new original children's dramas to be commissioned by CBBC. The series was filmed in the north-east of England by the same crew who filmed Tracy Beaker Returns. Early series filming locations included Hookergate School and the woods of the surrounding Rowlands Gill countryside, from series 4 onwards the filming moved to at Heworth Grange Comprehensive in East Gateshead (Hawthorn Comprehensive in the series) and the areas around Windy Nook and Newcastle.Production for series 1 began in February 2012 and ran until May 2012. It was shot in 3 production blocks: episodes 1–4, episodes 5–8, and episodes 9–13. A second series was confirmed after the final episode of the first series had aired. Filming for the second series began February 2013 and ended May 2013. All of the directors were new to the series, and it was shot in four production blocks: episodes 1–4, episodes 5–8, episode 9, and episodes 10–13. Filming for the third series began in February 2014 and ended in May 2014 and the series aired from 15 September until 27 October 2014.== Episodes ==== DVD ==The first three series are available on DVD in the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, and Germany (the latter has also released the series in Blu-ray format). They are also available in many other countries via Amazon and other online retailers.== Awards and nominations ==== Spin-off ==The second series was accompanied by a 10 part wildlife spin-off series exploring wolves, hosted by Bobby Lockwood. This has been produced by the BBC Natural History Unit, entitled Wolfblood Uncovered; it began airing on 9 September 2013. Wolfblood Uncovered compares scenes in Wolfblood with facts about real wolves, and points out how wolf behavior is reflected in the actions of the characters in the story, such as living in packs, defending territory against rivals, fear of fire and enclosed spaces, reliance on sense of smell and a carnivorous diet.== References ==== External links ==Wolfblood at BBC Online Wolfblood at IMDb Nathalia Norah Ramos Cohen (born July 3, 1992) is an American actress known for her portrayals of Yasmin in the 2007 film Bratz, Jill in the 2013 film The Damned, and lead character Nina Martin in the 2011 Nickelodeon television series House of Anubis.== Early life ==Ramos was born in Madrid, Spain. Her mother is from Australia and her father is Juan Carlos Ramos Vaquero, known by his stage name, "Iván", a Spanish pop singer. She moved to Melbourne, Australia at age two, then relocated to Miami when she was four, and grew up there. Ramos attended North Beach Elementary, Nautilus Middle School in Miami Beach and briefly attended Miami Beach Senior High during her freshman year. She then moved to Los Angeles and graduated from Beverly Hills High School and attended and graduated from the University of Southern California with a degree in Political Science with a concentration in South East Asian politics in 2018. She is Jewish, as is her mother.Ramos became an American citizen on June 2, 2016.== Career ==In 2007, Ramos appeared in the theatrical Bratz motion picture, playing the leading role of Yasmin. She made a brief appearance in the music video for Prima J's single "Rockstar" which was a tie-in with the Bratz film and was featured on the film's official soundtrack and provided her voice for the Bratz 4 Real video game. She was featured in an episode of the Nickelodeon series True Jackson, VP, portraying an unpredictable teenage supermodel. She had a role in 31 North 62 East, a psychological thriller film directed by British director Tristan Loraine.Ramos starred in the Nickelodeon television series House of Anubis for two seasons as the lead character, Nina Martin, who travels to England in order to attend a mysterious boarding school. She stated that she would not return to House of Anubis for a third season due to her concentrating on college.In 2012, Ramos was cast in the 2013 horror film The Damned (originally titled Gallow's Hill), playing Jill, the daughter of Peter Facinelli's character.== Filmography ===== Film ====== Television ====== Music video and video game ===Video game: Bratz 4 Real (2007), as YasminMusic video promo for Bratz: The Movie: "Rockstar" (2009) by Prima J== References ==== External links ==Nathalia Ramos at IMDb"

[ "2006"]

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"What are the names of the current members of American heavy metal band who wrote the music for Hurt Locker The Musical? Daniel Alan Spitz (born January 28, 1963) is an American musician and watchmaker best known for his work as the lead guitarist of the American heavy metal band Anthrax from 1983 to 1995 and from 2005 to 2008. With Anthrax, Spitz was nominated for three Grammy awards and earned several platinum albums. Spitz also founded the Christian music group Red Lamb, which was known for lyrics on autism awareness. Spitz has earned Swiss and American degrees in luxury mechanical watchmaking and micro-mechanical engineering, certified as watchmaker instructor for the North American operations of Swiss watch company Chopard.== Career ==Dan Spitz was an early member of Overkill in 1981 and joined Anthrax in 1983. From 1983 to 1995, he was lead guitarist and backing vocalist on the Anthrax albums Fistful of Metal, Armed and Dangerous, Spreading the Disease, Among the Living, State of Euphoria, Persistence of Time and Sound of White Noise, earning him multiple RIAA-certified gold and platinum records. Anthrax sold more than 30 million albums worldwide during this period.In 1995, Spitz left Anthrax to pursue a career in luxury Swiss watchmaking, attending the Swiss watchmaking school WOSTEP on a full scholarship. He was certified a Mechanical Complications Specialist, earning Swiss degrees in micro-mechanical engineering, and opened his own luxury watch service. In 2012 Spitz was voted the number 1 interview of the year for the watchmaking magazine Hodinkee. In 2016, the production company Great Big Story produced a documentary on Spitz's work as a watchmaker.Spitz reunited with Anthrax for a classic lineup reunion tour in 2005, appearing on the tour DVD Alive 2. He left the band again in 2008 to return to his watchmaking career. In 2010 Spitz formed a new Christian rock/metal band Red Lamb, which also included singer Don Chaffin from Voices of Extreme and keyboardist Chris Vrenna. Dave Mustaine was an early member but ultimately stepped back into a songwriting role with Spitz. Mustaine and Spitz wrote the song "Puzzle Box" which was claimed to be the first heavy metal song to deal with autism; the song's video featured Bob and Suzanne Wright, co-founders of Autism Speaks. In 2017, Spitz formed another Christian metal band with former Journey drummer Deen Castronovo.== Personal life ==Spitz was born in a small town in Rockland County, New York as the second son of a lawyer and a high school substitute teacher. Spitz comes from an orthodox Levite tribe Jewish family and converted to Christianity / Messianic Judaism in 1993. His older brother is heavy metal bassist/guitarist Dave Spitz.Spitz has two daughters from his first marriage. Spitz also has identical twin sons who were born in 2007; they were diagnosed with autism at 16 months of age. The Spitz twins were in numerous films and television commercials before their autism diagnosis, including the film Away We Go.In June 2009, Spitz had a massive heart attack, causing him to undergo an emergency triple bypass. He fully recovered but required stents in many arteries.Spitz divorced his second wife in 2014.== Equipment ==Spitz was originally known for his use of Jackson Guitars (he was famous for his Jackson Randy Rhoads model with the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles painted on them), and he collaborated on guitar designs with Grover Jackson. During the Anthrax Reunion tour, Spitz endorsed Paul Reed Smith Guitars, using a custom model with a "Spitz" head stock. This guitar was also painted with Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles by tattoo artist and painter JR Linton. Spitz terminated his endorsement with PRS after leaving Anthrax in 2007.In the early days of Anthrax, Spitz used Marshall amplifiers, using one of the first incarnations of a pre JCM800 derived from a collaboration with Jim Marshall. Around the time of "Among the Living," Spitz switched to Mesa/Boogie, using many Mark IIC heads modified by Spitz. During the Anthrax Reunion in 2005–2007, Spitz used Matchless heads and Marshall point-to-point wired 2203 modded heads he hand-built himself that were pushed by a Keeley-modded Boss DS-1.== Discography ===== Anthrax ===Fistful of Metal (1984)Armed and Dangerous (1985)Spreading the Disease (1985)Among the Living (1987)State of Euphoria (1988)Persistence of Time (1990)Sound of White Noise (1993)Alive 2 (2005)=== Red Lamb ===Red Lamb (2012)== References == Nathan Jonas Jordison (April 26, 1975 – July 26, 2021) was an American musician who was the drummer and co-founder of metal band Slipknot as well as guitarist for horror punk band Murderdolls. Jordison grew up in Des Moines, Iowa, with his parents and two sisters, and was given his first drum kit at the age of 8. He performed with many bands early in his career; then in the summer of 1995, he joined the group The Pale Ones, which would later change their name to Slipknot. Jordison played in Slipknot since their formation until his departure from the band in December 2013. Of Slipknot's nine-member lineup, which lasted from 1999–2010, Joey was the third to join the band. He was the drummer and founder of Scar the Martyr, which formed in 2013 and disbanded in 2016. With Slipknot, Jordison performed on four studio albums, and produced the live album 9.0: Live. Outside his major projects, Jordison performed with other metal groups such as Rob Zombie, Metallica, Korn, Ministry, Otep, and Satyricon. Jordison was also known for his session work, which includes performances on many albums for many artists. Jordison used several drum brands including Pearl and ddrum. Before his death, he was playing for the band Sinsaenum.== Early life ==Jordison was born in Des Moines, Iowa, on April 26, 1975, to Steve and Jackie Jordison. He had two younger sisters. He grew up in a rural area outside of Waukee where he used to play basketball on the street in front of his house. He embraced music at an early age, which he attributes to his parents' influence: "They always sat me down in front of the radio, rather than the TV." He played guitar until receiving his first drum kit as a gift from his parents at age eight, and started his first band while in elementary school.Jordison's parents divorced when he was young. The children stayed with their mother. His mother remarried and set up a funeral parlor where Jordison would occasionally help. Jordison stated that he felt a sudden responsibility to be the man of the house. During this time, he formed the band Modifidious, in which he played drums. He later described them as "total speed-metal thrash". The band helped Jordison break new ground, playing live as support to local bands including Atomic Opera, featuring Jim Root, and Heads on the Wall, featuring Shawn Crahan. He also played at a bowling center his family owned, on a night called "Bowl-O-Rama". After a multitude of lineup changes—including Craig Jones and Josh Brainard, who would reappear in Slipknot—the band released two demos in 1993: Visceral and Mud Fuchia.After leaving school, Jordison was hired by a local music store called Musicland. In March 1994, after a recommendation from his new friend, he got a job at a Sinclair garage in Urbandale. Jordison worked the night shift, which he preferred, as it left his weekends free and allowed him to spend time with his friends and listen to music while working. In early 1995, Modifidious disbanded because of a shift in interest from thrash metal to death metal in America. Following this Jordison joined a local band called The Rejects as a guitarist, with whom he only played a couple of shows. Jordison was also involved in a band with Paul Gray and vocalist Don Decker, named Anal Blast. Gray also attempted to recruit him for another band, Body Pit, but he declined the invitation to remain in The Rejects. During the forming period of Slipknot, Paul recruited Joey to join a punk band called the Have Nots in the Spring of 1996. Joey would leave the Have Nots in February 1997 to "focus on Slipknot" but instead reformed the Rejects, which would play Des Moines up until Slipknot left to record Slipknot's self-titled album, which Paul played in after the Have Nots broke up.== Career ===== Slipknot ===On November 28, 1995, Mark Anthony Cadavos approached Jordison while he was working, offering him a position in a new project called The Pale Ones. Intrigued and at a point where he was "lost", Jordison attended rehearsals at Anders Colsefni's basement and immediately wanted to be part of this new band. Speaking of this moment he said, "I remember trying so hard not to smile, so I didn't look like I wanted to join, I remained poker-faced, but I thought they ruled." A lot of Slipknot's early development was discussed by band members while Jordison worked night shifts at Sinclair's garage. Of the eventual nine members, Joey was the third to join the band. Slipknot would become pioneers to the new wave of American heavy metal. Jordison was accompanied by two custom percussionists, giving their music a feel that Rolling Stone touted as "suffocating".Each member of Slipknot is assigned a number; Joey was assigned "#1". Joey produced one album with Slipknot: 2005 live album 9.0: Live. In August 2008, Jordison broke his ankle and Slipknot had to cancel some of its English tour dates. On August 22, 2009, Jordison was taken to the emergency room for a burst appendix, less than an hour before he was to take the stage for Auburn, Washington's KISW Pain in the Grass concert. As a result, Slipknot canceled following shows in August and September, to give Jordison time to recover.On December 12, 2013, Slipknot announced through their official website that Jordison had left the band, citing personal reasons for his departure. In response, Jordison released a statement insisting that he had in fact been fired from the band and stated that Slipknot "has been my life for the last 18 years, and I would never abandon it, or my fans".After years of both sides being silent and evasive as to the reasons for his leaving the band, Jordison revealed in June 2016 that he suffered from transverse myelitis, a neurological disease that cost him the ability to play the drums toward the end of his time with Slipknot.=== Murderdolls ===While touring Ozzfest in 2001 to support Slipknot's studio album Iowa, Jordison met Tripp Eisen, then of Static-X; the two discussed forming a side project. In 2002, Jordison revived his band The Rejects, renaming them the Murderdolls. Jordison became the Murderdolls' guitarist, and he recruited Wednesday 13 of Frankenstein Drag Queens from Planet 13 to play bass. Wednesday eventually became a vocalist, while drummer Ben Graves and bassist Eric Griffin completed the band's lineup. Murderdolls signed with Roadrunner Records and released an EP entitled Right to Remain Violent in 2002. The band returned in August 2002 with their debut album Beyond the Valley of the Murderdolls. The band uses horror films, including Friday the 13th and Night of the Living Dead, as an inspiration for their lyrics. On October 30, 2002, the Murderdolls made an appearance on an episode of Dawson's Creek entitled "Living Dead Girl". The band reunited in 2010 with only Jordison and Wednesday 13 remaining from the original line-up. The band released their second studio album Women & Children Last on August 31, 2010. The band embarked on the extensive Women & Children Last World Tour performing shows alongside many notable acts such as Guns N' Roses and performing around the world. The tour was plagued with many problems including the cancellation of many shows and repeated incidents of Jordison storming off stage, most notably in Bordeaux, France (attributed to extreme tinnitus) and Perth, Western Australia. The tour finished on April 24, 2011. This was considered to be the band's last outing as Wednesday 13 confirmed the band's split in an interview in March 2013.=== Scar the Martyr ===In April 2013 details emerged of a new band featuring Jordison, Jed Simon and Kris Norris. Little else was released except that Jordison had performed most instruments in this project and that Chris Vrenna and an unknown vocalist were to complete keyboard and vocal work, respectively. On June 21 the band was named Scar the Martyr and the vocalist named as Henry Derek. On May 5, 2016, Jordison announced that the project had been disbanded.=== Vimic ===On May 5, 2016, Jordison announced in an interview on Sirius XM that he had launched a new band called Vimic. In an interview with Wall of Sound in 2018, Jordison explained Vimic was "still 100% active".=== Sinsaenum ===On May 20, 2016, Jordison announced a new extreme metal band Sinsaenum, dual fronted by vocalist Attila Csihar (of Mayhem and Sunn O)))) along with keyboardist Sean Zitarsky ( of Chimaira and Dååth). The band also included Jordison on drum duties, DragonForce bassist Frédéric Leclercq on guitar, Stéphane Buriez from Loudblast on guitar, and Heimoth from the band Seth on bass. They announced the launch of their debut album Echoes of the Tortured on July 29, and released their first single "Army Of Chaos" on earMUSIC's YouTube channel. The second album, called Repulsion for Humanity, was released on August 10, 2018.=== Other projects ======= Remixing and performances ====In 2001, Jordison worked on a remix of "The Fight Song" by Marilyn Manson. Jordison also appeared in the music video for Manson's cover of "Tainted Love". Later in the year, Manson revealed that Jordison had been working with him on his album The Golden Age of Grotesque. Jordison had in fact worked on guitars but the track did not appear on the album. In 2004, Jordison appeared on OTEP's album House of Secrets, drumming on six tracks for the album. In 2008, Jordison appeared on Puscifer's album "V" is for Viagra. The Remixes, with a remix of the track "Drunk With Power". In 2010, Jordison recorded four additional songs with Rob Zombie for the re-release of his latest album Hellbilly Deluxe 2.==== On tour ====Jordison performed with other bands, solely as a touring member. While preparing for the Download Festival in 2004, Metallica drummer Lars Ulrich was hospitalized for an unknown illness. Metallica's vocalist James Hetfield searched amongst other bands performing at the festival to find a replacement for Ulrich; Jordison, Flemming Larsen (Ulrich's drum technician) and Dave Lombardo of Slayer volunteered. Jordison performed on 8 of the 13 songs that made up the set and was called the band's "hero of the day". In late 2004, Jordison performed with Satyricon on their tour of the United States when drummer Frost was refused entry into the country. The tour was cut short after guitarists Steinar Gundersen and Arnt Gronbech—who were also only touring members—were charged with sexually assaulting a fan in Toronto. In 2006, Jordison joined Ministry for their "MasterBaTour 2006", which consisted of sixty dates across the United States and Canada. He also appeared in the music video for their single "Lies Lies Lies". Korn recruited Jordison in 2007 to join them on tour when drummer David Silveria went on hiatus from the band. He also appeared in the music video for their single "Evolution". While touring with Korn, Jordison became the first musician to perform on five occasions at the Download Festival in England. Jordison also began touring with Rob Zombie after Tommy Clufetos withdrew from the band. Although the position was initially only meant for a couple of months, Jordison stayed with the band for almost a year until the culmination of Zombie's Australian tour when he announced that he would be leaving to focus his time on the Murderdolls and Slipknot.==== Producing ====In August 2004, Jordison became involved in Roadrunner United, a celebration of Roadrunner Records' 25th anniversary. As one of four "team captains" who wrote and produced material for the album, Jordison said of the experience, "I thought it was a great idea and was really excited about it, because it was a chance to work with a lot of artists that I really respected while I was growing up." In 2007, 3 Inches of Blood recruited Jordison to produce their album Fire Up the Blades. Jordison was a fan of the band and when he heard that Roadrunner wanted to have some demos produced he said; "I was the first one to jump at it, I'm like; 'I want this fucking band'." From these demos the label commissioned a record. Vocalist Jamie Hopper said of Jordison, "he's an amazing producer".== Influences ==Jordison cited Keith Moon, John Bonham, Gene Krupa, and Buddy Rich as his main influences. He said, "I grew up listening to Mötley Crüe's Too Fast for Love and Shout at the Devil." He described Lars Ulrich, Charlie Benante, and Dave Lombardo as having a considerable influence on his drumming. Jordison also held Dale Crover from Melvins in high esteem.== Equipment ==Jordison endorsed Pearl drums, hardware, rack system, pedals and percussion, Paiste cymbals, Remo drumheads, Pro-Mark drumsticks, ddrum triggers and Roland electronics.== Illness and death ==In 2016, Jordison talked about suffering from acute transverse myelitis in a Metal Hammer interview. Its symptoms started in 2010 while touring with Murderdolls, but the disease was diagnosed long after. This progressed to the loss of use of his left leg. The neurological disease had temporarily cost him the use of his legs and caused him to be unable to play the drums before rehabilitation. He recovered with the aid of medical help and intensive work in the gym.On July 27, 2021, Jordison's family announced he had died in his sleep on July 26, 2021, at the age of 46.== Awards and recognition ==In August 2010 Jordison was voted the best drummer of the previous 25 years by readers of Rhythm magazine, ahead of drummers such as Mike Portnoy, Neil Peart, Phil Collins, and Dave Grohl. When asked to comment he stated "I'm at a loss for words. This is beyond unbelievable. Something like this reminds me every day why I continue to do this."As voted on by 6,500 drummers worldwide, Jordison won the Drummies Award for Best Metal drummer in 2010. In September 2013 Jordison was named the world's greatest metal drummer by readers of Loudwire.In 2016 Jordison was honored with The Golden God Award at the Metal Hammer Golden Gods Awards.== Discography ==With Modifidious1993: Drown1993: Submitting to Detriment1993: Visceral1994: Mud Fuchia1994: SprawlWith The Have Nots1996: Forgetting Yesterday and Beating You with KindnessWith Slipknot1996: Mate. Feed. Kill. Repeat.1998: Slipknot demo1999: Slipknot1999: Welcome to Our Neighborhood2001: Iowa2002: Disasterpieces2004: Vol. 3: (The Subliminal Verses)2005: 9.0 Live2006: Voliminal: Inside the Nine2008: All Hope Is Gone2010: (sic)nesses2012: Antennas to HellWith Murderdolls2002: Right to Remain Violent (EP)2002: Beyond the Valley of the Murderdolls2010: Women and Children LastWith Roadrunner United2005: The All-Star Sessions2008: The ConcertWith The Rejects2012: Love Songs for People Who Hate2014: Strung Out, Pissed Off and Ready To DieWith Scar the Martyr2013: Revolver EP2013: Metal Hammer EP2013: Scar the MartyrWith VimicTBA: Open Your OmenWith Sinsaenum 2016: Sinsaenum (EP)2016: A Taste of Sin (EP)2016: Echoes of the Tortured2017: Ashes (EP)2018: Repulsion for Humanity=== As featured artist ===== Filmography ==== References ==== Bibliography ==Arnopp, Jason (2001). Slipknot: Inside the Sickness, Behind the Masks. Ebury. ISBN 0-09-187933-7.== Further reading ==Joey Jordison obituary in The GuardianJoey Jordison obituary in Rolling Stone== External links ==Slipknot official websiteJoey Jordison at IMDbJoey Jordison's Pearl Artist PageJoey Jordison discography at Discogs Metal Health is the third studio album by American heavy metal band Quiet Riot. It was released on March 11, 1983, bolstered by the No. 5 hit "Cum On Feel the Noize" and the No. 31 hit "Metal Health". Metal Health is the first heavy metal album ever to reach the top spot on the Billboard 200, replacing the Police's Synchronicity at number one in November 1983, because of that placement, it has been called the start of the hair metal era. The album went on to sell more than ten million copies worldwide.== Overview ==Quiet Riot went on a tour the same year and supported Black Sabbath on their Born Again tour in the US."Slick Black Cadillac" is a re-recorded version of the same song from Quiet Riot II.The song "Thunderbird" is dedicated to guitarist and founding member Randy Rhoads. Although the bulk of the song was written for Rhoads while he was still alive, Kevin DuBrow added one final verse as a tribute to Rhoads after he died in a plane crash on March 19, 1982.Some critics, such as AllMusic, describe it as a one-hit wonder, owing to Quiet Riot's relative lack of critical and commercial success with following albums (and subsequent disintegration) towards the end of the 1980s. The title track was ranked No. 35 on VH1's 40 Greatest Metal Songs.== Track listing ==== Personnel ===== Quiet Riot ===Kevin DuBrow – lead vocalsCarlos Cavazo – guitars, backing vocalsRudy Sarzo – bass guitar, backing vocalsFrankie Banali – drums, backing vocals=== Additional personnel ===Chuck Wright – bass guitar on "Metal Health" & "Don't Wanna Let You Go"Tony Cavazo - bass guitar on "Cum on Feel the Noize"Riot Squad - backing vocalsTuesday Knight – backing vocals (10)Spencer Proffer – backing vocalsDonna Slattery– backing vocalsPat Regan - Keyboards=== Production ===Arranged by Quiet RiotProduced by Spencer ProfferRecorded and mixed by Duane Baron at The Pasha Music HouseAll songs published by The Grand Pasha Publisher, except "Cum on Feel the Noize" (Barn Publishing, Inc)=== Design ===Quiet Riot – artworkJay Vigon – art direction, designSam Emerson – photographyRon Sobol – photographyStan Watts – illustrations== Chart positions ===== Album ===== Certifications ==== Accolades ==== References == Obús is a Spanish heavy metal band founded in Madrid, Spain in 1980. They stood out because they took the risk of making a big spectacle in their concerts, to reach to the level of other international heavy metal bands. In addition, the lyrics they write and the feelings they transmit connect with the people that follow them. As they said in an interview: "All our songs, some more and some less, have a meaning". Far away from renouncing to their genre, they have always claimed that they were a heavy metal band, and they wrote a song about this genre in their first album called, "Dosis de Heavy Metal". In 2012, because of their 30th anniversary, they did a tour around Spain.== History ==Early in 1980, two young men from Madrid, Juan Luis Serrano and Francisco Laguna, (bass and guitar), who had been together in other bands such as Red Box or Madrid 20, decided to form Obús.In 1981, they won the Rock festival of Villa de Madrid, and they opened for the veteran band, Barón Rojo. Soon after, they recorded Prepárate, produced by record producer and Spanish singer Tino Casal. This first album was successful and their popularity rose. The song that gives the name to the album reached the number 1 in the 40 Principales radio station, the Spanish Top 40 chart. On 6 November 1981, the band presented the album in a massive concert at the Real Madrid stadium.Their 1982 album, Poderoso como el Trueno (produced as well by Tino Casal), and their following release, El que Más (1984), saw a high volume of album sales. This last album was recorded with sound engineer Mark Dodson (producer of Judas Priest), and included the popular hits, "El que más", "Autopista", "La raya", "FM", "Alguien" and "Viviré". "Alguien" was written by Adrian Smith from Iron Maiden. Obús fought for the relevance of the Spanish heavy metal, giving big concerts in different festivals such as the concerts of June 1985 in the Casa de Campo, in the Spanish Communist Party (PCE) annual festival, in front of over 20,000 people.The official live album, recorded in the pavilion of sports of Madrid on 21 February 1987 is considered their apex. It was followed by a period with ups and downs until they presented their studio album, Otra Vez En la Ruta, in 1990. The band subsequently undertook a hiatus.During the time they were separated, Fortu joined Saratoga, a band made up by veteran rock musicians from bands such as Barón Rojo, Muro and Santa. A band with former members of such successful bands was thought to be impossible at the time, however, the collaboration between members gave birth to one of the best bands in the Spanish metal scene. The first album they wrote, Saratoga, (same name as the band) managed to bring a full house to the Sala Agualung, in Madrid, one of the most popular live music venues in the Spanish capital. After recording their second album, Tributo, Fortu decided to leave the band. Meanwhile, Serrano and Fernando had started his own rock band, called Venganza, but they did not generate much acclaim. Paco, in the other hand, was trying to convince his past companions to revive the band. Just a week after Fortu abandoned his band Saratoga, Venganza decided to split and Obús was revived in 1996.Originally scheduled to take place at a festival in which Panzer and Judas Priest were also to perform, the deal fell through. However, they decided to go on tour on their own. At the time, the heavy metal scene in Spain was falling out of grace, and younger generations grew interested in older bands. Because of this, Obús found a receptive audience. Due to the success of the tour, they start thinking of recording a new album. In October 2000, the band released Desde el fondo del abismo.In 2004, during the tour "Segundos fuera", Serrano left the band and Peter Oteo replaced him. They incorporated Nacho GG-R as bassist to the band. In 2008, Fernando experienced heath issues which led him to leave the band, being replaced by Carlos Mirat. In 2009, during a tour around South America, Nacho GG-R left the band and Pepe Bao (bassist of O'funk'illo) substituted him.== Discography ==Prepárate (1981)Poderoso como el trueno (1982)El que más (1984)Pega con fuerza (1985)Dejarse la piel (1986)En directo 21-2-87 (1987) (Live)Otra vez en la ruta (1990)Desde el fondo del abismo (2000)Segundos fuera (2003)Vamos muy bien (2006)Cállate! (2010)De Madrid al Infierno (2012) (Live)Sirena de metal (2014)Con un par!! (2019)== Members ==From 1980 to 1981Juan Luis Serrano (Bass), (Vocals)Francisco Laguna (Guitar), (Vocals)Manolo Caño (Drummer)From 1981 to 1991 and from 1996 to 2004Fructuoso "Fortu" Sánchez (Lead vocals)Juan Luis Serrano (Bass) (Background vocals)Francisco Laguna (Guitar) (Background vocals)Fernando Sánchez (Drummer) (Background vocals)From 2004 to 2010Fructuoso "Fortu" Sánchez (Lead vocals)Peter Oteo – Nacho García – Pepe Bao (Bass) (Background vocals)Francisco Laguna (Guitar) (Background vocals)Fernando Sánchez – Carlos Mirat (Drummer) (Background vocals)From 2010 until presentFructuoso "Fortu" Sánchez (Lead vocals)Paco Laguna (Guitar) (Background vocals)Fernando Montesinos (Bass) (Background vocals)Carlos Mirat (Drummer) (Background vocals)== References ==== External links ==Official website (In Spanish)Obús biography (In Spanish)Interview in 'La Factoría del Ritmo' (2001) (In Spanish) Black 'N Blue is an American heavy metal band from Portland, Oregon, United States. The current members are lead vocalist Jaime St. James, bassist Patrick Young, drummer Pete Holmes, and guitarists Brandon Cook and Bobby Capka. The band is best known for their song "Hold On to 18" from their eponymous debut studio album, Black 'n Blue, released in August 1984.== History ==Black 'N Blue was formed in November 1981 by high school friends Jamie St. James and Tommy Thayer in Portland, Oregon. Originally calling themselves Movie Star, the band later chose the name Black 'N Blue based on their 'in-your-face' sound and denim and leather look. The band got their first break in 1982 when heavy metal fanzine editor Brian Slagel heard their song demo of "Chains Around Heaven" and subsequently added the track to his first edition of Metal Massacre — an independent compilation album that also introduced newcomers Metallica, Ratt, and Malice.=== Early success ===Black 'N Blue moved to Los Angeles in 1982, making an immediate name for themselves in the Hollywood club scene. Within six months the band signed a worldwide recording contract with Geffen Records, releasing their self-titled debut album, Black 'N Blue, in August 1984. The Dieter Dierks-produced album included "Hold On to 18," which was released to radio and MTV and became a moderate success, boosting album sales. A follow-up album, entitled Without Love, was released the following year. This album saw the band modify their original rougher, hard-edge sound in favor of a more polished metal approach. "Miss Mystery" was a radio success and the band toured with KISS that year. A second track from this album, "Nature of the Beach" appeared in the film Vision Quest and also appeared as the B-side to the Madonna single "Gambler" from the same movie, although it was not included on the soundtrack LP.=== Later years and solo careers ===In 1986, Black 'N Blue gained the attention of Kiss bassist Gene Simmons, who took over as the band's producer for their next two albums. The band went on to release two more albums under the Geffen label, Nasty Nasty in 1986 and In Heat in 1988, both of which saw them making a conscious effort to return to the original raw power that characterized the music on their debut. Songs such as "Nasty Nasty" and "Rock On" were minor hits for the band, but neither of the albums could recapture the Black 'N Blue sound of old, and the band broke up in 1989.After the band's break up, many of the former band members took on different projects. Jaime St. James formed his own solo band, called Freight Train Jane, composed of Tommy Bolan (formerly from Warlock), Scotty Werner, and Davy Jones. Freight Train Jane released only one album of the same name, which had little success. Guitarist Jeff "Woop" Warner teamed up with former Rough Cutt guitarist Chris Hagar in the short-lived Woop & the Count and played for a short time with Kneel Cohn in an early line-up of the band The Dead Stars On Hollywood, which is now based in New York City. Warner later took guitar duties in a new band, NYC. Guitarist Tommy Thayer joined Harlow for their sole album in 1990, played guitar on Doro's eponymous 1990's album, before joining Shake The Faith with whom he released America The Violent in 1994. Thayer and fellow Black 'n Blue member Jamie St. James also starred in the L.A. all-star Kiss tribute band Cold Gin alongside Cold Sweat members Anthony White and Chris McLernon. Deciding to retire as an active musician, Thayer began working as Gene Simmons' assistant and eventually became the tour manager for Kiss. In 2002 he became the new lead guitarist for Kiss, replacing Ace Frehley (after Frehley's second departure from Kiss). Thayer's first album with Kiss, entitled Sonic Boom, was released in 2009. His next album with Kiss, entitled Monster, was released on October 9, 2012. Pete Holmes took roles in the bands Malice, The Black Symphony and Mandy Lion's WWIII. He also played alongside Michael Schenker, Uli Jon Roth, Peter Gabriel, and Ted Nugent.=== Reunions/compilations ===In 1997, all five original members of Black 'N Blue reunited to perform a one-night live performance on Halloween night. This gig ended up being a sold-out show, and it was recorded and released as a live album, entitled One Night Only: Live on Thayer's brother John's record label Eon Records. The show was a one-time affair, and no further touring followed. In 2001, following the release of a Greatest Hits compilation (The Ultimate Collection), the band released the album The Demos Remastered: Anthology 1 under the label Crazy Planet. This album contained demos of some of Black 'N Blue's most popular hits, including 5 unreleased tracks and a live version of the song "Autoblast."The band reunited again in 2003 (this time, without Thayer, who was performing lead guitar duties for Kiss at the time) to tour and record a new album, entitled Hell Yeah!. Shawn Sonnenschein was the new lead guitarist to be featured on the album in Thayer's place. The album was initially scheduled to be released in September 2003, but the release date was pushed back on several occasions.=== Hiatus ===Meanwhile, in the ensuing interim period, the band released Rarities, an album which included remakes of a few of their hits, but mostly consisted of many unreleased demos, including some that were not included on the Demos Remastered: Anthology 1 release.In 2004, Jaime St. James became the new front man and lead singer for Warrant, replacing Jani Lane. In 2005, Jaime St. James went into the studio with Warrant to begin recording a new album under Cleopatra Records. Recording for the new album lasted until 2006, and later that year, the band released their new album, Born Again, which received mostly positive reviews. A music video was recorded for each of the songs on the album, and was later released on the DVD "Born Again: Delvis Video Diaries," which also included behind-the-scenes footage, on tour clips, and comments from the band members regarding the making of the album. After the release of Born Again, Jaime St. James performed with Warrant at the 2007 hard rock festival Rocklahoma. Jaime St. James later left Warrant in 2008, after Jani Lane returned to the band.=== Later reunions ===Black 'N Blue, including Tommy Thayer, made a reunion appearance in their home town of Portland, Oregon on December 8, 2007 at Berbati's Pan & Restaurant. The concert benefited the band's long-time friend Kenny Nordone in his struggle with cancer. In the summer of 2008, Black 'N Blue formally reunited to play at Rocklahoma, with Shawn Sonnenschein once again as guitarist.In 2008, a report on gave a new projected release date for the Hell Yeah! album as sometime that year. However, it remained unreleased for another three years. On October 9, 2010, Black 'N Blue was inducted into the Oregon Music Hall of Fame. The classic line up including Tommy Thayer performed a reunion concert that night at Portland's Roseland Theater. In 2011, Jaime St. James' website posted new release dates for Hell Yeah! under Frontiers Records. The set release dates for the album included a premiere release date in Japan on April 20, 2011; a European release date on May 13, 2011; and a United States release date of May 17, 2011. The album received a generally positive reviews. The band remains active and continues to tour and play live shows.The band performed five shows in 2013; March 8 at the Hawthorne Theater in their hometown of Portland, October 19 at "SkullFest" in Nebraska, November 15 at the Whisky a Go Go in West Hollywood, November 16 at Vamp'd in Las Vegas, and December 27 at the District in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. These 2013 shows marked the debut of new guitarist Brandon Cook, who replaced Jeff "Woop" Warner. 2017 saw the departure of Shawn Sonnenschein and the debut of former Vicious Rumors guitarist Bobby Capka.The current line-up of Black 'N Blue performs regularly at annual U.S. Rock festivals Monsters of Rock Cruise and M3 Rock Festival.In a January 2020 video interview on The Hard, Heavy & Hair Show with Pariah Burke radio show, rhythm guitarist Brandon Cook confirmed that Black 'N Blue currently has no plans to create new music.== Band members ==== Discography ===== Studio albums ====== Live albums ===One Night Only: Live (1998)Live in Detroit – 1984 (2002)=== Compilation albums ===The Demos Remastered: Anthology 1 (2001)Ultimate Collection (2001)Rarities (2007)=== Music Videos ===Hold On To 18 (1984)Miss Mystery (1985)"I'll Be There for You" (1986)=== Singles ====== Box sets ===Collected (2005)== References ==== External links ==Official homepageMay 2008 Jaime St. James InterviewOfficial myspace Metallica is an American heavy metal band. The band was formed in 1981 in Los Angeles by vocalist/guitarist James Hetfield and drummer Lars Ulrich, and has been based in San Francisco for most of its career. The band's fast tempos, instrumentals and aggressive musicianship made them one of the founding "big four" bands of thrash metal, alongside Megadeth, Anthrax and Slayer. Metallica's current lineup comprises founding members and primary songwriters Hetfield and Ulrich, longtime lead guitarist Kirk Hammett, and bassist Robert Trujillo. Guitarist Dave Mustaine (who went on to form Megadeth after being fired from the band) and bassists Ron McGovney, Cliff Burton (who died in a bus accident in Sweden in 1986) and Jason Newsted are former members of the band.After two albums on Megaforce Records and signing to major label Elektra in 1984, Metallica first found commercial success with the release of its third album, Master of Puppets (1986), which has been described as one of the heaviest and most influential thrash metal albums. Their next album, ...And Justice for All (1988), was also successful and gave Metallica their first Grammy Award nomination. Its eponymous fifth album, Metallica (1991), the band's first not to root predominantly in thrash metal, appealed to a more mainstream audience, achieving substantial commercial success and selling over 16 million copies in the United States to date, making it the best-selling album of the SoundScan era. After experimenting with different genres and directions in subsequent releases, the band returned to its thrash metal roots with the release of its ninth album, Death Magnetic (2008), which drew similar praise to that of the band's earlier albums. Their most recent album is Hardwired... to Self-Destruct, released in 2016. In 2000, Metallica led the case against the peer-to-peer file sharing service Napster, in which the band and several other artists filed lawsuits against the service for sharing their copyright-protected material without consent; after reaching a settlement, Napster became a pay-to-use service in 2003. Metallica was the subject of the acclaimed 2004 documentary film Metallica: Some Kind of Monster, which documented the troubled production of the band's eighth album, St. Anger (2003), and the internal struggles within the band at the time. In 2009, Metallica was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. The band wrote the screenplay for and starred in the 2013 IMAX concert film Metallica: Through the Never, in which the band performed live against a fictional thriller storyline.Metallica has released ten studio albums, four live albums, a cover album, five extended plays, 37 singles and 39 music videos. The band has won nine Grammy Awards from 23 nominations, and its last six studio albums (beginning with Metallica) have consecutively debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. Metallica ranks as one of the most commercially successful bands of all time, having sold over 125 million albums worldwide as of 2018. Metallica has been listed as one of the greatest artists of all time by magazines such as Rolling Stone, which ranked them at no. 61 on its 100 Greatest Artists of All Time list. As of 2017, Metallica is the third best-selling music artist since Nielsen SoundScan began tracking sales in 1991, selling a total of 58 million albums in the United States.== History ===== 1981–1984: Formation, early years, and Kill 'Em All ===Metallica was formed in Los Angeles in late 1981 when Danish drummer Lars Ulrich placed an advertisement in a Los Angeles newspaper, The Recycler, which read, "Drummer looking for other metal musicians to jam with Tygers of Pan Tang, Diamond Head and Iron Maiden." Guitarists James Hetfield and Hugh Tanner of Leather Charm answered the advertisement. Although he had not formed a band, Ulrich asked Metal Blade Records founder Brian Slagel if he could record a song for the label's upcoming compilation album, Metal Massacre. Slagel accepted, and Ulrich recruited Hetfield to sing and play rhythm guitar. The band was officially formed on October 28, 1981, five months after Ulrich and Hetfield first met.The band name came from Ulrich's friend Ron Quintana, who was brainstorming names for a fanzine and was considering MetalMania or Metallica. After hearing the two names, Ulrich wanted Metallica for his band, so he suggested Quintana use MetalMania instead. Dave Mustaine replied to an advertisement for a lead guitarist; Ulrich and Hetfield recruited him after seeing his expensive guitar equipment. In early 1982, Metallica recorded its first original song, "Hit the Lights", for the Metal Massacre I compilation. Hetfield played bass, rhythm guitar and sang while Lloyd Grant was credited with a guitar solo and Lars Ulrich played drums. Metal Massacre I was released on June 14, 1982; early pressings listed the band incorrectly as "Mettallica", angering the band. The song generated word of mouth and the band played its first live performance on March 14, 1982, at Radio City in Anaheim, California, with newly recruited bassist Ron McGovney. Their first live success came early; they were chosen to open for British heavy metal band Saxon at one gig of their 1982 US tour. This was Metallica's second gig. Metallica recorded its first demo, Power Metal, whose name was inspired by Quintana's early business cards in early 1982.The term "thrash metal" was coined in February 1984 by Kerrang! journalist Malcolm Dome in reference to Anthrax's song "Metal Thrashing Mad". Prior to this, Hetfield referred to Metallica's sound as "power metal". In late 1982, Ulrich and Hetfield attended a show at the West Hollywood nightclub Whisky a Go Go, which featured bassist Cliff Burton in the band Trauma. The two were "blown away" by Burton's use of a wah-wah pedal and asked him to join Metallica. Hetfield and Mustaine wanted McGovney to leave because they thought he "didn't contribute anything, he just followed". Although Burton initially declined the offer, by the end of the year, he had accepted on the condition the band move to El Cerrito in the San Francisco Bay Area. Metallica's first live performance with Burton was at the nightclub The Stone in March 1983, and the first recording to feature Burton was the Megaforce demo (1983).Metallica was ready to record their debut album, but when Metal Blade was unable to cover the cost, they began looking for other options. Concert promoter Jonathan "Jonny Z" Zazula, who had heard the demo No Life 'til Leather (1982), offered to broker a record deal between Metallica and New York City-based record labels. After those record labels showed no interest, Zazula borrowed enough money to cover the recording budget and signed Metallica to his own label, Megaforce Records.In May 1983, Metallica traveled to Rochester, New York to record its debut album, Metal Up Your Ass, which was produced by Paul Curcio. The other members decided to eject Mustaine from the band because of his drug and alcohol abuse, and violent behavior just before the recording sessions on April 11, 1983. Exodus guitarist Kirk Hammett replaced Mustaine the same afternoon. Metallica's first live performance with Hammett was on April 16, 1983, at a nightclub in Dover, New Jersey called The Showplace; the support act was Anthrax's original line-up, which included Dan Lilker and Neil Turbin. This was the first time the two bands performed live together.Mustaine, who went on to form Megadeth, has expressed his dislike for Hammett in interviews, saying Hammett "stole" his job. Mustaine was "pissed off" because he believes Hammett became popular by playing guitar leads that Mustaine had actually written. In a 1985 interview with Metal Forces, Mustaine said, "it's real funny how Kirk Hammett ripped off every lead break I'd played on that No Life 'til Leather tape and got voted No. 1 guitarist in your magazine". On Megadeth's debut album Killing Is My Business... and Business Is Good! (1985), Mustaine included the song "Mechanix", which Metallica had previously reworked and retitled "The Four Horsemen" on Kill 'Em All. Mustaine said he did this to "straighten Metallica up" because Metallica referred to Mustaine as a drunk and said he could not play guitar.Because of conflicts with its record label and the distributors' refusal to release an album titled Metal Up Your Ass, the album was renamed Kill 'Em All. It was released on Megaforce Records in the U.S. and on Music for Nations in Europe, and peaked at number 155 on the Billboard 200 in 1986.[1] Although the album was not initially a financial success, it earned Metallica a growing fan base in the underground metal scene. To support the release, Metallica embarked on the Kill 'Em All for One tour with Raven. In February 1984, Metallica supported Venom on the Seven Dates of Hell tour, during which the bands performed in front of 7,000 people at the Aardschok Festival in Zwolle, Netherlands.=== 1984–1986: Ride the Lightning, Master of Puppets, and Burton's death ===Metallica recorded its second studio album, Ride the Lightning, at Sweet Silence Studios in Copenhagen, Denmark from February to March 1984. It was released in August 1984 and reached number 100 on the Billboard 200. A French printing press mistakenly printed green covers for the album, which are now considered collectors' items. Mustaine received writing credit for "Ride the Lightning" and "The Call of Ktulu".Elektra Records A&R director Michael Alago, and co-founder of Q-Prime Management Cliff Burnstein, attended a Metallica concert in September 1984. They were impressed with the performance, signed Metallica to Elektra, and made the band a client of Q-Prime Management. Metallica's growing success was such that the band's British label Music for Nations released "Creeping Death" as a limited edition single, which sold 40,000 copies as an import in the U.S. Two of the three songs on the record—cover versions of Diamond Head's "Am I Evil?" and Blitzkrieg's "Blitzkrieg"—appeared on the 1988 Elektra reissue of Kill 'Em All. Metallica embarked on its first major European tour with Tank to an average crowd of 1,300. Returning to the U.S., it embarked upon a tour co-headlining with W.A.S.P. and supported by Armored Saint. Metallica played its largest show at the Monsters of Rock festival at Donington Park, England, on August 17, 1985, with Bon Jovi and Ratt, playing to 70,000 people. At a show in Oakland, California, at the Day on the Green festival, the band played to a crowd of 60,000.Metallica's third studio album, Master of Puppets, was recorded at Sweet Silence Studios from September to December 1985 and released in March 1986. The album reached number 29 on the Billboard 200 and spent 72 weeks on the chart. It was the band's first album to be certified gold on November 4, 1986, and was certified six times platinum in 2003. Steve Huey of AllMusic considered the album "the band's greatest achievement". Following the release of the album, Metallica supported Ozzy Osbourne on a U.S. tour. Hetfield broke his wrist while skateboarding; he continued with the tour, performing vocals, with guitar technician John Marshall playing rhythm guitar.On September 27, 1986, during the European leg of Metallica's Damage, Inc. Tour, members drew cards to determine which bunks on the tour bus they would sleep in. Burton won and chose to sleep in Hammett's bunk. At around sunrise near Dörarp, Sweden, the bus driver lost control and skidded, which caused the bus to overturn several times. Ulrich, Hammett, and Hetfield sustained no serious injuries; however, Burton was pinned under the bus and died. Hetfield said:I saw the bus lying right on him. I saw his legs sticking out. I freaked. The bus driver, I recall, was trying to yank the blanket out from under him to use for other people. I just went, 'Don't fucking do that!' I already wanted to kill the [bus driver]. I don't know if he was drunk or if he hit some ice. All I knew was, he was driving and Cliff wasn't alive anymore.=== 1986–1994: Newsted joins, ...And Justice for All, and Metallica ===Burton's death left Metallica's future in doubt. The three remaining members decided Burton would want them to carry on, and with the Burton family's blessings the band sought a replacement. Roughly 40 people, including Hammett's childhood friend, Les Claypool of Primus, Troy Gregory of Prong, and Jason Newsted, formerly of Flotsam and Jetsam, auditioned for the band. Newsted learned Metallica's entire set list; after the audition Metallica invited him to Tommy's Joynt in San Francisco. Hetfield, Ulrich, and Hammett decided on Newsted as Burton's replacement; Newsted's first live performance with Metallica was at the Country Club in Reseda, California. The members initiated Newsted by tricking him into eating a ball of wasabi. The band finished its tour in February 1987.After Newsted joined Metallica, the band left their El Cerrito practice space—a suburban house formerly rented by sound engineer Mark Whitaker dubbed "the Metalli-mansion"—and relocated to the adjacent cities of Berkeley and Albany before eventually settling in the Marin County city of San Rafael, north of San Francisco. In March 1987, Hetfield again broke his wrist while skateboarding, forcing the band to cancel an appearance on Saturday Night Live. In August 1987, an all-covers extended play (EP) titled The $5.98 E.P. - Garage Days Re-Revisited was released. The EP was recorded in an effort to use the band's newly constructed recording studio, test Newsted's talents, and to relieve grief and stress following the death of Burton. A video titled Cliff 'Em All commemorating Burton's three years in Metallica was released in 1987; the video included bass solos, home videos, and pictures.Metallica's first studio album since Burton's death, ...And Justice for All, was recorded from January to May 1988 and released in September. The album was a commercial success, reaching number six on the Billboard 200, and was the band's first album to enter the top 10. The album was certified platinum nine weeks after its release. There were complaints about the production; Steve Huey of AllMusic said Ulrich's drums were clicking more than thudding, and the guitars "buzz thinly". To promote the album, Metallica embarked on a tour called Damaged Justice.In 1989, Metallica received its first Grammy Award nomination for ...And Justice for All in the new Best Hard Rock/Metal Performance Vocal or Instrument category. Metallica was the favorite to win but the award was given to Jethro Tull for the album Crest of a Knave. The award was controversial with fans and the press; Metallica was standing off-stage waiting to receive the award after performing the song "One". Jethro Tull had been advised by its manager not to attend the ceremony because he was expecting Metallica to win. The award was named in Entertainment Weekly's "Grammy's 10 Biggest Upsets".Following the release of ...And Justice for All, Metallica released its debut music video for the song "One", which the band performed in an abandoned warehouse. The footage was remixed with the film Johnny Got His Gun. Rather than organize an ongoing licensing deal, Metallica purchased the rights to the film. The remixed video was submitted to MTV with an alternative, performance-only version that was held back in case MTV banned the remixed version. MTV accepted the remixed version; the video was viewers' first exposure to Metallica. In 1999, it was voted number 38 in MTV's "Top 100 Videos of All Time" countdown; it was featured in the network's 25th Anniversary edition of ADD Video, which showcased the most popular videos on MTV in the last 25 years.In October 1990, Metallica entered One on One Recording's studio in North Hollywood to record its next album. Bob Rock, who had worked with Aerosmith, The Cult, Bon Jovi, and Mötley Crüe, was hired as the producer. Metallica—also known as The Black Album—was remixed three times, cost US$1 million, and ended three marriages. Although the release was delayed until 1991, Metallica debuted at number one in ten countries, selling 650,000 units in the U.S. during its first week. The album brought Metallica mainstream attention; it has been certified 16 times platinum in the U.S., which makes it the 25th-best-selling album in the country. The making of Metallica and the following tour was documented in A Year and a Half in the Life of Metallica. The tour in support of the album, called the Wherever We May Roam Tour, lasted 14 months and included dates in the U.S., Japan, and the UK. In September 1991, 1.6 million rock music fans converged in Moscow to enjoy the first open-air rock concert to be held in the former Soviet Union, part of the Monsters of Rock series. In April 1992, Metallica appeared at The Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert and performed a three-song set. Hetfield later performed "Stone Cold Crazy" with the remaining members of Queen and Tony Iommi.On August 8, 1992, during the co-headlining Guns N' Roses/Metallica Stadium Tour, Hetfield suffered second and third degree burns to his arms, face, hands, and legs. There had been some confusion with the new pyrotechnics setup, which resulted in Hetfield walking into a 12-foot (3.7 m) flame during "Fade to Black". Newsted said Hetfield's skin was "bubbling like on The Toxic Avenger". Metallica returned to the stage 17 days later with guitar technician and Metal Church member John Marshall replacing Hetfield on guitar for the remainder of the tour, although Hetfield was able to sing. Later in 1993, Metallica went on the Nowhere Else to Roam Tour, playing five shows in Mexico City. Live Shit: Binge & Purge, the band's first box set, was released in November 1993. The collection contained three live CDs, three home videos, and a book filled with riders and letters.=== 1994–2001: Load, Reload, Napster controversy, and Newsted's departure ===After almost three years of touring to promote Metallica, including a headlining performance at Woodstock '94, Metallica returned to the studio to write and record its sixth studio album. The band went on a brief hiatus in the summer of 1995 and played a short tour, Escape from the Studio '95, comprising three outdoor shows, including a headline show at Donington Park supported by Slayer, Skid Row, Slash's Snakepit, Therapy?, and Corrosion of Conformity. The band spent about a year writing and recording new songs, resulting in the release of Load in 1996. Load debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and ARIA Charts; it was the band's second number-one album. The cover art, Blood and Semen III, was created by Andres Serrano, who pressed a mixture of his own semen and blood between sheets of plexiglass. The release marked another change in the band's musical direction and a new image; the bandmembers' hair was cut. Metallica headlined the alternative rock festival Lollapalooza festival in mid-1996.During early production of the album, the band had recorded enough material to fill a double album. It was decided that half of the songs were to be released; the band would continue to work on the remaining songs and release them the following year. This resulted in follow-up album titled Reload. The cover art was again created by Serrano, this time using a mixture of blood and urine. Reload debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and reached number two on the Top Canadian Album chart. Hetfield said in the 2004 documentary film Metallica: Some Kind of Monster that the band initially thought some of the songs on these albums were of average quality; these were "polished and reworked" until judged releasable. To promote Reload, Metallica performed "Fuel" and "The Memory Remains" with Marianne Faithfull on NBC's Saturday Night Live in December 1997.In 1998, Metallica compiled a double album of cover songs, Garage Inc. The first disc contained newly recorded covers of songs by Diamond Head, Killing Joke, the Misfits, Thin Lizzy, Mercyful Fate, Black Sabbath, and others. The second disc featured the original version of The $5.98 E.P. - Garage Days Re-Revisited, which had become a scarce collectors' item. The album entered the Billboard 200 at number two.On April 21 and 22, 1999, Metallica recorded two performances with the San Francisco Symphony conducted by Michael Kamen, who had previously worked with producer Rock on "Nothing Else Matters". Kamen approached Metallica in 1991 with the idea of pairing the band's music with a symphony orchestra. Kamen and his staff of over 100 composed additional orchestral material for Metallica songs. Metallica wrote two new Kamen-scored songs for the event, "No Leaf Clover" and "-Human". The audio recording and concert footage were released in 1999 as the album and concert film S&M. It entered the Billboard 200 at number two and the Australian ARIA charts and Top Internet Albums chart at number one.In 2000, Metallica discovered that a demo of its song "I Disappear", which was supposed to be released in combination with the Mission: Impossible II soundtrack, was receiving radio airplay. Tracing the source of the leak, the band found the file on the Napster peer-to-peer file-sharing network, and also found that the band's entire catalogue was freely available. Metallica filed a lawsuit at the U.S. District Court, Central District of California, alleging that Napster violated three areas of the law: copyright infringement, unlawful use of digital audio interface device, and the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO).Ulrich provided a statement to the Senate Judiciary Committee regarding copyright infringement on July 11, 2000. Federal Judge Marilyn Hall Patel ordered the site to place a filter on the program within 72 hours or be shut down. A settlement between Metallica and Napster was reached when German media conglomerate Bertelsmann BMG showed interest in purchasing the rights to Napster for $94 million. Under the terms of settlement, Napster agreed to block users who shared music by artists who do not want their music shared. On June 3, 2002, Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under U.S. bankruptcy laws. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale of Napster to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. bankruptcy laws.At the 2000 MTV Video Music Awards, Ulrich appeared with host Marlon Wayans in a skit that criticized the idea of using Napster to share music. Wayans played a college student listening to Metallica's "I Disappear". Ulrich walked in and asked for an explanation. Ulrich responded to Wayans' excuse that using Napster was just "sharing" by saying that Wayans' idea of sharing was "borrowing things that were not yours without asking". He called in the Metallica road crew, who proceeded to confiscate all of Wayans' belongings, leaving him almost naked in an empty room. Napster creator Shawn Fanning responded later in the ceremony by presenting an award wearing a Metallica shirt, saying, "I borrowed this shirt from a friend. Maybe, if I like it, I'll buy one of my own." Ulrich was later booed on stage at the award show when he introduced the final musical act, Blink-182.Newsted left Metallica on January 17, 2001, as plans were being made to enter the recording studio. He said he left the band for "private and personal reasons, and the physical damage I have done to myself over the years while playing the music that I love". During a Playboy interview with Metallica, Newsted said he wanted to release an album with his side project, Echobrain. Hetfield was opposed to the idea and said, "When someone does a side project, it takes away from the strength of Metallica", and that a side project is "like cheating on your wife in a way". Newsted said Hetfield had recorded vocals for a song used in the film South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut, and appeared on two Corrosion of Conformity albums. Hetfield replied, "My name isn't on those records. And I'm not out trying to sell them", and raised questions such as, "Where would it end? Does he start touring with it? Does he sell shirts? Is it his band?"=== 2001–2006: Some Kind of Monster, St. Anger, and Trujillo joins ===In April 2001, filmmakers Joe Berlinger and Bruce Sinofsky began following Metallica to document the recording process of the band's next studio album. Over two years they recorded more than 1,000 hours of footage. On July 19, 2001, before preparations to enter the recording studio, Hetfield entered rehab to treat his "alcoholism and other addictions". All recording plans were put on hold and the band's future was in doubt. Hetfield left rehab on December 4, 2001, and the band returned to the recording studio on April 12, 2002. Hetfield was required to limit his work to four hours a day between noon and 4 pm, and to spend the rest of his time with his family. The footage recorded by Berlinger and Sinofsky was compiled into the documentary Metallica: Some Kind of Monster, which premiered at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2004. In the documentary, Newsted said his former bandmates' decision to hire a therapist to help solve their problems which he felt they could have solved on their own was "really fucking lame and weak".In June 2003, Metallica's eighth studio album, St. Anger, debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, and drew mixed reactions from critics. Ulrich's "steely" sounding snare drum and the absence of guitar solos received particular criticism. Kevin Forest Moreau of said, "the guitars stumble in a monotone of mid-level, processed rattle; the drums don't propel as much as struggle to disguise an all-too-turgid pace; and the rage is both unfocused and leavened with too much narcissistic navel-gazing". Brent DiCrescenzo of Pitchfork described it as "an utter mess". However, Blender magazine called it the "grimiest and grimmest of the band's Bob Rock productions", and New York Magazine called it "utterly raw and rocking". The title track, "St. Anger", won the Grammy Award for Best Metal Performance in 2004; it was used as the official theme song for WWE's SummerSlam 2003.For the duration of St. Anger's recording period, producer Bob Rock played bass on the album and in several live shows at which Metallica performed during that time. Once the record was completed, the band started to hold auditions for Newsted's permanent replacement. Bassists Pepper Keenan, Jeordie White, Scott Reeder, Eric Avery, Danny Lohner, and Chris Wyse—among others—auditioned for the role. After three months of auditions, Robert Trujillo, formerly of Suicidal Tendencies and Ozzy Osbourne's band, was chosen as the new bassist. Newsted, who had joined Canadian thrash metal band Voivod by that time, was Trujillo's replacement in Osbourne's band during the 2003 Ozzfest tour, which included Voivod.Before the band's set at the 2004 Download Festival, Ulrich was rushed to the hospital after having an anxiety seizure and was unable to perform. Hetfield searched for last-minute volunteers to replace Ulrich. Slayer drummer Dave Lombardo and Slipknot drummer Joey Jordison volunteered. Lombardo performed "Battery" and "The Four Horsemen", Ulrich's drum technician Flemming Larsen performed "Fade to Black", and Jordison performed the remainder of the set. Having toured for two years in support of St. Anger on the Summer Sanitarium Tour 2003 and the Madly in Anger with the World Tour, with multi-platinum rock band Godsmack in support, Metallica took a break from performing and spent most of 2005 with friends and family. The band opened for The Rolling Stones at SBC Park in San Francisco on November 13 and 15, 2005.=== 2006–2013: Death Magnetic and Rock and Roll Hall of Fame induction ===In February 2006, Metallica announced on its official website that after 15 years, long-time producer Bob Rock would not be producing the band's next studio album. Instead, the band chose to work with producer Rick Rubin. Around the same time, a petition signed by 1,500 fans was posted online in an attempt to encourage the band to prohibit Rock from producing Metallica albums, saying he had too much influence on the band's sound and musical direction. Rock said the petition hurt his children's feelings; he said, "sometimes, even with a great coach, a team keeps losing. You have to get new blood in there." In December 2006, Metallica released a DVD titled The Videos 1989–2004, which sold 28,000 copies in its first week and entered the Billboard Top Videos chart at number three. Metallica recorded a guitar-based interpretation of Ennio Morricone's "The Ecstasy of Gold" for a tribute album titled We All Love Ennio Morricone, which was released in February 2007. The track received a Grammy nomination at the 50th Grammy Awards for the category "Best Rock Instrumental Performance". A recording of "The Ecstasy of Gold" has been played to introduce Metallica's performances since the 1980s.Metallica scheduled the release of the album Death Magnetic as September 12, 2008, and the band filmed a music video for the album's first single, "The Day That Never Comes". On September 2, 2008, a record store in France began selling copies of Death Magnetic nearly two weeks before its scheduled worldwide release date, which resulted in the album being made available on peer-to-peer clients. This prompted the band's UK distributor Vertigo Records to officially release the album on September 10, 2008. Rumors of Metallica or Warner Bros. taking legal action against the French retailer were unconfirmed, though drummer Lars Ulrich responded to the leak by saying, "...We're ten days from release. I mean, from here, we're golden. If this thing leaks all over the world today or tomorrow, happy days. Happy days. Trust me", and, "By 2008 standards, that's a victory. If you'd told me six months ago that our record wouldn't leak until 10 days out, I would have signed up for that."Death Magnetic debuted at number one in the U.S. selling 490,000 units; Metallica became the first band to have five consecutive studio albums debut at number one in the history of the Billboard 200. A week after its release, Death Magnetic remained at number one on the Billboard 200 and the European album chart; it also became the fastest selling album of 2008 in Australia. Death Magnetic remained at number one on the Billboard 200 album chart for three consecutive weeks. Metallica was one of two artists whose album—the other being Jack Johnson's album Sleep Through the Static—remained on the Billboard 200 for three consecutive weeks at number one in 2008. Death Magnetic also remained at number one on Billboard's Hard Rock, Modern Rock/Alternative and Rock album charts for five consecutive weeks. The album reached number one in 32 countries outside the U.S., including the UK, Canada, and Australia. In November 2008, Metallica's record deal with Warner Bros. ended and the band considered releasing its next album through the internet.On January 14, 2009, it was announced that Metallica would be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on April 4, 2009, and that former bassist Jason Newsted—who left the band in 2001—would perform with the band at the ceremony. Initially, it was announced that the matter had been discussed and that bassist Trujillo had agreed not to play because he "wanted to see the Black Album band". However, during the band's set of "Master of Puppets" and "Enter Sandman", both Trujillo and Newsted were on stage. Ray Burton, father of the late Cliff Burton, accepted the honor on his behalf. Although he was not to be inducted with them, Metallica invited Dave Mustaine to take part in the induction ceremony. Mustaine declined because of his touring commitments in Europe.Metallica, Slayer, Megadeth, and Anthrax performed on the same bill for the first time on June 16, 2010, at Warsaw Babice Airport, Warsaw, as a part of the Sonisphere Festival series. The show in Sofia, Bulgaria, on June 22, 2010, was broadcast via satellite to cinemas. The bands also played concerts in Bucharest on June 26, 2010, and Istanbul on June 27, 2010. On June 28, 2010, Death Magnetic was certified double platinum by the RIAA. Metallica's World Magnetic Tour ended in Melbourne on November 21, 2010. The band had been touring for over two years in support of Death Magnetic. To accompany the final tour dates in Australia and New Zealand, a live, limited edition EP of past performances in Australia called Six Feet Down Under was released. The EP was followed by Six Feet Down Under (Part II), which was released on November 12, 2010. Part 2 contains a further eight songs recorded during the first two Oceanic Legs of the World Magnetic Tour. On November 26, 2010, Metallica released a live EP titled Live at Grimey's, which was recorded in June 2008 at Grimey's Record Store, just before the band's appearance at Bonnaroo Music Festival that year.In a June 2009 interview with Italy's Rock TV, Ulrich said Metallica was planning to continue touring until August 2010, and that there were no plans for a tenth album. He said he was sure the band would collaborate with producer Rick Rubin again. According to, the band was considering recording its next album in the second half of 2011. In November 2010, during an interview with The Pulse of Radio, Ulrich said Metallica would return to writing in 2011. Ulrich said, "There's a bunch of balls in the air for 2011, but I think the main one is we really want to get back to writing again. We haven't really written since, what, '06, '07, and we want to get back to kind of just being creative again. Right now we are going to just chill out and then probably start up again in, I'd say, March or April, and start probably putting the creative cap back on and start writing some songs."On November 9, 2010, Metallica announced it would be headlining the Rock in Rio festival in Rio de Janeiro on September 25, 2011. On December 13, 2010, the band announced it would again play as part of the "big four" during the Sonisphere Festival at Knebworth House, Hertfordshire, on July 8, 2011. It was the first time all of the "big four" members played on the same stage in the UK. On December 17, 2010, Another "big four" Sonisphere performance that would take place in France on July 9 was announced. On January 25, 2011, another "big four" performance on April 23, 2011, at the Empire Polo Club in Indio, California, was announced. It was the first time all of the "big four" members played on the same stage in the U.S. On February 17, 2011, a show in Gelsenkirchen, Germany, on July 2, 2011, was announced. On February 22, a "big four" show in Milan on July 6, 2011, was announced. On March 2, 2011, another "big four" concert, which took place in Gothenburg on July 3, 2011, was announced. The final "big four" concert was in New York City, at Yankee Stadium, on September 14, 2011.In an interview at the April 2011 Big Four concert, Robert Trujillo said Metallica will work with Rick Rubin again as producer for the new album and were "really excited to write some new music. There's no shortage of riffage in Metallica world right now." He added, "The first album with Rick was also the first album for me, so in a lot of ways, you're kind of testing the water. Now that we're comfortable with Rick and his incredible engineer, Greg Fidelman, who worked with Slayer, actually, on this last record—it's my hero—it's a great team. And it's only gonna better; I really believe that. So I'm super-excited." In June 2011, Rubin said Metallica had begun writing its new album.On June 15, 2011, Metallica announced that recording sessions with singer-songwriter Lou Reed had concluded. The album, which was titled Lulu, was recorded over several months and comprised ten songs based on Frank Wedekind's "Lulu" plays Earth Spirit and Pandora's Box. The album was released on October 31, 2011. The recording of the album was problematic at times; Lars Ulrich later said Lou Reed challenged him to a "street fight". On October 16, 2011, Robert Trujillo confirmed that the band was back in the studio and writing new material. He said, "The writing process for the new Metallica album has begun. We've been in the studio with Rick Rubin, working on a couple of things, and we're going to be recording during the most of next year."Metallica was due to make its first appearance in India at the "India Rocks" concert, supporting the 2011 Indian Grand Prix. However, the concert was canceled when the venue was proven to be unsafe. Fans raided the stage during the event and the organizers were later arrested for fraud. Metallica made its Indian debut in Bangalore on October 30, 2011. On November 10, it was announced that Metallica would headline the main stage on Saturday June 9, 2012, at the Download Festival at Donington Park and that the band would play The Black Album in its entirety. Metallica celebrated its 30th anniversary by playing four shows at the Fillmore in San Francisco in December 2011. The shows were exclusive to Met Club members and tickets were charged at $6 each or $19.81 for all four nights. The shows consisted of songs from the band's career and featured guest appearances by artists who had either helped or had influenced Metallica. These shows were notable because Lloyd Grant, Dave Mustaine, Jason Newsted, Glenn Danzig, Ozzy Osbourne, Jerry Cantrell, Apocalyptica, members of Diamond Head, and King Diamond joined Metallica on stage for all appropriate songs. In December 2011, Metallica began releasing songs that were written for Death Magnetic but were not included on the album online. On December 13, 2011, the band released Beyond Magnetic, a digital EP release exclusively on iTunes. It was released on CD in January 2012.On February 7, 2012, Metallica announced that it would start a new music festival called Orion Music + More, which took place on June 23 and 24, 2012, in Atlantic City. Metallica also confirmed that it would headline the festival on both days and would perform two of its most critically acclaimed albums in their entirety: The Black Album on one night, and Ride the Lightning on the other. In a July 2012 interview with Canadian radio station 99.3 The Fox, Ulrich said Metallica would not release its new album until at least early 2014. In November 2012, Metallica left Warner Bros. Records and launched an independent record label, Blackened Recordings, which will produce the band's future releases. The band has acquired the rights to all of its studio albums, which will be reissued through the new label. Blackened releases will be licensed through Warner subsidiary Rhino Entertainment in North America and internationally through Universal Music. On September 20, 2012, Metallica announced via its official website that a new DVD containing footage of shows it performed in Quebec in 2009 would be released that December; fans would get the chance to vote for two setlists that would appear on the DVD. The film, titled Quebec Magnetic, was released in the U.S. on December 10, 2012.=== 2013–2019: Metallica: Through the Never and Hardwired... to Self-Destruct ===In an interview with Classic Rock on January 8, 2013, Ulrich said regarding the band's upcoming album, "What we're doing now certainly sounds like a continuation [of Death Magnetic]". He also said, "I love Rick [Rubin]. We all love Rick. We're in touch with Rick constantly. We'll see where it goes. It would stun me if the record came out in 2013." Also in 2013, the band starred in a 3D concert film titled Metallica: Through the Never, which was directed by Antal Nimród and was released in IMAX theaters on September 27. In an interview dated July 22, 2013, Ulrich told Ultimate Guitar, "2014 will be all about making a new Metallica record"; he said the album will most likely be released during 2015. Kirk Hammett and Robert Trujillo later confirmed the band's intention to enter the studio. At the second Orion Music + More festival held in Detroit, the band played under the name "Dehaan"—a reference to actor Dane DeHaan, who starred in Metallica: Through the Never. The band performed its debut album Kill 'Em All in its entirety, celebrating the 30th anniversary of its release. On December 8, 2013, the band played a show called "Freeze 'Em All" in Antarctica, becoming the first band to play on all seven continents. The performance was filmed and released as a live album the same month.At the 56th Annual Grammy Awards in January 2014, Metallica performed "One" with Chinese pianist Lang Lang. In March 2014, Metallica began a tour called "Metallica By Request", in which fans request songs for the band to perform. A new song, titled "Lords of Summer" was written for the concerts and released as a "first take" demo in June 2014. In June 2014, the band headlined the Glastonbury Festival in an attempt to attract new fans. Ulrich said, "We have one shot, you never know if you'll be invited back". In November 2014, Metallica performed at the closing ceremony of BlizzCon 2014. In January 2015, Metallica announced a "Metallica Night" with the San Jose Sharks, which featured a Q&A session with the band and a charity auction benefiting the San Francisco Bay Chapter of the Sierra Club, but no performances. They were announced to headline Lollapalooza in March 2015, returning to perform there for the first time in 20 years. On May 2, 2015, Metallica performed their third annual Metallica Day at AT&T Park. Metallica were also announced to play at X Games for the first time at X Games Austin 2015 in Austin, Texas. On June 14, 2015, Hetfield and Hammett performed The Star-Spangled Banner live via electric guitars prior to game 5 of the NBA Finals between the Cleveland Cavaliers and Golden State Warriors at Oracle Arena in Oakland, California. In late October, the band unveiled a new website with an introduction from Ulrich containing footage from the studio of the band working on new material. On November 2, Metallica were announced to play "The Night Before" Super Bowl 50 at AT&T Park. Metallica announced they would be opening the U.S. Bank Stadium on August 20, 2016, with Avenged Sevenfold and Volbeat as support.In April 2016, during the week leading up to Record Store Day, for which the band was its ambassador for 2016, Ulrich told Billboard that the band's expanded role within the music industry had played a part in the amount of time that it had taken to write and record the album. "The way we do things now is very different than the way we did things back in the days of Kill 'Em All and Ride the Lightning. Nowadays we like to do so many different things." Ulrich was also optimistic that production of the album had almost reached its completion. "Unless something radical happens it would be difficult for me to believe that it won't come out in 2016". On August 18, 2016, the band announced via their website that their tenth studio album, Hardwired... to Self-Destruct, would be released worldwide on November 18, 2016, via their independent label, Blackened Recordings. They also unveiled the track listing, album artwork, and released a music video for the album's first single, "Hardwired". The album was released as scheduled and debuted at number one on the Billboard 200.Metallica announced they would be touring the US in summer of 2017 for the WorldWired Tour. The stadium tour also includes Avenged Sevenfold, Volbeat and Gojira as supporting acts. On August 7, 2017, Metallica was invited by the San Francisco Giants again for the fifth annual "Metallica Night" with Hammett and Hetfield performing the national anthem. In January 2018, the band announced that they would be reissuing The $5.98 E.P. - Garage Days Re-Revisited on April 13 for Record Store Day, and the sixth annual "Metallica Night" was also announced a few weeks later, this time in April, with all proceeds going to the All Within My Hands Foundation, which the band created in late 2017. In February 2018, the band announced a second set of North American tour dates, most of which for cities that they had not visited in up to thirty years.=== 2019–present: Upcoming eleventh studio album ===In an interview with Australian magazine The Music's official podcast in March 2019, Trujillo said that Metallica had begun jamming on new material for its next studio album. "I'm excited about the next record because I believe it will also be a culmination of the two [previous] records and another journey. There's no shortage of original ideas, that's the beauty of being in this band." He estimated that the album would be released "a lot sooner than the previous two did... this time around I think we'll be able to jump on it a lot quicker and jump in the studio and start working. We've all vowed to get this one going sooner than later." In an interview with Australian magazine Mixdown the following month, Hammett said that the band had tentative plans to enter the studio after the conclusion of its WorldWired Tour. He stated, "We're in our third year since Hardwired. Maybe we can get a bit more focus and go into the studio a bit sooner." After not contributing any writing to Hardwired... to Self-Destruct, Hammett said regarding his ideas for the new album, "I have a ton of material. I've over-compensated, so I'm ready to go anytime."In March 2019, Metallica announced that its WorldWired Tour would continue into Australia and New Zealand in October with Slipknot in support. Later that month, the band announced that it would perform at the grand opening of San Francisco's new Chase Center with the San Francisco Symphony in September to celebrate the twenty-year anniversary of S&M. The commemorative shows, titled S&M2, were screened in over 3,000 theaters worldwide on October 9; the event featured arrangements from the original S&M concerts as well as new arrangements for songs recorded since then and a cover of the Alexander Mosolov piece Iron Foundry, and were conducted by Edwin Outwater and San Francisco Symphony music director Michael Tilson Thomas. S&M2 went on to earn $5.5 million at the box office, making it the biggest global rock event cinema release of all time; a second screening was later announced for October 30 as a result. In August 2020, the band announced that they would release the S&M2 performances as an album, DVD and box set.In July 2019, Metallica announced a set of South American tour dates for April 2020 with Greta Van Fleet in support. In September, ahead of that year's Global Citizen Festival, it was announced that Metallica would perform at the following year's festival in September 2020 alongside artists such as Billie Eilish, Miley Cyrus and Coldplay, in what would be the final event of Global Poverty Project's year-long Global Goal Live: The Possible Dream campaign. The following day, on September 27, Metallica announced that Hetfield had re-entered a rehabilitation program and that its Australia/New Zealand tour would be postponed. In a statement by Ulrich, Hammett and Trujillo, the band spoke of the devastation of the news, saying that Hetfield "[had] been struggling with addiction on and off for many years" and that all tickets would be fully refunded. Ulrich later added that Hetfield was "in the process of healing himself", and that the band hoped to return to Australia and New Zealand in 2020. The band's other commitments, including a benefit concert in March 2020, were still expected to continue as planned; a further five US festival appearances were announced in October. These shows were later postponed or cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic and to support Hetfield's recovery. In March 2020, the band began a series on YouTube and Facebook called #MetallicaMondays, where they streamed full archived shows every Monday to relieve boredom while staying home and social distancing amid the pandemic. In May 2020, while in quarantine, Metallica performed a virtual acoustic version of "Blackened", titled "Blackened 2020", which was later made available for download.In an interview with Marc Benioff in April 2020, Ulrich stated that Metallica could work on its next studio album while in quarantine. Trujillo told The Vinyl Guide in June that the band was "excited about cultivating new ideas" for its new album. "We communicate every week, which is really great, so we have our connection intact [...] what we've started doing is basically just really concentrating on our home studios and being creative from our homes and navigating through ideas and building on new ideas. And that's where we're at right now". He also said that the band was working towards eventually entering a studio to record the album.On August 10, 2020, Metallica played a show at Gundlach-Bundschu Winery in Sonoma, California, which was only attended by a few crewmembers, and it was recorded and played for drive-in movies across the United States and Canada on August 29.In May 2021, the band announced that they would do one more #MetallicaMondays on May 24 to benefit their All Within My Hands Foundation. The concert dates to September 6, 2018, in Lincoln, Nebraska.On Labor Day, September 6, 2021, the band's All Within My Hands Foundation raised $377,450. Metallica teamed up with workwear brand Carhartt on the initiative, with the clothing brand donating all of their sales proceeds on the holiday to the band's Metallica Scholars initiative, which provides opportunities to people interested in pursuing essential workforce jobs.== Style and lyrical themes ==Metallica's sound has been described as heavy metal, thrash metal, hard rock, and speed metal. Metallica was influenced by early heavy metal and hard rock bands and artists Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, Kiss, Led Zeppelin, Queen, Ted Nugent, AC/DC, Rush, Aerosmith, Judas Priest, Scorpions and by new wave of British heavy metal (NWOBHM) bands Venom, Motörhead, Saxon, Diamond Head, Blitzkrieg, and Iron Maiden. Early punk rock bands Ramones, Sex Pistols, and the Misfits also influenced Metallica's style as did post-punk band Killing Joke and hardcore punk acts Discharge and Suicidal Tendencies. Lars Urlich multiple times cited Iron Maiden as probably the biggest influence on Metallica's career and the all further achievements. The band's early releases contained fast tempos, harmonized leads, and nine-minute instrumental tracks. Steve Huey of AllMusic said Ride the Lightning featured "extended, progressive epics; tight, concise groove-rockers". Huey said Metallica expanded its compositional technique and range of expression to take on a more aggressive approach in following releases, and lyrics dealt with personal and socially conscious issues. Religious and military leaders, rage, insanity, monsters, and drugs—among other themes—were explored on Master of Puppets.In 1991, Huey said Metallica with new producer Bob Rock simplified and streamlined its music for a more commercial approach to appeal to mainstream audiences. Robert Palmer of Rolling Stone said the band abandoned its aggressive, fast tempos to expand its music and expressive range. The change in direction proved commercially successful; Metallica was the band's first album to peak at number one on the Billboard 200. Metallica noticed changes to the rock scene created by the grunge movement of the early 1990s. In Load—an album that has been described as having "an almost alternative rock" approach—the band changed musical direction again and focused on non-metal influences. Metallica's new lyrical approach moved away from drugs and monsters, and focused on anger, loss, and retribution. Some fans and critics were not pleased with this change, which included haircuts, the cover art of Load, and headlining the Lollapalooza festival of 1996. David Fricke of Rolling Stone described the move as "goodbye to the moldy stricture and dead-end Puritanism of no-frills thrash", and called Load the heaviest record of 1996. With the release of ReLoad in 1997, the band displayed blues and early hard rock influences, incorporating more rhythm and harmony in song structures.St. Anger marked another large change in the band's sound. Guitar solos were excluded from the album, leaving a "raw and unpolished sound". The band used drop C tuning; Ulrich's snare drum received particular criticism. New York Magazine's Ethan Brown said it "reverberates with a thwong". The album's lyrics deal with Hetfield's drug rehabilitation and include references to the devil, anti-drug themes, claustrophobia, impending doom, and religious hypocrisy. At the advice of producer Rick Rubin, for its ninth studio album Death Magnetic, the band returned to standard tuning and guitar solos. As a return to Metallica's thrash roots, Death Magnetic was a riff-oriented album featuring intense guitar solos and subtle lyrics dealing with suicide and redemption.== Legacy and influence ==Metallica has become one of the most influential heavy metal bands of all time, and is credited as one of the "big four" of thrash metal, along with Slayer, Anthrax, and Megadeth. The band has sold more than 125 million records worldwide, including an RIAA-certified 66 million and Nielsen SoundScan-reported 58,000,000 in the US, making Metallica one of the most commercially successful bands of all time. The writers of The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll said Metallica gave heavy metal "a much-needed charge". Stephen Thomas Erlewine and Greg Prato of Allmusic said Metallica "expanded the limits of thrash, using speed and volume not for their own sake, but to enhance their intricately structured compositions", and called the band "easily the best, most influential heavy metal band of the '80s, responsible for bringing the music back to Earth".Jonathan Davis of Korn said he respects Metallica as his favorite band; he said, "I love that they've done things their own way and they've persevered over the years and they're still relevant to this day. I think they're one of the greatest bands ever." Godsmack drummer Shannon Larkin said Metallica has been the biggest influence on the band, stating, "they really changed my life when I was 16 years old—I'd never heard anything that heavy". Vocalist and guitarist Robb Flynn of Machine Head said that when creating the band's 2007 album, The Blackening, "What we mean is an album that has the power, influence and epic grandeur of that album Master of Puppets—and the staying power—a timeless record like that". Gojira lead guitarist Christian Andreu said it was while listening to Ride the Lightning that he started making music; saying "we find on the album 'Fade to Black', 'For Whom the Bell Tolls', emblematic pieces". Trivium guitarists Corey Beaulieu and Matt Heafy said that when they heard Metallica they wanted to start playing guitar. M. Shadows of Avenged Sevenfold said touring with Metallica was the band's career highlight, and said, "Selling tons of records and playing huge shows will never compare to meeting your idols Metallica". God Forbid guitarists Doc and Dallas Coyle were inspired by Metallica as they grew up, and the band's bassist John Outcalt admires Burton as a "rocker". Ill Niño drummer Dave Chavarri said he finds early Metallica releases are "heavy, raw, rebellious. It said, 'fuck you'", and Adema drummer Kris Kohls said the band is influenced by Metallica.On April 4, 2009, Metallica were inducted into the Rock And Roll Hall Of Fame. They entered the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame the second year they were eligible and first year they were nominated. Metallica's induction into the Hall included its current lineup, James Hetfield, Kirk Hammett, Robert Trujillo, and Lars Ulrich, and former members Jason Newsted and Cliff Burton.MTV ranked Metallica the third "Greatest Heavy Metal Band in History". Metallica was ranked 42nd on VH1's "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", was listed fifth on VH1's "100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock", and the band was number one on VH1's "20 Greatest Metal Bands" list. Rolling Stone placed the band 61st on its list of "The 100 Greatest Artists of All Time"; its albums Master of Puppets and Metallica were ranked at numbers 167 and 252 respectively on the magazine's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Master of Puppets was named in Q Magazine's "50 Heaviest Albums of All Time", and was ranked number one on IGN's "Top 25 Metal Albums", and number one on's "Top 100 Heavy Metal Albums" list. "Enter Sandman" was ranked number 399 on Rolling Stone's "500 Greatest Songs of All Time".Kerrang! released a tribute album titled Master of Puppets: Remastered with the April 8, 2006, edition of the magazine to celebrate the 20th anniversary of Master of Puppets. The album featured cover versions of Metallica songs by Machine Head, Bullet for My Valentine, Chimaira, Mastodon, Mendeed, and Trivium—all of which are influenced by Metallica. At least 15 Metallica tribute albums have been released. On September 10, 2006, Metallica guest starred on The Simpsons' eighteenth-season premiere, "The Mook, the Chef, the Wife and Her Homer". Hammett's and Hetfield's voices were used in three episodes of the animated television series Metalocalypse. Finnish cello metal band Apocalyptica released a tribute album titled Plays Metallica by Four Cellos, which features eight Metallica songs played on cellos. A parody band named Beatallica plays music using a combination of The Beatles and Metallica songs. Beatallica faced legal troubles when Sony, which owns The Beatles' catalog, issued a cease and desist order, claiming "substantial and irreparable injury" and ordering the group to pay damages. Ulrich, a fan of Beatallica, asked Metallica's lawyer Peter Paterno to help settle the case.On March 7, 1999, Metallica was inducted into the San Francisco Walk of Fame. The mayor of San Francisco, Willie Brown, proclaimed the day "Official Metallica Day". The band was awarded the MTV Icon award in 2003, and a concert paying tribute to the band with artists performing its songs was held. Performances included Sum 41 and a medley of "For Whom the Bell Tolls", "Enter Sandman", and "Master of Puppets". Staind covered "Nothing Else Matters", Avril Lavigne played "Fuel", hip-hop artist Snoop Dogg performed "Sad but True", Korn played "One", and Limp Bizkit performed "Welcome Home (Sanitarium)".The Guitar Hero video game series included several of Metallica's songs. "One" was used in Guitar Hero III. The album Death Magnetic was later released as purchasable, downloadable content for the game. "Trapped Under Ice" was featured in the sequel, Guitar Hero World Tour. In 2009, Metallica collaborated with the game's developers to make Guitar Hero: Metallica, which included a number of Metallica's songs. Harmonix' video game series Rock Band included "Enter Sandman" and "Battery"; "Ride the Lightning", "Blackened", and "...And Justice for All" were released as downloadable tracks. In 2013, due to expiring content licenses, "Ride the Lightning", "Blackened", and "...And Justice for All" are no longer available for download.In 2018, Metallica worked with legendary whiskey distiller, Dave Pickerell, to release a blended whiskey called Blackened American Whiskey. The aging process includes the application of low-frequency sound waves to the brew which broadcast the band's songs. According to the band, each run of 5,000 bottles has a different playlist.In October 2020, Miley Cyrus announced that she was planning on recording a Metallica covers album and on January 7, 2021 she announced that she has recorded a cover version of "Nothing Else Matters" that would feature Elton John on piano, drummer Chad Smith from Red Hot Chili Peppers and cellist Yo-Yo Ma. The song was produced by Andrew Watt.== Band members ==Timeline== Discography ==Studio albumsKill 'Em All (1983)Ride the Lightning (1984)Master of Puppets (1986)...And Justice for All (1988)Metallica (1991)Load (1996)Reload (1997)St. Anger (2003)Death Magnetic (2008)Hardwired... to Self-Destruct (2016)== Awards and nominations ==Grammy Awards1990: Best Metal Performance – "One"1991: Best Metal Performance – "Stone Cold Crazy"1992: Best Metal Performance – Metallica1999: Best Metal Performance – "Better than You"2000: Best Hard Rock Performance – "Whiskey in the Jar"2001: Best Rock Instrumental Performance – "The Call of Ktulu" (with Michael Kamen and the San Francisco Symphony)2004: Best Metal Performance – "St. Anger"2009: Best Metal Performance – "My Apocalypse"2009: Best Recording Package – Death Magnetic== See also ==List of artists who reached number one on the U.S. Mainstream Rock chartList of bands from the San Francisco Bay AreaList of best-selling music artistsList of heavy metal bandsList of Metallica concert toursList of people from CaliforniaList of Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducteesList of thrash metal bands== Notes ==^ The 1988 re-issue of Kill 'Em All on Elektra Records also charted on the Billboard 200, peaking at number 120.== References ==== General sources ==== External links ==Official websiteMetallica at AllMusic Metallica at CurlieMetallica discography at Discogs Metallica discography at MusicBrainz Nu metal (sometimes stylized as nü-metal) is a subgenre of alternative metal that combines elements of heavy metal music with elements of other music genres such as hip hop, alternative rock, funk, industrial, and grunge. Nu metal bands have drawn elements and influences from a variety of musical styles, including multiple genres of heavy metal. Nu metal rarely features guitar solos or other displays of technical competence; the genre is heavily syncopated and based on guitar riffs. Many nu metal guitarists use seven-string guitars that are down-tuned to feature a heavier sound. DJs are occasionally featured in nu metal to provide instrumentation such as sampling, turntable scratching and electronic backgrounds. Vocal styles in nu metal include singing, rapping, screaming and growling. Nu metal is one of the key genres of the new wave of American heavy metal.Nu metal became popular in the late 1990s with bands and artists such as Korn, Limp Bizkit, and Kid Rock all releasing albums that sold millions of copies. Nu metal's popularity continued during the early 2000s, with bands such as Papa Roach, Staind, and P.O.D. all selling multi-platinum albums, and came to a peak with Linkin Park's diamond-selling album Hybrid Theory. However, by the mid-2000s, the oversaturation of bands combined with the underperformance of several high-profile releases led to nu metal's decline, leading to the rise of metalcore and many nu metal bands disbanding or abandoning their established sound in favor of other genres.During the 2010s, there was a nu metal revival; many bands that combine nu metal with other genres (for example, metalcore and deathcore) emerged, and some nu metal bands from the 1990s and early 2000s returned to the nu metal sound. Bands like Of Mice & Men, Emmure, Issues and My Ticket Home would combine nu metal with metalcore or deathcore. Artists like Grimes, Poppy and Rina Sawayama would integrate nu metal sounds into electronic pop music in the late 2010s and early 2020s.Nu metal received criticism from many fans of heavy metal and nu metal was often labeled with pejorative words like "mallcore". Many heavy metal fans refused to consider nu metal a true subgenre of heavy metal. Some nu metal musicians did not view their music as heavy metal and some nu metal musicians rejected the nu metal label.== Characteristics and fashion ===== Terminology and origins ===Nu metal is also known as nü-metal and aggro-metal. It is a subgenre of alternative metal. MTV states that the early nu metal group Korn "arrived in 1993 into the burgeoning alternative metal scene, which would morph into nü-metal the way college rock became alternative rock." Stereogum has similarly claimed that nu metal was a "weird outgrowth of the Lollapalooza-era alt-metal scene". Nu metal merges elements of heavy metal music with elements of other music genres such as hip hop, and alternative rock.Nu metal bands have been influenced by and have used elements of a variety of musical genres, including electronic music, funk, gothic rock, hardcore punk, punk rock, dance music, new wave, jazz, post-punk, symphonic rock and synth-pop. Nu metal bands also are influenced by and use elements of genres of heavy metal music such as death metal, rap metal, groove metal, funk metal, and thrash metal. Some nu metal bands, such as Static-X and Dope, made nu metal music with elements of industrial metal. In contrast with other heavy metal subgenres, nu metal tends to use the same structure of verses, choruses and bridges as those in pop music.=== Musical characteristics ======= Instrumentation ====Nu metal is heavily syncopated and is based mostly on guitar riffs. Mid-song bridges and a general lack of guitar solos contrasts it with other genres of heavy metal. Kory Grow of Revolver wrote, "... [i]n its efforts to tune down and simplify riffs, nu-metal effectively drove a stake through the heart of the guitar solo". Another contrast with other heavy metal genres is nu metal's emphasis on rhythm, rather than on complexity or mood, often its rhythm sounds like that of groove metal. The wah pedal is occasionally featured in nu metal music. Nu metal guitar riffs occasionally are similar to those of death metal.Nu metal bassists and drummers are often influenced by funk and hip hop, respectively, adding to nu metal's rhythmic nature. Blast beats, which are common in heavy metal subgenres such as black metal and death metal, are extremely rare in nu metal. Nu metal's similarities with many heavy metal subgenres include its use of common time, distorted guitars, power chords and note structures primarily revolving around Dorian, Aeolian or Phrygian modes. While loud and heavily distorted electric guitars are a core feature of all metal genres, nu metal guitarists took the sounds of "violence and destruction" to new levels with their overdriven guitar tone, which music journalists Kitts and Tolinski compared to the "...sound [of] a Mack truck being crushed by a collapsing skyscraper."Some nu metal bands use seven-string guitars that are generally down-tuned, rather than traditional six-string guitars. Likewise, some bass guitarists use five-string and six-string instruments. Bass guitar-playing in nu metal often features an emphasis on funk elements. In nu metal music, DJs are sometimes featured to provide instrumentation such as sampling, turntable scratching and electronic backgrounds. Nu metal tends to have hip hop grooves and rhythms.==== Vocals ====Vocal styles used in nu metal music include singing, rapping, screaming and growling. Vocals in nu metal are often rhythmic and influenced by hip hop. While some nu metal bands, such as Limp Bizkit and Linkin Park, have rapping in their music, other nu metal bands, such as Godsmack and Staind, do not.Nu metal bands occasionally feature hip hop musicians as guests in their songs; Korn's song "Children of the Korn" features the rapper Ice Cube, who performed on the band's 1998 Family Values Tour. The hip hop musician Nas was featured on Korn's song "Play Me", which is on the band's album Take a Look in the Mirror. Limp Bizkit has recorded with multiple hip hop musicians including Method Man, Lil Wayne, Xzibit, Redman, DMX and Snoop Dogg. Linkin Park collaborated with hip hop musician Jay-Z on their 2004 extended play Collision Course. Kid Rock has recorded with hip hop musicians Eminem and Snoop Dogg. Trevor Baker of The Guardian wrote, "Bands such as Linkin Park, Korn and even the much reviled Limp Bizkit ... did far more to break down the artificial barriers between 'urban music' and rock than any of their more critically acceptable counterparts."==== Lyrics ====Lyrics in nu metal songs are often angry or nihilistic; many of the genre's lyrics focus on topics such as pain, angst, bullying, emotional issues, abandonment, betrayal, and personal alienation, in a way similar to those of grunge. Many nu metal lyrics that are about these topics tend to be in a very direct tone. However, some nu metal songs have lyrics that are about other topics. P.O.D. have used positive lyrics about promise and hope. The nu metal song "Bodies" by Drowning Pool is about moshing. The Michigan Daily wrote about Limp Bizkit's lyrics, writing that the band "used the nu-metal sound as a way to spin testosterone fueled fantasies into snarky white-boy rap. Oddly, audiences took frontman Fred Durst more seriously than he wanted, failing to see the intentional silliness in many of his songs". Limp Bizkit's lyrics also have been described as misogynistic. Dope's lyrics are usually about sex, drugs, parties, women, violence and relationships. In contrast, according to Josh Chesler of the Phoenix New Times, the lyrics of Deftones, who were once considered a nu metal band, "tend to have complex allusions and leave the songs open to many different interpretations."=== Fashion ===Nu metal clothing typically consists of baggy pants, shirts, and shorts, JNCO jeans, Adidas tracksuits, sports jerseys, baseball caps, baggy hoodies, cargo pants, and sweatpants. Nu metal hairstyles and facial hairstyles include dreadlocks, braids, spiky hair, chin beards, bald heads, goatees, frosted tips, and bleached or dyed hair. Common accessories in nu metal fashion include wallet chains, tattoos, and piercings, especially facial piercings. Nu metal fashion has been compared to hip hop fashion.Some nu metal bands such as Motograter, Mushroomhead, Mudvayne, and Slipknot wear masks, jumpsuits, costumes, face paint, corpse paint or body paint. A few nu metal bands, such as Coal Chamber, Evanescence, and Kittie, are known for having gothic appearances.== History ===== 1980s–1993: Precursors and influences ===Many heavy metal, alternative metal, industrial, funk metal, alternative rock, rap metal, and industrial metal artists and bands of the 1980s and early 1990s have been credited with laying groundwork for the development of nu metal by combining heavy guitar riffs with pop music structures and drawing influences from subgenres of heavy metal and other music genres; Faith No More, Primus, Helmet, Boo-Yaa T.R.I.B.E., Tool, Fear Factory, 24-7 Spyz, Hot Dawgz, Fishbone, Biohazard, Suicidal Tendencies, Infectious Grooves, Godflesh, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Nine Inch Nails, White Zombie, Mr. Bungle, Prong, Rage Against the Machine, and Ministry all have been highlighted as examples of this.Groove metal and thrash metal bands of the same period such as Machine Head, Sepultura, Metallica, Pantera, Slayer, and Anthrax all have been cited as influential to nu metal as well. For example, Anthrax pioneered the rap metal genre by combining hip hop and rap with heavy metal on their 1987 EP I'm the Man, which laid groundwork for nu metal's development. Korn's lead vocalist Jonathan Davis said about Pantera guitarist Dimebag Darrell, "if there was no Dimebag Darrell, there would be no Korn".In the 1990s, bands described as "neo-metal" by the author Garry Sharpe-Young emerged; these bands include Pantera, Strapping Young Lad, Machine Head, Biohazard and Fear Factory. Sharpe-Young wrote that these bands "had chosen to strip metal down to its raw, primal element" and that "neo-metal paved the way for nu-metal".Nu metal is often influenced by hip hop. hip hop musicians Dr. Dre and Ice Cube have been a big influence on nu metal creators and pioneers Korn; guitarist Munky said the band were trying to emulate the samples of Dr. Dre's 1992 album The Chronic. Munky and fellow Korn guitarist Head also said they tried to emulate samples by the hip hop group Cypress Hill. Both the Geto Boys and N.W.A. also have been a major influence on Korn. Fred Durst of Limp Bizkit has cited the hip hop group The Fat Boys as a major influence on him. Shifty Shellshock of the nu metal band Crazy Town cited Run–D.M.C. and Beastie Boys as influences. Josey Scott of the nu metal band Saliva cited Run–D.M.C., LL Cool J, Beastie Boys, Public Enemy, N.W.A., Chuck D, Doug E. Fresh, and Whodini as influences. Sonny Sandoval of the nu metal band P.O.D. cited hip hop groups Boogie Down Productions and Run–D.M.C. as influences. Linkin Park member Mike Shinoda's hip hop influences include Boogie Down Productions, Public Enemy, N.W.A., and the Juice Crew. Chester Bennington, another member of Linkin Park, cited A Tribe Called Quest, KRS-One, Run–D.M.C., Public Enemy, N.W.A., Beastie Boys, and Rob Base as influences. Beastie Boys are a hip hop music group that influenced nu metal. Hip hop group Run–DMC was one of the first groups to combine rap with rock, paving the way for nu metal.=== 1993–1998: Early development and rise ===Joel McIver acknowledged Korn as the band that created and pioneered the nu metal genre with its demo Neidermayer's Mind, which was released in 1993. McIver also acknowledged Korn as the band that started the new wave of American heavy metal, which is a heavy metal music movement that started in the 1990s. The aggressive riffs of Korn, the rapping of Limp Bizkit, and the melodic ballads of Staind created the sonic template for nu metal. The origins of the term "nu metal" are often attributed to the work of producer Ross Robinson, who has been called "The Godfather of Nu Metal" between producers. Robinson has produced for nu metal bands such as Korn, Limp Bizkit and Slipknot. Many of the first nu metal bands, such as Korn and Deftones, came from California; however, the genre soon spread across the United States and many bands arose from various states, including Limp Bizkit from Florida, Staind from Massachusetts, and Slipknot from Iowa. In the book Brave Nu World, Tommy Udo wrote about the nu metal band Coal Chamber, "There's some evidence to suggest that Coal Chamber were the first band to whom the tag 'nu metal' was actually applied, in a live review in Spin magazine."In 1994, Korn released their self-titled debut album, which is widely considered the first popular nu metal album. Korn had experienced underground popularity at this time; their debut album peaked at number 72 on the Billboard 200. However, earlier the same year, P.O.D.'s album Snuff the Punk was also released, which was later recognized as the first nu metal album. In 1995, the band Sugar Ray released its debut studio album Lemonade and Brownies, an album described as nu metal. In 1995, Deftones released their debut album Adrenaline. The album peaked at number 23 on the Heatseekers Albums chart on October 5, 1996. Deftones also were temporarily controversial in 1996 when their vocalist Chino Moreno was blamed by TV news reports for a riot that occurred at the 1996 U-Fest festival. Deftones' 1997 album Around the Fur peaked at number 29 on the Billboard 200 on November 15, 1997. Both Adrenaline and Around the Fur were certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) in the summer of 1999.Adrenaline and Around the Fur were certified platinum by the RIAA in September 2008 and June 2011, respectively.Sepultura's 1996 album Roots features nu metal elements that were considered influential to the genre, while Roots itself was influenced by Korn's self-titled debut album. Few bands were playing nu metal until 1997 when bands such as Coal Chamber, Limp Bizkit, and Papa Roach all released their debut albums. Attention through MTV and Ozzy Osbourne's 1995 introduction of Ozzfest was integral to the launching of the careers of many nu metal bands, including Limp Bizkit in 1998.Nu metal began to rise in popularity when Korn's 1996 album Life Is Peachy peaked at number 3 on the Billboard 200 and sold 106,000 copies in its first week of release. In 1997, Sugar Ray released its second studio album Floored. The album achieved mainstream success very quickly and was certified 2x platinum by the RIAA on February 20, 1998. Although Floored is a nu metal album, the only song from the album that achieved chart success was the song "Fly", which is instead a reggae song. Although Sugar Ray continued to be extremely popular, the band abandoned the nu metal genre and became a pop rock band with its 1999 studio album 14:59.=== 1998–2003: Mainstream popularity ===In 1998, nu metal became one of the most mainstream genres of music when Korn's third album Follow the Leader peaked at number 1 on the Billboard 200, was certified 5x platinum by the RIAA, and paved the way for other nu metal bands. At this point, many nu metal bands were signed to major record labels, and were playing combinations of heavy metal, hip hop, industrial, grunge and hardcore punk styles. Hip hop artists Vanilla Ice and Cypress Hill, along with heavy metal bands Sepultura, Primus, Fear Factory, Machine Head, and Slayer released albums that draw from the nu metal genre.In 1999, Korn's fourth studio album Issues peaked at number 1 on the Billboard 200. The album was certified 3× platinum in one month. The album sold at least 573,000 copies in its first week of release and its first single "Falling Away From Me" peaked at number 8 on the Bubbling Under Hot 100 Singles chart. A little before the album was released, Korn appeared on an episode of South Park titled "Korn's Groovy Pirate Ghost Mystery", in which "Falling Away from Me" was premiered. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, multiple nu metal bands such as Korn, Limp Bizkit and P.O.D. appeared repeatedly on MTV's Total Request Live.The Woodstock 1999 festival featured multiple nu metal artists and bands such as Korn, Kid Rock, Godsmack, Limp Bizkit and Sevendust. During and after Limp Bizkit's performance at the festival, violence occurred and people tore plywood from the walls during the performance of the band's song "Break Stuff". Several sexual assaults were reported to have happened during the festival; a rape that was reported during Limp Bizkit's performance, and gang rape was reported to have occurred during Korn's set at the festival. Despite the incidents at the festival, Limp Bizkit's popularity and the sales of their then-recent album Significant Other were not affected. The album peaked at number 1 on the Billboard 200, selling 643,874 copies in its first week of release, topping over one million sold in two weeks, and eventually being certified 7x platinum in 2001. Significant Other sold at least 7,237,123 copies in the United States.Orgy became popular in the late 1990s with their album Candyass, which was certified platinum by the RIAA in July 1999. The band's cover of "Blue Monday" by New Order peaked at number 56 on the Billboard Hot 100. Godsmack's self-titled debut album was released in 1998 and was certified 4× platinum in December 2001. In April 1999, Kid Rock's album Devil Without a Cause was certified by gold by the RIAA. The following month, Devil Without a Cause, as Kid Rock predicted, went platinum. The album sold at least 9,300,000 copies in the United States and was certified 11x platinum. In 1999, Slipknot emerged with an extremely heavy nu metal sound, releasing their self-titled album, which was certified platinum in 2000 and 2x platinum in 2005. In a review of the band's self-titled album, Rick Anderson of AllMusic wrote about Slipknot, "You thought Limp Bizkit was hard? They're the Osmonds. These guys are something else entirely."In 1999, Staind's second album Dysfunction was released; the track "Mudshovel" peaked at number 10 on the Mainstream Rock chart. Dysfunction was certified 2x platinum by the RIAA. In 2000, Limp Bizkit's third studio album Chocolate Starfish and the Hot Dog Flavored Water set a record for highest week-one sales of a rock album, selling over 1,000,000 copies in the United States in its first week of release—400,000 of which sold on its first day of release, making it the fastest-selling rock album ever and breaking the world record held for seven years by Pearl Jam's Vs. Chocolate Starfish and the Hot Dog Flavored Water by Limp Bizkit was certified 6x platinum and sold at least 8,000,000 copies in the United States. That same year, both Papa Roach's second studio album Infest and Disturbed's debut studio album The Sickness were released. The RIAA certified The Sickness 4× platinum and Infest 3× platinum. Disturbed's song "Down with the Sickness" was certified platinum by the RIAA. Papa Roach's song "Last Resort" peaked at number 57 on the Billboard Hot 100 and at number 1 on the Modern Rock Tracks chart. In 2000, P.O.D.'s album The Fundamental Elements of Southtown went platinum in the United States and was the 143rd best-selling album of 2000. The album's song "Rock the Party (Off the Hook)" went to number 1 on MTV's Total Request Live. In 2000, the hip hop group Cypress Hill released their fifth studio album Skull & Bones, which features a nu metal and rap metal style. The album went platinum in the United States in two months. During the early 2000s, the nu metal band Incubus was very popular and made the albums Make Yourself and Morning View, which both were certified 2x platinum by the RIAA.Late in 2000, Linkin Park released their debut album Hybrid Theory, which was the best-selling debut album by any artist of any genre in the 21st century. The album was also the best-selling album of 2001, selling more than albums such as Celebrity by NSYNC and Hot Shot by Shaggy. Linkin Park earned a Grammy Award for their second single "Crawling". Their fourth single, "In the End", was released late in 2001 and peaked at number 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 in March 2002. In 2001, Linkin Park's album Hybrid Theory sold 4,800,000 copies in the United States, making it the highest-selling album of the year. Linkin Park's album Hybrid Theory was certified diamond by the RIAA and sold at least 10,222,000 copies in the United States. In 2000, Godsmack released their second studio album Awake, which was certified 2x platinum in March 2002. The album's title track peaked at number 1 on the Mainstream Rock chart. Both the album's title track and the song "Sick of Life" have been featured on the United States Navy's television commercials.Crazy Town's debut album The Gift of Game peaked at number 9 on the Billboard 200, went platinum in February 2001, and sold at least 1,500,000 copies in the United States. Worldwide, the album sold at least 2,500,000 copies. Staind's 2001 album Break the Cycle debuted at number 1 on the Billboard 200 with at least 716,000 copies sold in its first week of release, selling more than albums such as Survivor by Destiny's Child, Lateralus by Tool and Miss E... So Addictive by Missy Elliott. Break the Cycle by Staind was certified 5x platinum by the RIAA in 2003. In March 2001, Saliva released their second album Every Six Seconds and the album was certified platinum. The album's song "Click Click Boom" was used as the theme song for WWE's No Mercy event of 2001. Saliva's song "Your Disease" peaked at number 7 on Billboard's Modern Rock Tracks chart and peaked at number 3 on Billboard's Mainstream Rock chart.In August 2001, Slipknot released their album Iowa, which peaked at number 3 on the Billboard 200 and went platinum in October 2001. Critic John Mulvey called the album the "absolute triumph of nu metal". P.O.D.'s 2001 album Satellite went triple-platinum and peaked at number 6 on the Billboard 200. P.O.D.'s popularity continued in the year 2002. On June 5, 2001, Drowning Pool released a nu metal album titled Sinner, which features the song "Bodies". The album went platinum on August 23, 2001 and its song "Bodies" became one of the most frequently played videos on MTV for new bands. "Bodies" went to number 6 on the Mainstream Rock chart and was used by Boston Red Sox closer Jonathan Papelbon as his theme song.Alien Ant Farm's album Anthology, which was released in 2001, sold at least 1,900,000 copies in the United States and was certified platinum by the RIAA the same year. Alien Ant Farm's cover of Michael Jackson's song "Smooth Criminal" peaked at number 23 on the Billboard Hot 100. In 2001, System of a Down's album Toxicity peaked at number 1 on the Billboard 200. In November 2002, Toxicity was certified 3x platinum by the RIAA. In 2002, the soundtrack album for the film The Scorpion King was released and peaked at number 1 on the Top Soundtracks chart; it features multiple nu metal bands such as Drowning Pool, Coal Chamber, Lifer, Sevendust, Flaw and Godsmack. Godsmack's track "I Stand Alone" was the most played active rock song in 2002 for fourteen consecutive weeks. "I Stand Alone" also peaked at number 1 on the Mainstream Rock chart.In 2003, MTV wrote that nu metal's mainstream popularity was declining, citing that Korn's fifth album Untouchables and Papa Roach's third album Lovehatetragedy both sold less than the bands' previous releases. Korn's lead vocalist Jonathan Davis blamed music piracy for the amount of sales of Untouchables because the album had been leaked to the Internet more than four months before its official release date. MTV also wrote that nu metal bands were played less frequently on radio stations and MTV began focusing on other musical genres. MTV wrote that Papa Roach's third album Lovehatetragedy has less hip hop elements than the band's previous album Infest and also said that Saliva's 2002 album Back into Your System has less hip hop elements than the band's 2001 album Every Six Seconds. MTV also wrote that Crazy Town's second album Darkhorse had no hit singles and sold less than the band's previous album The Gift of Game. MTV wrote that although Kid Rock's album Cocky had characteristics of the musician's 1998 album Devil Without a Cause, Cocky's song "Forever", which featured the style of Kid Rock's nu metal song "Bawitdaba", was not as popular as Cocky's country song "Picture". MTV also wrote, "Another cause for nü-metal and rap-rock's slip from the spotlight could be a diluted talent pool caused by so many similar-sounding bands. American Head Charge, Primer 55, Adema, Cold, the Union Underground, Dope, Apartment 26, Hed (Planet Earth) and Skrape—all of whom released albums between 2000 and 2001—left more of a collective impression than individual ones".Despite what MTV wrote, the RIAA certified Korn's album Untouchables platinum in July 2002, and one of the album's singles, "Here to Stay", peaked at number 72 on the Billboard Hot 100, won a Grammy, received much radio play, and peaked at number one on MTV's Total Request Live twice. Untouchables sold at least 434,000 copies in first week of release and peaked at number 2 on the Billboard 200. "Thoughtless", another single from Korn's album Untouchables, also was successful; the single reached number 11 on the Billboard Modern Rock Tracks chart and number 6 on the Billboard Mainstream Rock chart. However, Untouchables still did not sell as many copies as Korn's most commercially successful album, Follow the Leader. Papa Roach's song "She Loves Me Not", which is from the band's 2002 album Lovehatetragedy, peaked at number 76 on the Billboard Hot 100.Despite the MTV report that nu metal was declining, nu metal remained extremely popular with bands such as Linkin Park, Godsmack, Trapt, and Evanescence. Linkin Park's remix album Reanimation was released in July 2002 and sold more than a million copies that year, which MTV described as "impressive for a remix album". Trapt's 2002 song "Headstrong" launched the band into the mainstream; the song peaked at number 16 on the Billboard Hot 100, number 4 on the Mainstream Top 40 chart and number 1 on the Billboard Mainstream Rock Tracks chart. Trapt's song "Still Frame" peaked at number 69 on the Billboard Hot 100. The band's self-titled album was certified platinum by the RIAA in 2003. Evanescence's debut album Fallen was released in March 2003. Johnny Loftus of AllMusic noted the nu metal sound of the album. Fallen's Grammy Award-winning lead single "Bring Me to Life" peaked at number 5 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and number 1 on the Mainstream Top 40 chart. In 2003, Linkin Park's album Meteora peaked at number 1 on the Billboard 200 and sold at least 810,000 copies in its first week of being released. Meteora by Linkin Park and Fallen by Evanescence ranked third and fourth respectively on the best-selling albums of 2003. Both Linkin Park and Evanescence released high-charting singles throughout 2003 to mid-2004. Fallen by Evanescence sold at least 7,600,000 copies in the United States and Meteora by Linkin Park sold at least 6,100,000 copies in the United States. In 2003, Korn released a song called "Did My Time", which peaked at number 38 on the Billboard Hot 100. That same year, Godsmack released their third studio album Faceless, which peaked at number 1 on the Billboard 200 and was certified platinum by the RIAA in its first five weeks of being released.=== 2003–2010: Decline in popularity ===Most of nu metal's mainstream popularity sharply declined in 2003 and 2004. After a period of mainstream success with bands such as Godsmack, Trapt, Linkin Park and Evanescence, nu metal declined in popularity. Limp Bizkit's 2003 album Results May Vary, which features alternative rock music and nu metal music, peaked at number 3 on the Billboard 200, with sales of at least 325,000 copies in its first week of being released. In three weeks of being released, the album had sold at least 500,000 copies. In 2004, reported that, according to Nielsen SoundScan, Results May Vary sold 1,337,356 copies in the United States. However, the album garnered very poor critical reception and consequently performed much weaker than previous Limp Bizkit albums such as Significant Other and Chocolate Starfish and the Hot Dog Flavored Water. Although Korn's album Take a Look in the Mirror's song "Did My Time" peaked at number 38 on the Billboard Hot 100, the album sold less than previous Korn albums Issues and Untouchables. In 2004, post-punk revival bands such as Jet and The Darkness were achieving mainstream success as the popularity of nu metal declined. During the mid-2000s, the popularity of emo exceeded the declining popularity of nu metal. Also, during the mid-2000s, metalcore, a fusion of extreme metal and hardcore punk, became one of the most popular genres in the new wave of American heavy metal.In the mid-to-late 2000s, many nu metal bands experimented with other genres and sounds. Linkin Park's third studio album Minutes to Midnight, released in 2007, was noted for its complete departure from the band's nu metal sound. Nu metal bands such as Disturbed and Drowning Pool moved to a hard rock or standard heavy metal sound. Slipknot also departed from their nu metal sound and included elements of groove metal, death metal and thrash metal into their music. Staind and Papa Roach moved to lighter sounds. Staind's 2003 album 14 Shades Of Grey does not express as much anger as the band's previous albums and shows the band's departure from heavy metal elements and a movement towards a lighter sound. Papa Roach abandoned the nu metal genre with their 2004 album Getting Away with Murder, moving to a hard rock style.Soulfly moved away from the nu metal style and moved to styles such as death metal and thrash metal. Kittie abandoned the nu metal style and started making music with elements of genres such as black metal and death metal. Korn and Mudvayne continued being mainstream during the mid-2000s. Nonetheless, they did not completely abandon the nu metal style. Korn combined their earlier sound with influences from other genres, such as industrial. Korn's songs "Coming Undone" and "Twisted Transistor", which both are on their 2005 album See You on the Other Side, both reached the Billboard Hot 100; Pop music producers The Matrix helped produce the album. Mudvayne's 2005 album Lost and Found was seen as gravitating towards a more accessible sound. The album's song "Happy?" peaked at number 89 on the Billboard Hot 100 and at number 91 on Billboard's Pop 100 chart. In 2005, Limp Bizkit released a record called The Unquestionable Truth (Part 1) without promoting and advertising the record. The album was not very popular; its sales fell 67% during its second week of release. In 2006, Limp Bizkit went on hiatus.=== 2010–present: Revivals and fusion with other genres ===During the mid-2010s, there was a discussion within media of a possible nu metal revival because of bands fusing nu metal with other genres, the return of nu metal bands, formerly nu metal bands going back to the nu metal genre and nu metal bands forming. Despite the lack of radio play and popularity, some nu metal bands recaptured some of their former popularity as they released albums in a nu metal style. Korn's 2010 studio album Korn III: Remember Who You Are sold 63,000 copies during its first week of release and peaked at number 2 on the Billboard 200. As of December 6, 2011, the album had sold at least 185,000 units in the United States. Korn's vocalist Jonathan Davis said with their new album the band "want to go back to that old-school vibe". He also said "It's gonna be very raw, it's gonna be old school like the first Korn records".In 2011, Limp Bizkit's sixth studio album Gold Cobra was released; it sold 27,000 copies during its first week in the United States and peaked at number 16 on the Billboard 200. That same year, Staind's self-titled album was released; it shows the band returning to their heavier nu metal style. The album debuted at number 5 on the Billboard 200, selling 47,000 copies in its first week of release, making it the band's fifth consecutive top-five album. In October 2011, Evanescence's self-titled album, described as a mix of gothic nu metal and hard rock, debuted at number 1 on the Billboard 200 and other United States charts and sold over 127,000 copies in the first week. In December that year, Korn released their album The Path of Totality, which sold 55,000 copies in its first week. The album combines nu metal with dubstep. Both the Phoenix New Times and the LA Weekly cited The Path of Totality as a new direction for nu metal. The album won a Revolver Golden God award for "Album of the Year".In 2014, Linkin Park returned to their nu metal roots with their sixth studio album The Hunting Party. The album peaked at number three on the Billboard 200, with first-week sales of 110,000 copies in the United States. In 2014, Slipknot released its fifth studio album .5: The Gray Chapter. With .5: The Gray Chapter, Slipknot returned to the nu metal genre. .5: The Gray Chapter peaked at number one on the Billboard 200.Many metalcore and deathcore groups such as My Ticket Home, Stray from the Path, Emmure, Of Mice & Men, Suicide Silence, and Issues, all gained moderate popularity in the 2010s and used elements from nu metal. This fusion has sometimes been referred to as "nu metalcore". Suicide Silence's 2011 album The Black Crown, which features elements of nu metal and deathcore, peaked at number 28 on the Billboard 200. In 2014, Issues' self-titled debut album peaked at number 9 on the same chart. The album features elements of metalcore, nu metal, pop and R&B. Of Mice & Men's 2014 album Restoring Force, which features elements of nu metal, peaked at number 4 on the Billboard 200. Bring Me the Horizon, often described as a metalcore band, released their fifth album That's the Spirit, which peaked at number 2 on the Billboard 200, in 2015. The album draws from multiple genres including nu metal and would experiment further with nu metal on their 2020 album Post Human: Survival Horror. The band's keyboardist has described them as a nu metal band.A nu metal revival began in the mid-2010s, with groups like Blood Youth, Cane Hill Sworn In, DangerKids and Islander. Within this movement, nu metalcore began increasingly prominent through the popularity of groups like, Loathe and Code Orange. According to PopMatters writer Ethan Stewart, Code Orange's 2017 album Forever led to nu metalcore becoming "one of the most prominent flavors of contemporary metal". In contrast, Metal Hammer writer Dannii Leivers cited the aforementioned groups as simplifying hinting towards a revival, insteading claiming a revival began in 2021, "a crop of young revivalists... looking to put a brand-new spin on the music of their formative years", namely Tetrarch.In the mid–late 2010s, nu metal-influenced genres like emo rap and trap metal emerged.Electronic and art pop singer-songwriters incorporated nu metal into their sound in the late 2010s and 2020s. Poppy has incorporated nu metal on her albums Am I A Girl? and I Disagree, Grimes on album Miss Anthropocene and Rina Sawayama on Sawayama. The singles "We Appreciate Power" and "Play Destroy" were pioneering examples. Poppy has described this fusion as "nu-Poppy" or "Poppymetal". I Disagree received critical acclaim for this fusion, with single "Bloodmoney" nominated for the 2021 Grammy Award for Best Metal Performance, making her the first female solo artist to be nominated for the award in its history. Dorian Electra incorporated nu metal influences on their album My Agenda, as did Ashnikko on Demidevil, particularly on single "Cry". The Guardian noted that these mostly female artists have revived a previously male-dominated genre and successfully adapted it to showcase a female perspective. Rina Sawayama said "metal itself lends itself to toxic masculine tropes, but it’s also almost taking the piss out of a very masculine expression of emotion”.== Criticism and controversy ==Despite its popularity in the late 1990s and early 2000s, nu metal has often been criticized by many fans of heavy metal music, often being labelled with derogatory terms such as "mallcore" and "whinecore". Gregory Heaney of AllMusic called nu metal "one of metal's more unfortunate pushes into the mainstream". Lucy Jones of NME called nu metal "the worst genre of all time". In Metal: The Definitive Guide : Heavy, NWOBH, Progressive, Thrash, Death ... , Garry Sharpe-Young described nu metal as "a dumbed-down and—thankfully short[-]lived exercise". When Machine Head moved to the nu metal genre with their album The Burning Red and their vocalist Robb Flynn spiked his hair in the fashion of many nu metal musicians, the band were accused of "selling out" and many fans criticized their change of appearance and musical style. Machine Head's drummer Dave McClain said, "Pissing people off isn't a bad thing, you know? For people to be narrow-minded is bad ... [i]t doesn't bother us at all, we know we're going to piss people off with this record, but some people hopefully will actually sit down and listen to the whole record". Robb Flynn, Machine Head's vocalist, said "There's a minute and a half of rapping on that album. The other 53 minutes of the record are like a giant scar being ripped open while I projectile-vomit through it. If all that people got out of [The Burning Red] was rap-metal, then they didn't fucking listen to it".Jonathan Davis, the vocalist of Korn, spoke about the criticism of nu metal from heavy metal fans, saying: "There's a lot of closed-minded metal purists that would hate something because it's not true to metal or whatever, but Korn has never been a metal band, dude. We're not a metal band. We've always been looked at as what they called the nu-metal thing. But we've always been the black sheep and we never fitted into that kind of thing so ... We're always ever evolving, and we always piss fans off and we're gaining other fans and it is how it is." Lamb of God's vocalist Randy Blythe criticized the nu metal genre and spoke about its loss of popularity in 2004, saying: "Nu-metal sucks, so that's why that's dying off. And I think ... ... people are ready for angrier music. I think people are ready for something that's real, not, you know, 'I did it all for the nookie.'" Megadeth frontman Dave Mustaine said he would "rather have his eyelids pulled out" than listen to nu metal. Guitarist Gary Holt of Exodus and Slayer said that he "was so glad about" the decline of nu metal.=== Criticism from musicians who inspired nu metal ===Some musicians who influenced nu metal have tried to distance themselves from the subgenre and its bands. Mike Patton, the vocalist of Faith No More and Mr. Bungle, tried to distance himself from the subgenre and criticized it, even though he is featured on the song "Lookaway" on Sepultura's album Roots, which is often considered a nu metal album. Patton said of his music's influence on nu metal, "I feel no responsibility for that, it's their mothers' fault, not mine". Helmet frontman Page Hamilton said, "It's frustrating that people write [us] off because we're affiliated with or credited with or discredited with creating nu-metal and rap metal ... which we sound nothing like". However, Hamilton appeared on the song "All for Nothing" on Linkin Park's album The Hunting Party.Although Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nails has said he knows some Korn members and that he thinks they are "cool guys", he also criticized nu metal, saying:"When I'm asked what do I think of a lot of the nu-metal bands that are out there, my response is that it seems really insincere to me. 'I've had a really shitty childhood and I'm really upset and I'm really ugly and I've put a lot of make-up on and I'm harder and faster and my voice sounds more like the cookie monster's than yours does'. To me it all comes across as being comical, as being a parody of itself."In response to reports that Fred Durst, lead singer of Limp Bizkit, is a big fan of Tool, the latter's vocalist Maynard James Keenan said, "If the lunch-lady in high school hits on you, you appreciate the compliment, but you're not really gonna start dating the lunch-lady, are ya?" While Durst has cited Rage Against the Machine as a major influence, Rage Against the Machine's bassist Tim Commerford is open about his hatred of Limp Bizkit, describing them as "one of the dumbest bands in the history of music". At the 2000 MTV Video Music Awards, Limp Bizkit won the Best Rock Video category for their song "Break Stuff", beating Rage Against the Machine's "Sleep Now in the Fire". When Limp Bizkit accepted their award, Commerford went on stage and climbed 20 ft (6 m) up a backdrop, rocking back and forth. After the incident, Commerford was arrested and spent a night in jail. Commerford said in 2015, "I do apologize for Limp Bizkit. I really do. I feel really bad that we inspired such bullshit ... They're gone, though. That's the beautiful thing."=== Rejection of nu metal label from nu metal musicians ===Some nu metal musicians have rejected the label nu metal and have tried to distance themselves from it. Slipknot prefer to distance themselves from other nu metal groups, describing their own music as "metal metal" and equate their link to nu metal as a coincidence of their time of emergence.Jonathan Davis has rejected the nu metal label, saying "We're not 'rap rock,' we're not 'nu-metal ... We might have invented a new genre of heavy music or rock, but I believe the term 'nu-metal' was made up for all the bands that followed us. Those guys to me are nu-metal. And we're just Korn." In 2014, Davis spoke about the nu metal label, saying:"I've always rejected [Korn's pigeonholing] into some kind of genre that we helped create. It seems like when a band comes out and we do something new and something different, that's all great. When a whole bunch of bands jump on the bandwagon and start copying what that one band did, then it gets called something and those bands are cheap knockoffs of what the original thing was. So, to me, that's why I never liked the 'nu metal' term."Staind's vocalist Aaron Lewis rejected the nu metal label, saying, "if we get called a 'nu metal' band one more time, I don't even know what I'm going to do!" In 2003, Chino Moreno, vocalist of Deftones, rejected the nu metal label saying "We told motherfuckers not to lump us in with nu metal because when those bands go down we aren't going to be with them". As Deftones abandoned the nu metal sound of their early work, Moreno tried to distance himself from nu metal bands and began to criticize the bands and their albums, including Korn's 2002 album Untouchables; he said, "As Korn go on, it's the same things—bad childhoods and mean moms. It gets too old after a while. How old is Jonathan [Davis]? Thirty? How long has it been since he lived with his parents?" Davis responded saying, "Obviously, Chino hasn't listened to the words on the rest of my albums because they're nothing about my parents or my childhood." Moreno also said, "A big problem for me was opening for Limp Bizkit and Linkin Park, two bands that wouldn't exist if it weren't for me, straight up!". Mike Shinoda of Linkin Park spoke about the nu metal label in an interview with NME, saying "We never held the flag for nu-metal—it was associated with frat rock. Arrogant, misogynistic, and full of testosterone; we were reacting against that." Wes Borland of Limp Bizkit said that he "never liked or condoned" the term "nu metal" in any way, and said he does not understand "how so many bands that sound nothing alike can be put into" the nu metal genre. Mike Wengren of Disturbed said that he doesn't think Disturbed "were ever a nu-metal band to begin with".=== Support and legacy ===Jody MacGregor of FasterLouder called nu metal "music's most hated genre" conversely, he also wrote that nu metal is "not as bad as people think", praising several examples of the genre. Despite the fact that multiple nu metal musicians rejected the nu metal label, Limp Bizkit's vocalist Fred Durst defended it, saying "Nu metal let people open up and it meant something to people. It really did." Slipknot's vocalist Corey Taylor, also defended nu metal, saying "I’d like to think that that whole nu-metal wave was so important to that next wave of American heavy metal, to be honest." Coal Chamber's vocalist Dez Fafara also defended nu metal. He said he is proud to be associated with the subgenre and that nu metal bands "broke new musical ground" saying, "I think 'hair metal' was cheesy. [But] I think 'nu metal' was different. I think what's beautiful about 'nu metal' is it's different. And you've got so many different influences." The Smashing Pumpkins vocalist Billy Corgan praised nu metal, saying "I think it’s fantastic. I think the more people are cross-pollenating between different musical styles… it not only has musical implications but it has cultural ones as well." Chester Bennington of Linkin Park said he accepted the nu metal label, saying:"I think for the first time in our history, we're actually OK with being recognized as a nu metal band, especially for what we did early in our careers, because the truth is that when we were first doing it, nobody else really was, especially in terms of the hip-hop thing."Jack Porter of The Michigan Daily defended nu metal, writing "Unfortunately, some barriers prevent listeners from understanding nu-metal bands apart from the identity that genre label has given them—picture a bone-headed suburban white kid sporting a backwards baseball cap. What used to be a descriptor for a specific strain of alternative metal turned into a ghetto for every band that a) plays extremely heavy yet radio-friendly music and b) sucks. Because the genre came to be defined by its lack of quality, many 'serious' music fans have missed out on what it has to offer."Nu metal is credited for influencing modern rap artists and even pop artists like Billie Eilish. And has served as inspiration for genres like Hyperpop. Kerrang! magazine said: "Nu-metal’s hybrid of hip-hop, metal, funk, industrial and beyond lends itself perfectly to the hyperpop ideology. Linkin Park, Papa Roach and other artists from the time have hits that are now considered to be modern classics that still crop up on movie soundtracks and party playlists – in fact, hyperpop superstars 100 gecs recently remixed Linkin Park’s megahit One Step Closer for Hybrid Theory’s 20th anniversary. Rico Nasty, meanwhile, who blends punk and rap – and is known for the hyperpop hit IPHONE – takes a lot of cues from nu-metal in her work. But one of the main artists known for bringing nu-metal back is Rina Sawayama. On her 2020 debut album SAWAYAMA, she chose to emulate the music that was popular during her childhood in the 2000s. Sure, this meant a lot of pop, but rock acts were also topping the charts at the time. The result? Rina was able to pull from plenty of rock-leaning artists like Avril Lavigne, N.E.R.D. and No Doubt, but also nu-metal luminaries like Limp Bizkit and Evanescence."=== Association with heavy metal ===In addition to criticizing nu metal, many heavy metal musicians have rejected nu metal as a legitimate subgenre of heavy metal, saying it is not "true heavy metal". Some nu metal musicians have tried to distance themselves from being heavy metal at all. For example, Korn's Jonathan Davis rejected the "heavy metal" label. When talking with Vice, Davis spoke about Korn being called a heavy metal band, saying, "I never thought of us to be metal to begin with. Yeah, we're heavy and downtuned, but metal, to me, is like Judas Priest and Iron Maiden. That's metal, man. I always thought of us as a funk band. That funky, groovy shit." Godsmack's vocalist Sully Erna also rejected the "heavy metal" label and said he views Godsmack as a hard rock band. Though he was originally more tolerant of the concept, Linkin Park's vocalist Chester Bennington later expressed some disagreement with his band being labeled a heavy metal group because he felt the term limited the scope of the band's actual style. He elaborated:"[We] wanted to make clear from the very beginning when we were kind of tagged as a 'nu metal' band. Not that we have anything against metal ... [w]e aren't just one thing. So there are elements of the band that are metal, there are elements of the band that are pop, there are elements that are electronic, and hip-hop as well. And we've kind of always felt like we weren't bound to just one genre. So after we made Hybrid Theory and Meteora, we really wanted to take risks beyond what we had already done on those first two records, creatively, and show the world that we can do a lot more than just make nu-metal songs."== See also ==List of nu metal bandsNew wave of American heavy metal== References ==== Further reading ==Arnopp, Jason (2011). Slipknot: Inside the Sickness, Behind the Masks With an Intro by Ozzy Osbourne and Afterword by Gene Simmons. Random House. ISBN 978-0-09-187933-4.Arvizu, Reginald (2009). Got the Life: My Journey of Addiction, Faith, Recovery, and Korn. William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-06-166249-2.Christe, Ian (2004). Sound of the Beast: The Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal. Harper. ISBN 0-380-81127-8.Devenish, Colin (2000). Limp Bizkit. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-26349-X.Furman, Leah (2000). Korn: Life in the Pit. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0-312-25396-6.Iannini, Tommaso (2003). Nu Metal. Giunti. ISBN 88-09-03051-6.Kitts, Jeff; Tolinski, Brad (2002). Guitar World Presents Nu-metal. Guitar World. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 0-634-03287-9.McIver, Joel (2002). Nu-metal: The Next Generation of Rock & Punk. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-9209-6.Porter, Dick (2003). Rapcore: The Nu-Metal Rap Fusion. Plexus Publishing. ISBN 0-85965-321-8.Small, Doug (1998). Korn. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-8256-1688-3.Udo, Tommy (2002). Brave Nu World. Sanctuary Publishing. ISBN 1-86074-415-X.Newquist, Harvey P.; Maloof, Rich (2004). The New Metal Masters. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-0-87930-804-9.== External links ==They Did It All for the Nookie: Decibel Explores the Rise and Fall of Nu-Metal - DecibelHeavy Metal Classifications: A History of Nu Metal - Metal DescentThe anatomy of a scene: Charting the rise, dominance and fall of nü metal - FirstpostVintage Korn: Life Is Peachy At 20 - MTV`Numetal' Blends Hip-hop, Rock - Sun Sentinel Hurt Locker: The Musical is a fictional musical in the 2014 Broadway premiere production of Hedwig and the Angry Inch loosely inspired by the film of the same name. In the Broadway performance of Hedwig and the Angry Inch, the musical opens with Hedwig explaining that the musical only ran for a single night before closing during intermission, and that she has convinced a producer to let her perform in what would otherwise be an empty stage. Fake Playbills for the musical are used as props and are found scattered on the floor of the Belasco Theatre and contains advertisements for other fake musicals such as Gravity on Ice, Container Store: The Musical, The Entire Bible, and SoulCycle on Broadway. The Playbills, which describe the musical as having "explosions, negligible storytelling, camouflage and tits", also state that the musical's cast included actors such as Taye Diggs (who would go on to play the role of Hedwig in the summer of 2015) and that the music and lyrics were written by Metallica and Stephen R. Schwartz, which is the real name of Hedwig songwriter Stephen Trask.Director Michael Mayer stated that they came up with the idea for Hurt Locker: The Musical as a way to explain Hedwig's presence in a Broadway theater. It was also used as a way to update the script to modern day as well as explain how Hedwig would be able to use such stage settings. Various newspapers have commented favorably on the faux Playbills, both an element of the musical and as a piece separate from the musical itself. The faux Playbills were written by writer-performers Mike Albo and Amanda Duarte, and designed by Rogers Eckersley Design.== Musical information ===== Musical numbers ======= Act I ===="Army of One" - James"Baghdad Mornin' (Hello, Hazmat)" - Company"Tick, Boom! (Bombs)" - James, Owen, Bomb Squad"Won't You Buy my Porn DVD? (Beckham's Lament)" - Beckham"Hot Desert Nights!" - Insurgent, Mala"Call Me After Call To Prayer" - James, Mala"Pain" - James, Sanborn, Company"What's With All These Goats?" - Sanborn, Goat, Company"When Love Explodes ('Love Theme from The Hurt Locker')" - James, Mala==== Act II ===="Kevlar and Keffiyeh" - James, Mala"The Humvee With The Roof-Mounted Machine Gun On Top" - Company"When Love Explodes (Reprise)" - Owen"Can't Camouflage Love" - James, Owen, Sanborn"Your Body is The Bomb (Literally)" - James, Beckham"The Drone Song" - One-Armed Man"Mission Accomplished (With Your Body)" - James, Mala"When Love Explodes (Reprise)" - Ahmed, Goat=== Cast ===Bobby Cannavale as Sergeant William JamesD'Bree Dazeem as Mala, an Iraqi girl (filling in for her sister Adele Dazeem, a reference to John Travolta's infamous mispronunciation of Idina Menzel at the 86th Academy Awards)Michael Cerveris as Specialist Owen EldrigeTaye Diggs as Sergeant J.T. SanbornAbdul Batin as Insurgent / Interpreter / Ahmed / One-Armed Man / GoatHunter Taylor Thompson-Tyler as Beckham, Kid selling DVDsPepper Phillips as Bomb Squad Dancer 1Blaine Duboise as Bomb Squad Dancer 2== References == Machine Head is an American heavy metal band from Oakland, California. The band was formed in 1991 by vocalist/guitarist Robb Flynn and bassist Adam Duce. The band's aggressive musicianship made it one of the pioneering bands in the new wave of American heavy metal. Machine Head's current lineup comprises Flynn, bassist Jared MacEachern, guitarist Wacław Kiełtyka and drummer Matt Alston. Duce, guitarists Logan Mader, Ahrue Luster and Phil Demmel, and drummers Tony Costanza, Chris Kontos and Dave McClain are former members of the band; Mader and Kontos toured with the band in 2019 and 2020 as part of the 25th anniversary tour for its first album, Burn My Eyes (1994).Machine Head's first four albums earned the band a growing fan base in Europe, however the band would not have success in their native United States until later releases. The band drew controversy with its fourth album, Supercharger (2001), released three weeks after the September 11 attacks, which resulted in the album's only single, "Crashing Around You", and its music video (which featured burning buildings) being pulled from all media outlets. The band nearly disbanded in 2002 after negotiating off its label Roadrunner Records as a result of the controversy, however the band would eventually re-sign with the label.Having experimented with elements of groove metal and nu metal in its early releases, Machine Head changed to a more traditional thrash metal sound and longer songs with its sixth album, The Blackening (2007), which drew critical acclaim and was chosen as Album of the Decade by Metal Hammer in 2010; the album's first single, "Aesthetics of Hate", also earned the band a Grammy Award nomination. The band achieved similar success with its following two albums, Unto the Locust (2011) and Bloodstone & Diamonds (2014), before returning to its nu metal roots with the release of its ninth album, Catharsis (2018).Machine Head has released nine studio albums, two live albums, one video album, 13 singles and 15 music videos. Four of the band's studio albums have been certified silver in the United Kingdom, and the band's highest peak on the Billboard 200 came with Bloodstone & Diamonds at number 21. As of 2013, the band has sold over three million records worldwide.== History ===== Formation and Burn My Eyes (1991–1996) ===Machine Head were formed on October 12, 1991, in Oakland, California by vocalist/guitarist Robb Flynn and bassist Adam Duce. Flynn had recently parted ways with Vio-lence after a physical fight between the band members and a local gang. He still had a desire to write music and along with Duce recruited guitarist Logan Mader and drummer Tony Costanza to form Machine Head. The band's name was thought of by Flynn because it "sounded cool", despite the popular belief that it came from the Deep Purple album of the same name. The band started jamming in a local warehouse shared with four punk rock bands. Machine Head recorded a demo in a friend's bedroom, funded with US$800. A record executive representing Roadrunner Records listened to the demo and signed the band.Machine Head entered Fantasy Studios in Berkeley, California to record its debut album Burn My Eyes. Not long into production, Constanza left the band and was replaced by Chris Kontos. Most of the songs on the album were songs written by Flynn and Duce during the time Flynn was not in a band, about "being pissed off" from his previous struggles in Vio-lence, as well as both of their battles with illegal drugs. Produced by Colin Richardson, the album was released on August 9, 1994. The album shipped nearly 400,000 copies worldwide, becoming Roadrunner Records' best selling debut album. Allmusic reviewer John Franck stated "Burn My Eyes is a bone-shattering exercise in brutality".Not long after Burn My Eyes's release Machine Head started touring heavily in support of the album, opening for Slayer in Europe in the latter half of 1994, a tour which ended with their own headline show at the London Astoria. Following the success of the support tour, the band returned to Europe for a headline tour in early 1995, performing in the same venues they opened for Slayer. The band would return to Europe for the summer festival season but Kontos refused to tour and the band drafted Walter Ryan for the festival dates. On the band's return to the US, Kontos was fired because he was not keeping to touring commitments. Kontos went on to play drums with Testament, and was replaced by Dave McClain.=== The More Things Change... and The Burning Red (1997–2000) ===After touring for Burn My Eyes, Machine Head entered the studio to record its second studio album, The More Things Change..., with Richardson producing and mixing for a second time. The album was released on March 26, 1997, and debuted at number 138 on the Billboard 200 albums chart. Machine Head toured in Europe with Napalm Death, Coal Chamber and Skinlab, then went on the first Ozzfest for the first tours in support of the album. Mader showed up to a practice session late, high on methamphetamine, cursing at and insulting the band members; and quit the band later that day. Ahrue Luster replaced him and finished touring, while Mader toured with Soulfly in support of their self-titled debut album.After three years of touring and working with producer Ross Robinson, Machine Head released its third studio album, The Burning Red, on July 27, 1999. The band added new elements to its music, including rapping vocals, a move which some believe to have been influenced by Ahrue Luster himself. This album, along with the band's change in image and musical direction was highly criticized, with critics and fans alike accusing the band of "selling out". Nevertheless, McClain stated they weren't trying to sound like popular bands but "wanted to sound different". Rick Anderson of Allmusic stated Machine Head was "sounding a bit looser and less constricted musically than they have in the past". The Burning Red became Machine Head's top selling album for a number of years, and debuted at number 88 on the Billboard 200.=== Supercharger and Through the Ashes of Empires (2001–2005) ===Machine Head finished touring for The Burning Red, and entered a studio with producer Johnny K to record Supercharger. Debuting at number 115 on the Billboard 200, the album was released on October 2, 2001. The album met the same criticism as The Burning Red, especially for the ever-present rapping vocals. reviewer Borivoj Krgin stated Supercharger "is likely to disappoint everyone who is expecting the Bay Area quartet to return to the ultra-testosterone-charged sounds of their first two albums".Machine Head released a single for "Crashing Around You" as well as a music video. The video was released several weeks after the September 11 attacks, and was banned from MTV for the depictions of falling buildings. Roadrunner Records, expecting to make a fair profit from album promotions, dropped the band's funding, causing Machine Head to leave the label. At the same time the band was leaving Roadrunner, Luster departed from the band for musical differences.By 2002, Machine Head had sold over 1.3 million albums worldwide, and overall Supercharger (mixed by Colin Richardson) would go on to sell 250,000 copies worldwide, which was their lowest selling album to date. Once the tour for the album had been completed, Machine Head and Roadrunner Records mutually decided to sever ties with regards to distribution in North America and around the world, however to fill the ties, the band released Hellalive (also mixed by Richardson) which was a recording of a Brixton Academy, London set.In 2002, Luster left the band and was temporarily replaced by Phil Demmel, who played in thrash band Vio-lence alongside Flynn. Demmel played some festival shows with Machine Head (including a headlining slot at the With Full Force festival in Germany). Then with Demmel not being able to commit to the band, he and Machine Head parted ways. The remainder of the band starting writing songs for the next album (eventually Through the Ashes...), and hoping to get signed to a record label. They recorded a short demo, including a radio-style song called "Pins and Needles", and an Electronic Press Kit for the companies, also hoping they can get signed on the strength of their previous efforts. Nearly every record label in the music industry rejected the four track demo.After Machine Head's European tour, Luster returned to his family business and the band started writing together as a three-piece, while leaving a position open for Demmel. In March 2003, Demmel joined Machine Head as a full-time guitarist and started writing with the band. By June 2003, Machine Head entered a studio with Flynn producing. On October 31, 2003, Machine Head released Through the Ashes of Empires in Europe.The band was turned down by multiple record labels in the United States, until Roadrunner USA, interested in the new album, offered Machine Head another record contract. Machine Head accepted the offer on the grounds that the band owns 100% of the music. On April 20, 2004, Through the Ashes of Empires was released in the United States with a bonus track for the Americans' long wait for the album's release. The album debuted at number 88 on the Billboard 200. The band released a single for "Imperium", the video for which received heavy rotation on MTV. Eduardo Rivadavia of AllMusic stated Through the Ashes of Empires "marked a return to form in no uncertain terms".Machine Head headlined the True Metal stage at the 2005 Wacken Open Air festival to 40,000 fans—the band's largest headlining crowd at the time. The band released a DVD containing a full sold-out concert held at the Brixton Academy in December 2004, a documentary, and music videos. The DVD debuted at number 13 on the U.S. music video charts. They also played in Dubai for the annual Dubai Desert Rock Festival in 2005. This was their first show in the Middle East. The band also played at the farewell concert of Böhse Onkelz on the Euro Speedway Lausitz.=== The Blackening (2006–2009) ===Machine Head's sixth studio album, titled The Blackening, was released in North America on March 27, 2007. It entered the Billboard 200 at number 53, the highest charting position for the band at that time, with first-week sales of 15,000. It also made the top 20 in several European countries. Robb Flynn stated during an interview that the band are fans of Rush and received a great deal of influence from their album A Farewell to Kings while creating The Blackening.The album received positive reviews from music critics, with some labeling it the best metal album of 2007. reviewer Don Kaye awarded the album a 9.5 out of 10, saying The Blackening is "one of the purest, finest, most powerful expressions of modern heavy metal released" and compared it to the 1986 Metallica album Master of Puppets, while Allmusic editor Thom Jurek described the album as "an over the top rage and pummelfest with all the qualities that earned the group its enormous fan base by touring and recording", praising the songs "Beautiful Mourning", "Halo", and "Now I Lay Thee Down". Rolling Stone reviewer Andy Greene, however, responded negatively as he was displeased with the songs running over ten minutes.Machine Head toured North America with Lamb of God, Trivium and Gojira in early 2007 to promote The Blackening, and opened for Megadeth and Heaven & Hell in April 2007. A European tour saw the band make an appearance at the Download Festival in Donington Park. Shortly after, the band announced a co-headlining tour with Trivium of Japan, Europe, and Australia titled The Black Crusade from October to December. Other bands on the bill included Arch Enemy, DragonForce (Europe only) and Shadows Fall (Europe only). On June 12, 2007, at the Metal Hammer Golden Gods Awards, the band won the award for "Best Album", and Flynn won the "Golden God" award. Machine Head won Best Album at the Kerrang! Awards 2007 and went on to be chosen as Album of the Decade by Metal Hammer in 2010. The band replaced Bullet for My Valentine supporting Metallica's Wembley Stadium show on July 8, 2007, as Bullet For My Valentine's vocalist Matt Tuck required a tonsillectomy. Machine Head also toured North America with Hellyeah, Nonpoint and Bury Your Dead in early 2008. Machine Head recently completed a world tour where they played Bengaluru, India, Israel, and Dubai, UAE in March 2008.In October 2008, the band toured in Australia with Slipknot. The band then toured Europe with Slipknot and Children of Bodom in November and December. The band recorded a version of Iron Maiden's classic, "Hallowed Be Thy Name" for a Kerrang! tribute compilation album, entitled Maiden Heaven: A Tribute to Iron Maiden; this song was played live multiple times since its release and has become a permanent in their current touring setlists. Amongst other bands who appeared on the album were label mates, Dream Theater and Trivium.It was announced on August 10, 2008, that Machine Head and Austin, Texas based band The Sword would be opening for Metallica at ten shows in January 2009. In a recent interview conducted with Phil Demmel, he revealed that with Machine Head's upcoming touring commitments, the band would not have chance to write a follow up album until at least 2010, for an expected 2011 release date. Machine Head toured with The Sword in Metallica's World Magnetic Tour for the Death Magnetic album from 2008 to 2009. Machine Head also opened for Megadeth, Slayer and Suicide Silence on the Canadian Carnage tour in late June. Machine Head reportedly cancelled their appearance at the Sonisphere Festival in the UK because they had disagreements with the staff over their slot. They thought they should play after Limp Bizkit. However, a week before the Sonisphere festival took place on August 1 and 2, Machine Head agreed to take back their slot below Limp Bizkit. Their appearance was kept secret until the day they played. In August 2009, they won the Inspiration Award at the 2009 Kerrang! Awards. It was announced on the August 31, that Machine Head would tour through Europe and UK in 2010 with Hatebreed, Bleeding Through, and All Shall Perish in what will be known as "The Black Procession", as well as adding dates for an Australian and New Zealand tour cycle in March. This will be the last time the band tour in support of The Blackening before writing the next album, as Dave McClain described in an interview, before their Belfast show in Northern Ireland.=== Unto the Locust (2010–2012) ===In November 2010, Machine Head began writing and demoing new material for their seventh studio album, Unto the Locust. With Robb Flynn acting as producer, Machine Head officially began recording the album on April 16, 2011 at Green Day's Jingletown Studios in Oakland, California.In the summer of 2011, Machine Head toured as a part of the Rockstar Mayhem Festival. During the tour, the band debuted a new song off of Unto the Locust, entitled "Locust". The song was later released on Amazon and iTunes on June 14, 2011. Unto the Locust was released on September 27, 2011, to critical acclaim. The album charted in several countries, including number 22 in the US (the first time the band had ever cracked the top 25 in US) and at number 5 in Germany.After the release of Unto the Locust, Machine Head began its Eight Plague Tour and during the first European leg, the band was supported by Bring Me the Horizon, DevilDriver, and Darkest Hour. On the North American leg, Machine Head was supported by Suicide Silence, Darkest Hour, and Rise to Remain (although Rise to Remain was later forced to drop out).In 2012, Machine Head headlined the Soundwave Festival in Australia. The band also played at the 2012 Download Festival, Metalcamp, and Graspop festivals, as well as headlining both Bloodstock Open Air and the Wacken Festival. Machine Head were also scheduled to be part of the first-ever Mayhem Festival cruise, until it was cancelled.On September 10, Machine Head announced a North American tour with Dethklok, All That Remains and The Black Dahlia Murder, beginning with a "Warm Up" show on October 24, the tour started on October 30 and ended on December 8. On September 14, Machine Head won the "Best International Band" award at the 2012 Metal Hammer awards in Berlin, Germany. On October 1, Machine Head announced the release of "Machine Fucking Head Live", the band's first live album since 2003's Hellalive. The album featured 15 live recordings from the band's various 2011-2012 tours and was released on November 13 on a two disc set or download with 4 bonus tracks, with pre-orders of the album having a six track rarities & B-sides EP.On November 13, Machine Head announced cancellation of their North American tour dates from the 13 to the 23 due to Robb Flynn requiring emergency surgery to treat an inguinal hernia.In a November 2012 interview, Machine Head guitarist Phil Demmel revealed that the band planned to begin writing new material for their eighth studio album in 2013 and hoped that they would begin recording it before the end of the year.=== Bloodstone & Diamonds (2013–2015) ===On February 22, 2013, the band announced that bassist/founding member Adam Duce left the band, albeit on friendly terms. Four days later, Flynn revealed in his online blog that he fired Duce because of ongoing differences. His departure makes Flynn the only remaining original member.As of March 2013, Unto the Locust has sold 100,000 copies in the United States, making it their third quickest-selling album behind The Blackening and Supercharger which have sold 260,000 in two weeks and 250,000 copies in four months in the United States respectively.The band began the process of searching for a temporary bassist for the 2013 Rockstar Energy Drink Mayhem Festival in the U.S. For a limited time, the band accepted and reviewed YouTube submissions. On June 24, 2013, the band announced that former Sanctity rhythm guitarist and vocalist Jared MacEachern had joined the band as their new bassist. Robb Flynn said of MacEachern: "Monte Conner recommended Jared since he was already on the tour, and that ended up being a great call. Jared flew out a few days before the tour and rehearsed with us and did great." Phil Demmel continued: — "There were dozens of amazing players, and it was interesting to watch each one take on our tunes. One of our biggest criteria for this gig was to be able to sing the high harmonies. That was our litmus test. And Jared passed with flying colors.".On October 2, 2013, the band announced that they signed with Nuclear Blast. In February 2014, the band entered the studio to record their new album, Bloodstone & Diamonds, for a late summer release.In early 2014, Duce filed a lawsuit against his former band and manager in federal court "for trademark infringement, breach of fiduciary duty, breach of partnership agreement, intentional and negligent interference with prospective economic relations, negligence, defamation and unfair competition, and wanted the band enjoined from using the Machine Head marks." The lawsuit was settled out of court on July 2 with undisclosed terms. In August 2014, Flynn announced the track listing for Bloodstone & Diamonds, consisting of 12 tracks along with its artwork.Bloodstone & Diamonds was released on November 7, 2014, to positive reviews from fans and critics alike, with many saying how the addition of MacEachern brought a sense of rejuvenation to the band. The band embarked on a lengthy world tour in support of the album, including a leg of European shows, two American legs and various others in Japan, Australia and New Zealand.=== Catharsis, lineup changes and stand-alone singles (2016–2020) ===On June 1, 2016, a stand-alone single titled "Is There Anybody Out There?" premiered on Sirius XM Octane, and on June 3, the single was available for digital download. On March 17, 2017, the band were featured on American horror movie The Devil's Candy's soundtrack along with Ghost and Slayer. In June 2017, it was reported that Machine Head was in the studio working on new material. In September 2017, the band announced the new album Catharsis for a January 2018 release with an accompanying world tour.On September 28, 2018, Robb Flynn posted a live video on Facebook to explain that Demmel and McClain had left Machine Head earlier in the week, but that they would both complete the band's fall tour. The announcement was mistakenly reported on by news sources as a disbandment, due to Flynn's referral to the current run of shows as a "farewell tour". Flynn later clarified that it was "the farewell tour of this lineup, this era of Machine Head. This is not the farewell tour of Machine Head." Demmel later said in an interview that he left the band because he "didn't like [his] job anymore" and did not like the musical direction that Flynn had been taking the band in over the last three years.On March 23, 2019, Flynn posted a live video on Instagram to announce that Machine Head had held auditions to search for replacements for Demmel and McClain. He said that the process had "been awesome, really good; in fact, really confusing. [I] don't know where we are going. We've got some thinking to do", and in regards to the musicians taking part in the auditions, he said, "you might not know some of these guys" while "some of [them] you may." Two days later, it was announced that early members Logan Mader and Chris Kontos, who both appeared on Burn My Eyes, would reunite with the band for a tour celebrating the album's 25th anniversary. The band later re-recorded the full album live in the studio and announced plans to release the tracks one by one ahead of the tour. On the possibility of recording new original material with Mader and Kontos, Flynn said, "Nothing's certain right now. I'm not sure what that is at the moment. We're really just focused on re-learning how to play the Burn My Eyes songs. But we'll be out on the road for a while together. I think that I could see Machine Head forward with just a constant flow of new music."On September 28, 2019, a year on from announcing the departure of Demmel and McClain, the band announced Decapitated guitarist Wacław Kiełtyka and Devilment drummer Matt Alston as their replacements. A month later, Machine Head digitally released the stand-alone single "Do or Die". On February 14, 2020, Machine Head released another stand-alone single, "Circle the Drain". Four months later, the band put out a dual single known as "Civil Unrest" featuring Jesse Leach of Killswitch Engage on the track "Stop the Bleeding", a song written about the George Floyd protests, while another song on the B-side known as "Bulletproof", was also written about the protests. A music video was eventually released for "Stop the Bleeding" after its release. Five months later another stand-alone single "My Hands Are Empty" was released.=== Upcoming tenth studio album (2021–present) ===In January 2021, Machine Head entered the studio to begin working on their tenth studio album. On June 11, 2021, the band released a new three-track single entitled Arrows in Words from the Sky.== Musical style and influences ==Machine Head has been mainly described as groove metal, thrash metal, heavy metal, and nu metal. The band is influenced by Californian thrash metal bands such as Metallica, Exodus, Slayer and Testament, traditional heavy metal bands as Iron Maiden, crossover thrash bands Suicidal Tendencies and Cro-Mags, groove metal bands Pantera, Exhorder and Fear Factory, and grunge bands Nirvana, Soundgarden and Alice in Chains. Machine Head is considered to be one of the pioneering bands in the new wave of American heavy metal, as well as part of the second wave of thrash metal bands from the 1990s.Their early albums Burn My Eyes and The More Things Change... show a groove metal and thrash metal approach, similar to bands like Pantera and Exhorder. The albums also featured technical drumming by Chris Kontos and Dave McClain. The band changed their musical direction for the albums The Burning Red (1999) and Supercharger (2001), which have been described as displaying a nu metal sound. These albums featured rapping by Robb Flynn and simpler guitar riffs, but retaining part of their aggressive sound. This change in direction resulted in criticism from many fans because of the popularity of nu metal at the time. Machine Head returned to the groove metal and thrash metal sound of the first two albums with Through the Ashes of Empires (2004).Machine Head increased the complexity and technicality in their sound for the next album, The Blackening, which partially changes the sound of their first 5 albums in favor of a more classic heavy metal and thrash metal oriented sound, with fully complex song structures and guitar riffs. Unto the Locust features heavier, faster and more complex riffs by both Flynn and Phil Demmel, influenced by classical music, and supported by fast and complex drum patterns by McClain. This is also the first Machine Head's record to include blast beats.Flynn makes use of different vocal styles including yelling, raspy singing, clean vocals, screams and death growls; Flynn himself has jokingly called his own singing style "barking in key".== Band members ===== Timeline ===== Discography ==Burn My Eyes (1994)The More Things Change... (1997)The Burning Red (1999)Supercharger (2001)Through the Ashes of Empires (2003)The Blackening (2007)Unto the Locust (2011)Bloodstone & Diamonds (2014)Catharsis (2018)== References ===== Bibliography ===Joel McIver (October 15, 2012). Machine Head: Inside The Machine. Music Sales Group. ISBN 9781780385518.== External links ==Official website Joey Vera (born April 24, 1963) is an American bassist who is known as a member of the heavy metal band Armored Saint and progressive metal band Fates Warning. In 2004/2005, he replaced Frank Bello in Anthrax as the band's bassist, but did not record with them. He was also a member of Engine, recorded with Tribe After Tribe, and appears on the OSI album Free. His first solo album, A Thousand Faces, was released in 1994. His current solo project, A Chinese Firedrill, released an album titled Circles in 2007. On August 1, 2019, Joey was announced as the touring bassist for a newly reunited Mercyful Fate filling in for Timi Hansen. Vera usually plays bass by using his fingers, though he has used a guitar pick on a few occasions.== Discography ===== With Armored Saint ===Armored Saint EP (1983)March of the Saint (1984)Delirious Nomad (1985)Raising Fear (1987)Saints Will Conquer (1988)Symbol of Salvation (1991)Revelation (2000)Nod to the Old School (2001)La Raza (2010)Win Hands Down (2015)Carpe Noctum (2017)Punching The Sky (2020)=== as Joey Vera ===A Thousand Faces (1994)=== With Fates Warning ===A Pleasant Shade of Gray (1997)Still Life (1999)Disconnected (2000)FWX (2004)Darkness in a Different Light (2013)Theories of Flight (2016)Long Day Good Night (2020)=== With Tribe After Tribe ===Pearls Before Swine (1997)Enchanted Entrance (2002)=== With Chroma Key ===Dead Air for Radios (1998)=== With Engine ===Engine (1999)Superholic (2002)=== With John Arch ===A Twist of Fate (2003)=== With Seven Witches ===Passage to the Other Side (2003)Deadly Sins (2007)=== With OSI ===Free (2006)=== as A Chinese Firedrill ===Circles (2007)=== With Arch/Matheos ===Sympathetic Resonance (2011)=== With Motor Sister ===Ride (2015)== References ==== External links ==Official interview with Joey Vera"

[ "Hetfield and Ulrich, longtime lead guitarist Kirk Hammett, and bassist Robert Trujillo."]

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"Chang Ucchin was born in korea during a time that ended with the conclusion of what? Chang Dae-hwan (also Chang Dae-whan; born 21 March 1952) is a South Korean businessman. He is best known as the president of the "Maeil Business Newspaper", South Korea's main business daily. He also served a brief stint as South Korea's acting prime minister in August 2002 under president Kim Dae-jung, but the National Assembly voted not to confirm him. Chang Mi-hee (born January 27, 1958) is a South Korean actress. She was born Lee Yun-hui in Seoul, South Korea in 1958. Chang debuted as an actress in 1976 as starring in Seong Chun-hyang jeon directed by Park Tae-won and TBC TV drama, Haenyeo Dang-sil (Sea Woman Dang-sil). Chang was commonly referred to as "New Troika" or "Second Troika" along with her rival actresses, Jeong Yun-hui and Yu Ji-in of the 1970s and 1980s after the "First Troika", Moon Hee, Nam Jeong-im, and Yoon Jeong-hee of the 1960s.== Filmography ===== Film ===*Note; the whole list is referenced.=== Television series ===This list is incomplete== Awards ==1980, the 1st, the Korean Film Critics Awards : Best Actress for Neumi1981, the 17th, Baeksang Arts Awards : Best TV Actress for Eulhwa (KBS, 을화))1983, the 22nd, Grand Bell Awards : Best Actress for Jeokdo-ui kkot (적도의 꽃))1990, the 26th, Baeksang Arts Awards : Best TV Actress for Nation of Fire (불의 나라)1991, the 12th, Blue Dragon Film Awards : Best Actress for Death Song (사의 찬미)1991, the 2nd, Chunsa Film Art Awards : Best Actress for Death Song1992, the 16th, Gold Cinematography Awards : Special Award, Favorite Actress1992, the 30th, Grand Bell Awards : Best Actress for Death Song2008, KBS Drama Awards, Popularity Award for Mom's Dead Upset2008, KBS Drama Awards, Best Couple Award with Kim Yong-gun for Mom's Dead Upset2018 KBS Drama Awards: Top Excellence Award, Actress, Best Couple== References ==== External links ==Chang Mi-hee at HanCinema Chang Mi-hee at the Korean Movie DatabaseChang Mi-hee at IMDb The May 16 military coup d'état (Korean: 5.16 군사정변; Hanja: 五一六軍事政變; RR: O-illyuk gunsa-jeongbyeon) was a military coup d'état in South Korea in 1961, organized and carried out by Park Chung-hee and his allies who formed the Military Revolutionary Committee, nominally led by Army Chief of Staff Chang Do-yong after the latter's acquiescence on the day of the coup. The coup rendered powerless the democratically elected government of Yun Posun and ended the Second Republic, installing a reformist military Supreme Council for National Reconstruction effectively led by Park, who took over as chairman after General Chang's arrest in July.The coup was instrumental in bringing to power a new developmentalist elite and in laying the foundations for the rapid industrialization of South Korea under Park's leadership, but its legacy is controversial for the suppression of democracy and civil liberties it entailed, and the purges enacted in its wake. Termed the "May 16 Military Revolution" by Park and his allies, "a new, mature national debut of spirit", the coup's nature as a "revolution" is controversial and its evaluation contested.== Background and causes ==The background to the coup can be analysed both in terms of its immediate context, and the broader setting of the development of post-liberation South Korea. While the Second Republic presented South Korea with a singularly problematic economic and political climate which encouraged a military intervention, the direct roots of the coup stretch back to the late Rhee period, and more recent historians such as Yong-Sup Han argue that the frequently recurring image of the coup as an inevitable direct response purely to the vagaries of a new regime paralyzed by endemic instability is over-simplistic.=== South Korea under Syngman Rhee ===From 1948, South Korea was governed by President Syngman Rhee, an anti-Communist who used the Korean War to consolidate a monopoly on political power in the republic. Rhee represented the interests of a conservative ruling class, the so-called "liberation aristocrats" who had risen to positions of influence under American occupation. These "liberation aristocrats" formed the bulk of the political class, encompassing both Rhee's supporters and his rivals in the Democratic Party, which advanced a vision of society broadly similar to his own. Rhee eliminated any significant source of real opposition, securing for example the execution of Cho Bong-am, who had campaigned against him in the presidential elections of 1956 on a platform of peaceful reunification and had attracted some 30% of the vote, an unacceptably high level of support for an opposition candidate.Even such significant opposition figures as Cho, however, can be considered to have been part of the broad conservative consensus of the governing class, which rested on a traditionalist, Confucian worldview that saw "pluralism in ideology and equality in human relationships [as] foreign concepts", and which upheld the value of paternalist government and the power of extensive networks of political patronage. Rhee, under this traditionalist model, was the foremost "elder" in Korean society, to whom Koreans owed familial allegiance, and this relationship was strengthened by the ties of obligation that connected Rhee to many in the ruling class.One result of the rule of the "liberation aristocrats" was the stalling of development in South Korea, in marked contrast to the situation in nearby Japan. Where South Korea had been intensively developed under the Japanese colonial system, Rhee's presidency saw little significant effort to develop the South Korean economy, which remained stagnant, poor and largely agrarian. The lack of development under Rhee provoked a growing nationalistic intellectual reaction which called for a radical restructuring of society and a thorough political and economic reorganization. Park Chung-hee, the later leader of the May Coup who at that time was a second-tier army officer with decidedly ambiguous political leanings, was heavily influenced by this unfolding intellectual reaction.=== Social and economic problems of the Second Republic ===After rigged elections in March 1960, growing protests developed into the April Revolution, and Rhee was pressured by the United States into a peaceful resignation on April 26. With Rhee out of the way, a new constitution was promulgated establishing the Second Republic, and legislative elections on June 29 resulted in a landslide victory for the Democratic Party, with Rhee's Liberals reduced to a mere two seats in the newly constituted lower house of the National Assembly. The Second Republic adopted a parliamentary system, with a figurehead president as head of state; executive power was effectively vested in the prime minister and cabinet. Democrat Yun Posun was elected as president in August, with former Vice-President Chang Myon becoming prime minister.The Second Republic was beset with problems from the start, with bitter factionalism in the ruling Democratic Party competing with implacable popular unrest for the government's attention. The South Korean economy deteriorated under heavy inflation and high rates of unemployment, while recorded crime rates more than doubled; from December 1960 to April 1961, for example, the price of rice increased by 60 percent, while unemployment remained above 23%. Widespread food shortages resulted. Chang Myon, meanwhile, representing the Democratic Party's "New Faction", had been elected Prime Minister by the thin margin of three votes. Purges of Rhee's appointees were rendered ineffective in the public eye by Chang's manipulation of the suspect list to favour wealthy businessmen and powerful generals. Although Rhee had been removed and a democratic constitution instituted, the "liberation aristocrats" remained in power, and the worsening problems facing South Korea were proving insurmountable for the new government.The breakdown of South Korean politics and the administrative purges racking the army combined to demoralise and discourage the Military Security Command, which was charged with the maintenance of the chain of command in the military and weeding out insubordination. The reluctance of the Military Security Command to act allowed plans for a coup to unfold, and the problems of the Second Republic provided the context for the coup to be organised and realised.=== Factionalism in the military ===A direct factor in paving the way to the coup was factionalism in the South Korean army itself, one of the largest in the world at the time with 600,000 soldiers. The army had been given a distinctive identity by the dual Japanese and subsequently American training that many of its members had received, "combin[ing] the Japanese militarist ethos with the American spirit of technical efficiency to expand its mission from defending the country against communist aggression to that of helping it build itself into a modern nation". Reformist junior officers viewed the senior generals as having been corrupted by party politics, and the problem was compounded by a bottleneck in promotions caused by the consolidation of the positions of the senior commanders of the army after the end of its rapid expansion in the Korean War.The army was also divided along regional lines and between factions of officers who had graduated from the same school. Of the latter, the most influential were the competing factions who had graduated from the Japanese Military Academy and from the Manchurian officers' school at Xinjing respectively, while more lower-ranked officers were divided by their class of graduation from the post-liberation Korean Military Academy. Park Chung-hee had attended all three institutions, and was uniquely positioned to lead what would become the coup coalition, with his extensive ties among both the senior commanders of the army and the younger factions.After the overthrow of the Rhee regime and the institution of the Second Republic, the reformists, led by KMA alumni, began to call for the senior commanders to be held to account for complicity in the rigging of the 1960 and 1956 presidential elections. Park Chung-hee, relatively high-ranking as Major General, threw himself into the spotlight by declaring his support for the reformists and demanding the resignation of Army Chief of Staff Song Yo-chan on May 2. On September 24, sixteen colonels, led by Kim Jong-pil, demanded the resignation of Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Choi Yong-hui in an incident known as the "revolt against seniors" (Korean: 하극상 사건; Hanja: 下剋上事件; RR: hageuksang sageon). By this point, initial plans for a coup were already advanced, and they were accelerated by the "revolt against seniors".== Planning and organization ===== Central organization ===The first plan for a military coup to evolve was the so-called "May 8 plan", a plan calling for a putsch on May 8, 1960. This plan was discussed and formulated at the start of 1960 by reformist officers including Park, and was aimed at unseating Rhee from the presidency. This plan never moved significantly beyond being an idea, and was soon superseded by the April Revolution. From May to October 1960, however, Park assembled a variety of officers to organize a new plan for a coup, largely on the basis of his ties with other graduates of the Manchurian Military Academy. He also secured the loyalty of the editor of the Pusan Daily News, aiming to ensure a propaganda basis for the coup. By October, Park had gathered nine core members, tasking his close associate Kim Jong-pil with the role of general secretary.Fortuitously in November, Park was transferred from his post at Pusan to Seoul, and at a meeting on November 9 at his Seoul residence, the core group decided that they would manipulate the anti-corruption movement within the military to support their aims. Furthermore, it was decided that Park would focus on building support for the coup among other generals, while the other core members would recruit younger officers and construct revolutionary cells within and outside Seoul. By Chang Do-yong's account, however, on January 12, 1961, it was discovered that Park had been placed on a list of 153 officers scheduled to be moved to the Reserve Army in May. This discovery would likely have accelerated the plans for the coup. The historian Kim Hyung-A suggests by contrast that it is possible that Chang, as Army Chief of Staff, deliberately spread the rumors of Park's imminent removal in order to provide political cover for the coup; he concludes that "it is obvious that Park had received extraordinary support from someone in power".=== Immediate preparation ===Over the course of the next half-year, the coup plans became an open secret within the military. Park failed in winning over the army's Counter-Intelligence Command and the armored Ninth Division, but neither organization reported the plans to higher authorities, allowing the planning to proceed unimpeded. As 1960 drew to a close, moreover, Park began parallel talks outside of his core group, structuring a loose network of supporters for his plan; among those brought in by these talks was Major General Lee Chu-il, with whom Park agreed that once the coup had taken place, the new Army Chief of Staff Chang Do-yong would be placed as head of the Revolutionary Council in order to get the entire army's support. In March 1961, the core group met at the Chungmu-jang Restaurant in Seoul, and fixed the date April 19 for the coup, expecting significant disturbances on that day due to its being the anniversary of the revolution that had overthrown Rhee's regime. Park also secured the financial backing of prominent businessmen, amassing a total of 7.5 million hwan.Finally, on April 10, 1961, Park took the initiative in revealing the details of the plan to Chang himself. Chang's subsequent ambivalent response was decisive in allowing the coup to take place. While he turned down the leadership position offered to him, he neither informed the civilian government of the plan, nor ordered the arrest of the conspirators. This allowed Park to present Chang as an "invisible hand" guiding the organization of the coup. According to Han, this ambivalence was most likely because Chang had calculated that the coup organizers had by this time gathered too much momentum to stop, though this analysis assumes Chang's earlier non-involvement. The date of April 19 passed without the expected disturbances, however, and the planners rescheduled the coup for May 12.=== Failed coup of May 12 and emergency planning ===At some time shortly after this, the May 12 plan was finally leaked by accident to the military security forces, who reported it to Prime Minister Chang Myon and Defense Minister Hyeon Seok-ho. Chang Myon was dissuaded from commissioning an investigation by the intervention of Army Chief of Staff Chang Do-yong, who convinced him that the security report was unreliable. Pervasive unrealized rumours of the imminence of a military coup also contributed to Chang Myon's decision, and the report on the May 12 plan was dismissed as a false alarm. The coup organizers responded by aborting the May 12 plan and fixing a new, and final, date and time, 3am on May 16.== Course of events ==The plot was leaked once again early in the morning of May 16, and this time immediate action was taken. The Counter-Intelligence Command raised an alert that a mutiny was underway, and a detachment of military police was sent to round up the suspected perpetrators. Park moved to the Sixth District Army Headquarters to take personal control of the coup operations and salvage the plan. Park gave a speech to the assembled soldiers, saying:We have been waiting for the civilian government to bring back order to the country. The Prime Minister and Ministers, however, are mired in corruption, leading the country to the verge of collapse. We shall rise up against the government to save the country. We can accomplish our goals without bloodshed. Let us join in this Revolutionary Army to save the country.The speech was so successful that even the military police who had been dispatched to arrest the mutineers defected to their cause. With the Sixth District Army now secure under his control, Park chose Colonel Kim Jae-chun to organize the vanguard of the occupation of Seoul and dispatched a message to Chang Do-yong, instructing him to definitively join the coup or suffer the consequences of association with the civilian government. He then departed for Special Forces Command, where he issued instructions to cross the Han River and occupy the presidential residence at the Blue House.Meanwhile, an artillery brigade occupied the central Army Headquarters and secured the downtown areas of Seoul north of the Han. By 4:15am, after a brief exchange of fire with loyalist military police who were guarding the bridge across the Han, Park's forces had occupied the administrative buildings of all three branches of government. They proceeded to seize the headquarters of the Korean Broadcasting System, issuing a proclamation announcing the Military Revolutionary Committee's seizure of power:The military authorities, thus far avoiding conflict, can no longer restrain themselves, and have taken a concerted operation at the dawn of this day to completely take over the three branches of the Government ... and to form the Military Revolutionary Committee. ... The armed services have staged this uprising because:(1) We believe that the fate of the nation and the people cannot be entrusted to the corrupt and incompetent regime and its politicians.(2) We believe that the time has come [for the armed forces] to give direction to our nation, which has gone dangerously astray.The broadcast went on to outline the policy objectives of the coup, including anti-communism, strengthening of ties with the United States, the elimination of political corruption, the construction of an autonomous national economy, Korean reunification, and the removal of the present generation of politicians. The proclamation was issued in the name of Chang Do-yong, who was referred to as the Chairman of the Committee, but this was without his prior approval. When dawn broke, a marine corps unit under Kim Yun-geun crossed the Han River and took control of the Blue House as instructed.The civilian government rapidly imploded. Prime Minister Chang Myon had fled Seoul on hearing of the coup, and President Yun Posun accepted the coup as a fait accompli. Yun continued to serve as nominal head of state until 1963, though stripped of all effective power. Commander Lee Han-lim of the First Army had prepared to mobilize the reserves to suppress the coup, but backed down to prevent an opportunity for a North Korean attack. He was arrested two days later. Twenty heavily armed divisions now stood in support of the coup in Seoul, preventing any realistic chance of its suppression. After three days of hiding, Chang Myon reappeared to announce the resignation of the entire cabinet, and ceded power to the new junta. Army cadets marched through the streets proclaiming their support for the coup. Chang Do-yong now accepted his appointment as chairman of the Committee, granting it the final stamp of authority that it required. The May 16 coup was now complete.== Aftermath ===== Consolidation and power struggle ===The business of consolidating a new government began soon after the coup had been completed. Martial law was immediately put into force. On May 20, the Military Revolutionary Committee was renamed the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction (SCNR), and the following day a new cabinet was instituted. General Chang, the chairman of the committee, remained Army Chief of Staff, but also took on the additional offices of Prime Minister and Defense Minister, becoming formal head of the administration. The SCNR was formalized as a junta of the thirty highest-ranking military officers initially arranged in fourteen subcommittees, and assumed a wide-ranging responsibility that included the powers to promulgate laws, appoint cabinet posts, and oversee the functioning of the administration as a whole.The constitution of the new cabinet was the subject of an intense internal power struggle, however, and over the course of the next two months Park soon engineered a rapid transfer of power into his own hands. On June 6, the SCNR promulgated the Law Regarding Extraordinary Measures for National Reconstruction, which stripped Chang of his posts of Defense Minister and Army Chief of Staff. Much of this law was drafted by Yi Seok-che, who was operating under instructions from Park to "eliminate" Chang. Four days later, on June 10, the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction Law was enacted, which specified that the Deputy Chairman of the SCNR would be Chairman of its Standing Committee, granting Park additional powers. Finally, on July 3, Chang himself was arrested on a charge of conspiracy to carry out a counter-coup, and the June 10 law was amended to allow Park to assume the office of Chairman both of the SCNR and its Standing Committee.=== United States response ===Part of the immediate task of the coup leaders was to secure American approval for their new government. This approval came quickly, as on May 20, President John F. Kennedy dispatched a message to the SCNR confirming the friendship between the two countries. Carter B. Magruder, commander-in-chief of the United Nations Command, simultaneously announced the return to the ROK Army of all rights of operational command. By May 27, the coup leaders were confident in American support and dissolved the martial law they had imposed on the day of the coup. On June 24, American Ambassador Samuel D. Berger arrived in Seoul, and reportedly informed Park that the United States was interested in publicly supporting his government, but required the cessation of "purges and recriminations". Finally, on July 27, Secretary of State Dean Rusk announced the United States' official recognition of the SCNR government at a press conference.=== State building ===A significant development occurred soon after the coup with the planning and subsequent establishment of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA). Members of the Military Revolutionary Committee were briefed on May 20 by Kim Jong-pil on the intended functions of this new agency. The KCIA was realized on June 10 with the enactment of Law No. 619, which brought the agency into being under the direction of Kim Jong-pil. The KCIA would be Park's central power base throughout his leadership of South Korea, and it served an important function from the outset, granting Kim and Park the ability to remove Chang from the Council and to initiate a series of wide-ranging purges of civilian institutions.The KCIA was supported in this latter work by the Inspection Committee on Irregularities in the Public Service. The purges of state ministries were escalated by the announcement on July 20 of a policy programme aiming at the forced retirement of almost 41,000 "excess" bureaucrats and the reduction of the number of civil servants by 200,000. The purges of the government apparatus, Park's triumph in the power struggles that followed the May coup, and his eventual election as civilian president in 1963 set the stage for the consolidation of his developmental regime.== Legacy and evaluation ==The May 16 coup was the starting point of a series of military regimes that would last in some form until 1993. It also provided a precedent for the December Twelfth and the May Seventeenth coups of Chun Doo-hwan, Park's effective successor. With the development of a concerted opposition under Park and its evolution into the Gwangju Democratization Movement after 1980, the coup became the subject of much controversy, with many opponents of the military regime, such as Kim Dae Jung, looking back on the coup as an unjustified act of insurrectionary violence that toppled South Korea's first genuinely democratic government. Others point to the positive legacy of the coup, however, such as the 1994 Freedom House analysis which refers to the rapid industrialization that followed the coup and the "uncorrupt" nature of Park's rule.=== Name ===In official discourse before 1993, the coup was referred to as the "May 16 Revolution" (Korean: 5.16 혁명; Hanja: 五一六革命; RR: O ilryuk hyeokmyeong), but under the reforming non-military administration of erstwhile opposition leader Kim Young-sam, the event was re-designated as a coup or military insurrection (Korean: 군사 정변; Hanja: 軍事政變; RR: gunsa jeongbyeon). Park had described the "May Revolution" as an "unavoidable ... act of self-defense by and for the Korean people", and in the historiography of the military regimes, the Revolution was presented as having been the result of the will of the nation as a whole. Kim Young-sam's re-designation of the event rejected this analysis, and was accompanied by the corresponding recognition of the April 1960 demonstrations as the "April Revolution". This reading was cemented in 1994–95 with curriculum reforms and the issuing of history textbooks applying the new labels.== See also ==History of South KoreaThird Republic of South Korea== References ==== Sources == Born and raised in Kyong Ki Do, South Korea, Master Tommy Chang is a Korean-Canadian, 7th degree Taekwondo and 8th Degree Hapkido instructor and Grandmaster, actor, stunt performer, stunt coordinator and producer. With over 45 years of training and experience in Taekwondo and Hapkido, Master Chang also trained in ITF/WTF TKD, Moo Duk Kwan, and Judo. He is also an 8th Degree Black Belt in Hap Ki-Do, specializing in pressure points, take-downs and grappling. His martial arts expertise also encompasses mastery of several weapons. In addition, he is a WTF-certified Master Instructor of Taekwondo and a Canadian National Referee (1st Class).== Taekwondo ==Master Chang’s career is marked with several milestones including being elected Vice President Sport of Taekwondo Canada, having been the Canadian Taekwondo Team Manager for the 2nd Korean Open in 1999, as well as the Canadian National Team Manager and Coach for the 1999 Taekwondo World Championship in Turkey. He also held several offices such as Vice-Chairman of the World Tae Kwon Do Association of Canada (Tournament Committee), Pan-American Tae Kwon Do Union Tournament Vice-Chairman (2004–2006), and Pan-American Tae Kwon Do Union Financial Committee Chairman (2004–2006). At the provincial level, he also served as the Ontario Taekwondo Association Chairman from 2007 to 2008. He is the past 1st Vice-President of the Ontario Taekwondo Association.== Film and television ==Master Tommy Chang has worked in the film and television industry for over 35 years in several capacities as actor, stunt performer, stunt coordinator and producer. He is also the founder, manager and team leader of ReelStunts Film/Television Action Stunt Team. Additionally, he also personally trained several members of his stunt team which specializes in Martial Arts, High Falls, Stunt Driving, Fireburns, Gymnastics, Acrobatics, Breakdancing, Weapons Training, Motion Capture Acting, Wirework, and Acting. His stunt team includes the personalities of Simon Kim, James Kim, Joe Eigo, Emerson Wong, Allen Keng and Tonya Henry. Some of the noteworthy accomplishments of this team include having worked with Steven Seagal, Chow Yun-fat, David Carradine, Seth Rogen, James Franco, Charlie Hunnam, Vin Diesel, and Jackie Chan.In his stunt execution for a television show called Side Factor, after performing multiple takes of propulsion into the air via an air ram, Master Chang wound up with a compound fracture.He completed a major motion picture as fight choreographer in 2012 on a film called Pacific Rim directed by Guillermo Del Toro and produced by Warner Brothers and Legendary Pictures starring Charlie Hunnam, Charlie Day, Idris Elba and Rinko Kikuchi and Ron Perlman. In 2013, he produced a full feature movie as an associate producer called The Hacker with Sanzhar Sultanov. He also executive produced a short feature film called The Proposal starring Missy Peregyrm and Peter Mooney. He featured in the film Robocop and The Interview starring James Franco in 2014. He played Hapkido instructor Master Yang in Kim's Convenience.== Black Belt World ==Master Chang owns and manages several Taekwondo schools in Canada, Black Belt World, with branch locations in Barrie, Burlington, Brampton, Etobicoke, Kitchener, Oakville, Missisauga, Vaughan, Waterloo and Woodbridge.. Headquartered Korea Town in Toronto, A new location Black Belt World Chicago was recently opened.=== Controversy ===On March 17, 2017 Master Chang's Black Belt World was in the news as, Shin Wook Lim, head coach, was arrested in Toronto for the sexual assault of one of the students over the course of two years and charged 13 counts including six counts of sexual assault. In March 2019 Lim was charged by Toronto police in relation to a second Black Belt World student and is now facing four new charges - two sexual assault and two sexual interference. In January 2021 Shin Wook Lim was convicted and sentenced to 6.5 years in prison.On August 16, 2017, four months later, another Black Belt World coach in Milton, Patrick Leany, was charged "with luring, invitation to sexual touching, and criminal harassment".== References ==== External links ==Tommy Chang at IMDb Chang Yong-hak (25 April 1921 – 31 August 1999) was a Korean writer. Chang was born in Hamyeong Buk-do in what is now North Korea. He studied at Waseda University in Japan, before being drafted into the Japanese army. After the end of World War Two, he taught high school in Korea, writing fiction on the side.His short story, translated as "The Poems of John the Baptist" (available in English translation in Ten Korean Short Stories, edited by Ken O'Rouke, 1993), was a critical success in Korea.Chang has been characterized as an idea novelist influenced by Sartre and philosophical ideas both Oriental and Occidental and as a writer of fantasy.== See also ==List of Korea-related topics== References ==== External links ==Art view Chang Ucchin (26 November 1917 – 27 December 1990) was one of the representatives of modern Korean fine art. Chang was born when Korea was still under Japanese colonial rule. He studied western art at Tokyo's Imperial School of Art. He became a professor of fine arts at Seoul National University in 1954, but resigned to paint full-time from 1960.Chang Ucchin is one of the representatives of modern Korean fine art. He effects a unique way in painting routine objects familiar to all Koreans such as children, magpies, the sun, and the moon. In the midst of the current of Western Modernism, he developed his own style of painting by investigating and experimenting.In addition to oil painting, he tried various formative practices such as marker pen drawing, Chinese ink painting, painting on pottery, silkscreen, copperplate print, and wood-block print. He depicted scenery surrounding him, his neighbors, and themes related to Buddhism, as if a child seeing them with clear eyes.== References ==== External links ==Chang Ucchin Foundation Han Myeong-sook (born March 24, 1944; Korean: 한명숙 [han mjʌŋsʰuk]) was the Prime Minister of South Korea from April 2006 to March 2007. She is South Korea's first female prime minister (second female prime minister overall if the acting premiership of Chang Sang is included). She was from the United New Democratic Party (UNDP) as a member of the Korean National Assembly (representative) for Ilsan-gab, and is a graduate of Ewha Womans University in Seoul with a degree in French literature. She resigned as Prime Minister on March 7, 2007 and declared her presidential candidacy. But she did not succeed in the nominations. In 2008 she ran for parliament, but was not elected. However, in January 2012 she was elected leader of the main oppositional Democratic United Party (DUP) before the April legislative elections and became a member of parliament. But the liberals did not manage to defeat the ruling Saenuri Party and Han stepped down as party leader in April 2012. In August 2015, Han was convicted of receiving illegal donations at the amount of 900 million KRW, and sentence to two years in prison. She is ineligible to run for public office for ten years after her prison term. She became the first former prime minister of the Republic of Korea to serve a prison time.== Pre-Prime Ministerial career ==She was imprisoned from 1979 to 1981 after she confessed to teaching pro-Communist ideas to workers, farmers and low-income women, but it is now accepted she was imprisoned for pro-Democratic activities. A government committee exonerated her of any wrongdoing in 2001, ruling her confession was elicited through torture.In 1999, she joined the National Congress for New Politics, and entered politics. In 2000, she was elected as a member of the 16th Korean National Assembly (for Proportional representation). In 2004, she ran for a member of the National Assembly in Ilsan of Goyang and was elected.Han was the first Minister of Gender Equality, serving from 2001 to 2003. She served as the Minister of Environment from 2003 to 2004.== Appointment ==On 24 March 2006, following the resignation of Prime Minister Lee Hae-chan, President Roh Moo-hyun nominated Han to become the first female Prime Minister of South Korea. Han is only the second woman to be nominated for the Prime Ministership. On 20 April 2006, Han Myeong-Sook was sworn in, becoming the first female Prime Minister of South Korea.== Prime Ministership ===== Libya-South Korea relations ===Han visited Libya on 19 September 2006 and 20 September 2006.=== South Korea-United Arab Emirates relations ===Han went to the United Arab Emirates on 24 September and held high level talks with Prime Minister Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum. Han said she wanted to cultivate "the potential for bilateral cooperation in... trade, investment, IT and tourism." According to Han, "around 50 South Korean companies of global competitiveness have established headquarters of the Middle East region in Dubai." UAE companies invested $8 billion in South Korea from 2002–2006, but South Korea total investment in the UAE is only $25 million.Han was interviewed by Gulf News in September 2006. She expressed a desire to increase South Korean investment in the UAE and sign a Free Trade Agreement with the Gulf Cooperation Council. When asked about gender equality in the UAE, she expressed interest in Muslim women, and commended the fact that the "status of women in Islam is a historic and religious outcome that is regulated by the Quran and Hadith." She pointed to the efforts of Shaikha Fatima, the mother of the UAE, the appointment of Shaikha Lubna Khalid Al Qasimi, the first appointment of a female minister, as the Minister of Economy, and the February 2006 appointment of Mariam Al Roumi as the Minister of Social Affairs as positive signs of the UAE's adapting to social changes. She rejected the idea of "imposing a U.S. or Western-style democracy on the Arab world" saying, "the values of democracy are not to be imposed." Han expressed her friendship towards Lebanon and Israel and her support for UN Security Council Resolution 1701, UNIFIL, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan's efforts at securing peace, and Foreign Minister Ban's candidacy to be the next Secretary General.-=== Kazakhstan-South Korea relations ===Han met with Daniyal Akhmetov, the Prime Minister of Kazakhstan, on 23 September 2006 in Astana, Kazakhstan. They signed several bilateral agreements enhancing economic ties. The Government of South Korea agreed to invest an additional $2 billion in joint projects in the energy, uranium-extraction, construction, transportation, and banking sectors. Akhmetov offered South Korea the option of participating in developing a new type of nuclear reactor. South Korean investors have stakes in more than 300 Kazakhstan-based companies. Han was in Kazakhstan until 24 September. She then traveled to Uzbekistan.Han invited President Nazarbayev to visit South Korea in 2007 on behalf of President Roh, and on 25 September, after talking to Nazarbayev, she announced to the press that he had accepted and expressed hope that the trip would help to increase cooperation in the petrochemical industry, information technology and education/=== South Korea-Uzbekistan relations ===Han and Shavkat Mirziyoyev, the Prime Minister of Uzbekistan, met in Tashkent, Uzbekistan on 25 September 2006. They signed several agreements, including one deal in which Uzbekistan will send 300 tons of Uzbek uranium ore to South Korea every year from 2010 to 2014. The deal bypasses U.S. companies that acted previously as middlemen for South Korean imports of Uzbek uranium ore. Han also met with President Islam Karimov and parliament speaker Erkin Xalilov. Han and Mirziyoyev boosted cooperation in the energy, agriculture, construction, architecture, and information technology sectors. Trade between South Korea and Uzbekistan increased by nearly 40% between 2005 and 2006, to $565 million.=== Resignation ===Han resigned from her position as prime minister on March 7, 2007, amidst speculation that she would run in the December 2007 presidential elections. After the informal meeting with former justice minister Kang Kum-Sil just before her resignation, Ms. Han stated that she would continue as a legislator and think about running for president.== Post-Prime Ministerial career ==In 2007, Han ran for the party presidential candidacy but did not succeed in the nominations. She endorsed to Chung Dong-young. In 2008, she ran for re-election to parliament, but was defeated by a candidate of Grand National Party.In 2010, she declared to run for Seoul's Mayor position, but was narrowly defeated by Oh Se-hoon of GNP.On the first congress of the Democratic United Party on 15 January 2012, Han was voted chairwoman of the supreme council of the party with 24.5 per cent support rate. The liberal party was created by a merger of the Democratic Party with the minor Citizens Unity Party, and is South Korea's main oppositional force. Han was elected to parliament in the April legislative elections, but the liberals did not manage to oust the ruling party and Han stepped down as DUP head on 16 April 2012. For three months the leaders of the two major Korean parties were women: Park Geun-hye of the Grand National Party and Han Myeong-sook for the DUP.== References ==== Further reading ==Skard, Torild (2014) "Han Myung-sook" in Women of power - half a century of female presidents and prime ministers worldwide, Bristol: Policy Press, ISBN 978-1-44731-578-0== External links ==Official website of Korean Prime MinisterBiography of Ms. Han Chang Won-jun (Hangul: 장원준, Hanja: 張元準) (born July 31, 1985 in Seoul) is a South Korean starting pitcher for the Doosan Bears of the KBO League. He joined the Lotte Giants in the first draft in 2004. He played in the Lotte Giants from 2004 to 2014. On November 26, 2014, he declared it to be in the free agent market on the expiration of its preferential negotiation. After that, he signed an agreement with Doosan Bears on November 29, 2014.He bats and throws left-handed.He won 15 games in 2016 for the Bears. He started in Game 1 against starting pitcher Jason Marquis and Team Israel in the 2017 World Baseball Classic.== Professional career ===== Notable international careers ===== References ==== External links ==Career statistics and player information from the KBO League The military history of the United States during the Korean War began in the context of the defeat of Japan by the Allied Powers in World War II which heralded the end to 35 years of Japanese occupation of the Korean Peninsula and led to the peninsula being divided into two zones; a northern zone occupied by the Soviet Union and a southern zone occupied by the United States. After negotiations on reunification failed, the latter became the Republic of Korea or South Korea in August 1948 while the former became the Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea in September 1948. In 1950, a North Korean invasion began the Korean War, which saw extensive U.S.-led U.N. intervention in support of the South, while the North received support from China and from the Soviet Union. Some 1,780,000 Americans served in the war, with 36,574 killed and 103,284 wounded and 4,714 American prisoners of war.The president of the United States at the start of the war was Harry S. Truman, while at the end of the war the country was led by Dwight Eisenhower, who took over from Truman in January 1953. A controversial event in the war domestically was when President Truman fired General Douglas MacArthur in April 1951. Another point of controversy were the Chinese and North Korean allegations that the U.N. forces engaged in biological warfare. Ultimately, the war became a major issue in the November 1952 presidential election, and aided Eisenhower's victory.== Background ==At the conclusion of World War II the Allied nations began the process of disarmament of Axis controlled regions. Japan occupied Korea at this time and had been in control since 1910. In 1945, the decision was made to have American Marines forces oversee Japanese surrender and disarmament south of the 38th parallel and the Soviet Union would facilitate the change of power to the north. At the time there was no political motivation and seemed to be a logical and convenient plan of action. The original agreement and intent was to create a unified and independent Korea out of the post Japanese occupation era. Instead each side of the 38th parallel established its own government under the influence of the occupational country; the United States in South Korea and the Soviet Union in North Korea. Both new Korean governments discredited the other and claimed to be the only legitimate political system. Tensions between the North and South escalated and each side began to petition foreign powers for resources and support. South Korea wanted weapons and supplies from President Truman and the United States government while North Korea sought help from Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union. The United States was still war weary from the disruptive World War II campaign and refused South Korea's request for weapons and troops. North Korea convinced the Soviet Union to supply them with the weapons and support they requested. This decision coincided with the United States withdrawing the last remaining combat troops from South Korea. North Korea saw its opportunity and attacked South Korean forces at the 38th parallel on June 25, 1950 and thus initiating the Korean War.== Initial response ==In response to North Korea's invasion into South Korea the United Nations convened to formulate a response. The U.N. demanded North Korea's immediate withdrawal and, when this was not met, United States Army General Douglas MacArthur was appointed supreme commander of U.N. forces. To halt the rapid progress of North Korean forces into the south Task Force Smith was deployed to the Korean front from Japan. Task Force Smith consisted of U.S. Army officers and regiments of the Army's 24th Infantry Division that were stationed in Japan as occupational forces. The 24th were under trained, poorly supplied, and outnumbered. The 24th offered very little resistance against the North Korean advance. American and South Korean troops were pushed south and in late July 1950 Task Force Smith was overrun in the city of Taejon. Troops from the Army's 25th Infantry Division were deployed to Taejon to establish a new line and pullout the decimated 24th I.D. This addition of combat troops did not stop the North Korean advance and both American and South Korean troops were pushed further south.== Battle of Osan ==The first battle the Americans entered in the Korean War was the Battle of Osan, where about four hundred U.S. soldiers landed in Pusan airport on the first of July. The American troops were sent off to Taejon the next morning where Major General John H. Church the head of U.S. field headquarters was confident in the US troop's strengths to push back the North Koreans. On July 5 the troops were finally put to the test when North Korean tanks crept towards Osan. The four hundred infantryman of the U.S. also called Task Force Smith opened fire on the North Koreans at 8:16 am. Only four of the North Korean tanks were destroyed and twenty-nine kept moving forward breaking the US line. At the end of the battle only two more North Korean Tanks and two regiments of North Korean infantry were destroyed. The US had lost the battle, revealing that the mere sight of US troops would not reverse the military balance in Korea. By early August, the North Korean troops had pushed back the US and South Korean troops all the way to Naktong River, which is located about thirty miles from Pusan. The two weeks of fighting following this resulted in the most casualties of US troops than any other equivalent period of this war. However, during this time the US pushed supplies and personnel to Korea and by the end of July South Koreans and US troops outnumbered the North Koreans, although the North had pushed back the US and South significantly the North had suffered over fifty thousand casualties. Also because North Koreas supply lines were so lengthy and with the US in control of the water and air replenishing their losses were slow.== Incheon ==Although MacArthur clearly stated that the Battle of Inchon was a 5000 to 1 gamble, it was an important military move to make. Incheon is 25 miles from Seoul on the coast and only once during September is the water even deep enough to allow the 29 foot draft of American LSTs. It was a defenders' best place to allow troops into Korea, and to push the invaders back. On September 15 the 1st Marine Division landed at the port city, taking the defending North Koreans completely by surprise, and by the end of the night over a third of Incheon was taken back.== Japan ==During the mid-1940s, Germany and Japan were both at a desperate state caused by World War II. Germany received a sort of benefit from the U.S. as a compensation of war and reconstruction. The Japanese on the other end were devastated by the aftermath. People were suffering, eating out of garbage, and many people starved. Meanwhile, the U.S. troops in the Korean War were in great demand of uniforms and other equipment. The American government turned to Japan for the favor, which eventually stimulated the manufacturing factories that were in jeopardy due to damage caused by World War II. Japan accepted the offer and mainly supplied U.S. troops in Korea with uniforms and other sorts of clothing. Bases were also erected in Japan for U.S. Air Force planes, such as B-29 Superfortress bombers.== References == Korea under Japanese rule refers to the period between 1910 and 1945 following Korea's annexation into the Empire of Japan. Joseon Korea had come into the Japanese sphere of influence with the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876; a complex coalition of the Meiji government, military, and business officialsbegan a process of integrating Korea's politics and economy with Japan. The Korean Empire, proclaimed in 1897, became a protectorate of Japan with the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905; thereafter Japan ruled the country indirectly through the Japanese Resident-General of Korea. Japan formally annexed Korea in 1910 in the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910,without the consent of the former Korean Emperor Gojong, the regent of the Emperor Sunjong. Upon its annexation, Japan declared that Korea would henceforth be known internationally as Chōsen; the territory was administered by the Governor-General of Chōsen based in Keijō (Seoul).Japanese rule prioritized Korea's Japanization, accelerating the industrialization started by during the Gwangmu Reform era of 1897 to 1907, building public works, and fighting the Korean independence movement. The public works included developing railroads (Gyeongbu Line, Gyeongui Line, Gyeongwon Line, etc.) and improving major roads and ports that supported economic development. Korea experienced an average GNP growth-rate of 4.2% during the 25 years between 1912 and 1937.Japanese rule over Korea ended on 15 August 1945 upon the World War II surrender of Japan, and the armed forces of the United States and the Soviet Union occupied this region. The division of Korea separated the Korean Peninsula under two governments and different economic systems, with the northern Soviet Civil Administration and the southern United States Army Military Government in Korea. In 1965 the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and South Korea declared that the unequal treaties between Japan and Korea, especially those of 1905 and 1910, were "already null and void"at the time of their promulgation.Interpretations of Japanese rule over Korea remains controversial in Japan, North Korea, and South Korea.== Terminology ==During the period of Japanese colonial rule, Korea was officially known as Chōsen (朝鮮), although the former name continued to be used internationally.In South Korea, the period is usually described as the "Imperial Japanese occupation" (Korean: 일제 강점기; Hanja: 日帝强占期; RR: Ilje Gangjeom-gi). According to the Chosun Ilbo, the term was derived from a North Korean one referring to South Korea as under "American imperial occupation" (Korean: 미제 강점기). Other terms, although often considered obsolete, include "Japanese Imperial Period" (Korean: 일제시대; Hanja: 日帝時代; RR: Ilje Sidae), "The dark Japanese Imperial Period" (Korean: 일제암흑기; Hanja: 日帝暗黑期; RR: Ilje Amheuk-gi), "period of the Japanese imperial colonial administration" (Korean: 일제 식민 통치 시대; Hanja: 日帝植民統治時代; RR: Ilje Sikmin Tongchi Sidae), and "Wae (Japanese) administration" (Korean: 왜정; Hanja: 倭政; RR: Wae-jeong).In Japan, the term "Chōsen of the Japanese-Governed Period" (日本統治時代の朝鮮, Nippon Tōchi-jidai no Chōsen) has been used.== Background ===== Political turmoil in Korea ======= Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876 ====On 27 February 1876, the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, also known in Japan as the Japanese–Korea Treaty of Amity (Japanese: 日朝修好条規, Nitchō-shūkōjōki meaning Japan-Chosun friendly relations treaty, Korean: 강화도조약; Hanja: 江華島條約; RR: Ganghwado joyak meaning Treaty of Ganghwa island) was signed. It was designed to open up Korea to Japanese trade, and the rights granted to Japan under the treaty were similar to those granted Western powers in Japan following the visit of Commodore Perry in 1854. The treaty ended Korea's status as a protectorate of China, forced open three Korean ports to Japanese trade, granted extraterritorial rights to Japanese citizens, and was an unequal treaty signed under duress (gunboat diplomacy) of the Ganghwa Island incident of 1875.As a result of the treaty, Japanese merchants came to Busan, which became the center for foreign trade and commerce. Japanese officials then published Korea's first newspaper, Chōsen shinpō (朝鮮新報), in 1881. Chinese language articles were aimed at Korea's educated elite, which advocated for constitutional government, freedom of speech, strong rule of law and legal rights, and Korean-led industrialization. Few of these goals came to pass. Japanese language articles focused on news regarding business, specifically "the stagnant Pusan trade" in rice and other farmed goods, which fluctuated wildly due to weather conditions and the whims of the tax-levying elite class. It ceased publication sometime after May 1882.==== Imo Incident ====The regent Daewongun, who remained opposed to any concessions to Japan or the West, helped organize the Mutiny of 1882, an anti-Japanese outbreak against Queen Min and her allies. Motivated by resentment of the preferential treatment given to newly trained troops, the Daewongun's forces, or "old military", killed a Japanese training cadre, and attacked the Japanese legation. Japanese diplomats, policemen, students and some Min clan members were also killed during the incident. The Daewongun was briefly restored to power, only to be forcibly taken to China by Chinese troops dispatched to Seoul to prevent further disorder.In August 1882, the Treaty of Jemulpo (Japan–Korea Treaty of 1882) indemnified the families of the Japanese victims, paid reparations to the Japanese government in the amount of 500,000 yen, and allowed a company of Japanese guards to be stationed at the Japanese legation in Seoul.==== Gapsin coup ====The struggle between the Heungseon Daewongun's followers and those of Queen Min was further complicated by competition from a Korean independence faction known as the Progressive Party (Gaehwa-dang), as well as the Conservative faction. While the former sought Japan's support, the latter sought China's support. On 4 December 1884, the Progressive Party, assisted by the Japanese, attempted a coup (Gapsin coup) and established a pro-Japanese government under the reigning king, dedicated to the independence of Korea from Chinese suzerainty. However, this proved short-lived, as conservative Korean officials requested the help of Chinese forces stationed in Korea. The coup was put down by Chinese troops, and a Korean mob killed both Japanese officers and Japanese residents in retaliation. Some leaders of the Progressive Party, including Kim Ok-gyun, fled to Japan, while others were executed. For the next 10 years, Japanese expansion into the Korean economy was approximated only by the efforts of czarist Russia.==== Donghak Revolution and First Sino-Japanese War ====The outbreak of the Donghak peasant revolution in 1894 provided a seminal pretext for direct military intervention by Japan in the affairs of Korea. In April 1894, the Korean government asked for Chinese assistance in ending the Donghak peasant revolt. In response, Japanese leaders, citing a violation of the Convention of Tientsin as a pretext, decided upon military intervention to challenge China. On 3 May 1894, 1,500 Qing forces appeared in Incheon. Japan won the First Sino-Japanese War, and China signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895. Among its many stipulations, the treaty recognized "the full and complete independence and autonomy of Korea", thus ending Korea's tributary relationship with the Chinese Qing dynasty, leading to the proclamation of full independence of Joseon Korea in 1895. At the same time, Japan suppressed the Donghak revolution with Korean government forces. With the exception of czarist Russia, Japan now held military predominance in Korea.==== Assassination of Queen Min ====The Japanese minister to Korea, Miura Gorō, orchestrated a plot against 43-year-old Queen Min (later given the title of "Empress Myeongseong"), and on 8 October 1895, she was assassinated by Japanese agents. In 2001, Russian reports on the assassination were found in the archives of the Foreign Ministry of the Russian Federation. The documents included the testimony of King Gojong, several witnesses of the assassination, and Karl Ivanovich Weber's report to Aleksey Lobanov-Rostovsky, the Foreign Minister of Russia, by Park Jonghyo. Weber was the chargé d'affaires at the Russian legation in Seoul at that time. According to a Russian eyewitness, Seredin-Sabatin, an employee of the king, a group of Japanese agents entered Gyeongbokgung, killed Queen Min, and desecrated her body in the north wing of the palace.When he heard the news, Heungseon Daewongun returned to the royal palace the same day. On 11 February 1896, King Gojong and the crown prince moved from Gyeongbokgung to the Russian legation in Jeong-dong, Seoul, from where they governed for about one year, an event known as the Korea royal refuge at the Russian legation.==== Democracy protests and the proclamation of the Korean Empire ====After the Royal Refuge, some Korean activists established the Independence Club (독립협회; 獨立協會) in 1896. They claimed that Korea should negotiate with Western powers, particularly Russia, to counterbalance the growing influence of Japan. In 1897, this club had destroyed the 1537 Yeongeunmun, a special gate where Chinese envoys had been escorted and received, and contributed to the construction of Independence Gate and they held regular meetings in the Jongno streets, demanding democratic reforms as Korea became a constitutional monarchy, and an end to Japanese and Russian influence in Korean affairs.In October 1897, Gojong decided to return to his other palace, Deoksugung, and proclaimed the founding of the Korean Empire. During this period, the Korean government conducted a westernization policy. It was not an enduring reform, however, and the Independence Club was dissolved on 25 December 1898 as the new Emperor Gojong officially announced a prohibition on unofficial congresses.==== Prelude to annexation ====Having established economic and military dominance in Korea in October 1904, Japan reported that it had developed 25 reforms which it intended to introduce into Korea by gradual degrees. Among these was the intended acceptance by the Korean Financial Department of a Japanese Superintendent, the replacement of Korean Foreign Ministers and consuls by Japanese and the "union of military arms" in which the military of Korea would be modeled after the Japanese military. These reforms were forestalled by the prosecution of the Russo-Japanese War from 8 February 1904, to 5 September 1905, which Japan won, thus eliminating Japan's last rival to influence in Korea. Under the Treaty of Portsmouth, signed in September 1905, Russia acknowledged Japan's "paramount political, military, and economic interest" in Korea.Two months later, Korea was obliged to become a Japanese protectorate by the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 and the "reforms" were enacted, including the reduction of the Korean Army from 20,000 to 1,000 men by disbanding all garrisons in the provinces, retaining only a single garrison in the precincts of Seoul. On 6 January 1905, Horace Allen, head of the American Legation in Seoul reported to his Secretary of State, John Hay, that the Korean government had been advised by the Japanese government "that hereafter the police matters of Seoul will be controlled by the Japanese gendarmerie" and "that a Japanese police inspector will be placed in each prefecture". A large number of Koreans organized themselves in education and reform movements, but Japanese dominance in Korea had become a reality.In June 1907, the Second Peace Conference was held in The Hague. Emperor Gojong secretly sent three representatives to bring the problems of Korea to the world's attention. The three envoys were refused access to the public debates by the international delegates who questioned the legality of the protectorate convention. Out of despair, one of the Korean representatives, Yi Tjoune, committed suicide at The Hague. In response, the Japanese government took stronger measures. On 19 July 1907, Emperor Gojong was forced to relinquish his imperial authority and appoint the Crown Prince as regent. Japanese officials used this concession to force the accession of the new Emperor Sunjong following abdication, which was never agreed to by Gojong. Neither Gojong nor Sunjong was present at the 'accession' ceremony. Sunjong was to be the last ruler of the Joseon dynasty, founded in 1392.== Japan–Korea annexation treaty (1910) ==In May 1910, the Minister of War of Japan, Terauchi Masatake, was given a mission to finalize Japanese control over Korea after the previous treaties (the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1904 and the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1907) had made Korea a protectorate of Japan and had established Japanese hegemony over Korean domestic politics. On 22 August 1910, Japan effectively annexed Korea with the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910 signed by Ye Wanyong, Prime Minister of Korea, and Terauchi Masatake, who became the first Japanese Governor-General of Korea.The treaty became effective the same day and was published one week later. The treaty stipulated:Article 1: His Majesty the Emperor of Korea concedes completely and definitely his entire sovereignty over the whole Korean territory to His Majesty the Emperor of Japan.Article 2: His Majesty the Emperor of Japan accepts the concession stated in the previous article and consents to the annexation of Korea to the Empire of Japan.Both the protectorate and the annexation treaties were declared already void in the 1965 Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea .This period is also known as Military Police Reign Era (1910–19) in which Police had the authority to rule the entire country. Japan was in control of the media, law as well as government by physical power and regulations.In March 2010, 109 Korean intellectuals and 105 Japanese intellectuals met in the 100th anniversary of Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910 and they declared this annexation treaty null and void. They declared these statements in each of their capital cities (Seoul and Tōkyō) with a simultaneous press conference. They announced the "Japanese empire pressured the outcry of the Korean Empire and people and forced by Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910 and full text of a treaty was false and text of the agreement was also false". They also declared the "Process and formality of "Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910" had huge deficiencies and therefore the treaty was null and void. This meant the March 1st Movement was not an illegal movement.=== Righteous army ===One of the Korean righteous armies of rebels was formed in the earlier 1900s after the Japanese occupation.The Righteous Army was formed by Yu In-seok and other Confucian scholars during the Peasant Wars. Its ranks swelled after the Queen's murder by the Japanese troops and Koreans. Under the leadership of Min Jeong-sik, Choe Ik-hyeon and Shin Dol-seok, the Righteous Army attacked the Japanese army, Japanese merchants and pro-Japanese bureaucrats in the provinces of Gangwon, Chungcheong, Jeolla and Gyeongsang.Shin Dol-seok, an uneducated peasant commanded over 3,000 troops. Among the troops were former government soldiers, poor peasants, fishermen, tiger hunters, miners, merchants, and laborers.During the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1907, the Korean army was disbanded on August 1, 1907. The Army was led by 1st Battalion Commander Major Park Seung-hwan, who later committed suicide, occurred after the disbandment, former soldiers of Korea start a revolt against the Japanese army at the Namdaemun Gate. The disbanded army joined the Righteous Armies and together they solidified a foundation for the Righteous Armies battle.In 1907, the Righteous Army under the command of Yi In-yeong massed 10,000 troops to liberate Seoul and defeat the Japanese. The Army came within 12 km of Seoul but could not withstand the Japanese counter-offensive. The Righteous Army was no match for two infantry divisions of 20,000 Japanese soldiers backed by warships moored near Incheon.The Righteous Army retreated from Seoul and the war went on for two more years. Over 17,000 Righteous Army soldiers were killed and more than 37,000 were wounded in combat. Most of the resistance armies were hunted down and unable to defeat the Japanese army head-on, the Righteous Army split into small bands of partisans to carry on the War of Liberation in China, Siberia and the Baekdu Mountains in Korea. The Japanese troops first quashed the Peasant Army and then disbanded the remainder of the government army. Many of the surviving Korean guerrilla and anti-Japanese government troops fled to Manchuria and Primorsky Krai to carry on their fight.== Pre–World War II (1910–41) ===== Japanese migration and land ownership ===From around the time of the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895, Japanese merchants started settling in towns and cities in Korea seeking economic opportunity. By 1910 the number of Japanese settlers in Korea had reached over 170,000, comprising the largest single overseas-Japanese community in the world at the time. The Japanese leadership, convinced that their own country was overcrowded – especially in rural areas – encouraged farmers to emigrate.Many Japanese settlers showed interest in acquiring agricultural land in Korea even before Japanese land-ownership was officially legalized in 1906. Governor-General Terauchi Masatake facilitated settlement through land reform, which initially proved popular with most of the Korean population. The Korean land-ownership system featured absentee landlords, only partial owner-tenants and cultivators with traditional (but no legal proof of) ownership. Terauchi's new Land Survey Bureau conducted cadastral surveys that established ownership on the basis of written proof (deeds, titles, and similar documents). The system denied ownership to those who could not provide such written documentation; these turned out to be mostly high-class and impartial owners who had only traditional verbal cultivator-rights. Japanese landlords included both individuals and corporations (such as the Oriental Development Company). Because of these developments, Japanese landownership soared, as did the amount of land taken over by private Japanese companies. Many former Korean landowners, as well as agricultural workers, became tenant farmers, having lost their entitlements almost overnight because they could not pay for the land reclamation and irrigation improvements forced on them. Compounding the economic stresses imposed on the Korean peasantry, the authorities forced Korean peasants to do long days of compulsory labor to build irrigation works; Japanese imperial officials made peasants pay for these projects in the form of heavy taxes, impoverishing many of them and causing even more of them lose their land. Although many other subsequent developments placed ever greater strain on Korea's peasants, Japan's rice shortage in 1918 was the greatest catalyst for hardship. During that shortage, Japan looked to Korea for increased rice cultivation; as Korean peasants started producing more for Japan, however, the amount they took to eat dropped precipitously, causing much resentment among them.By 1910 an estimated 7 to 8% of all arable land in Korea had come under Japanese control. This ratio increased steadily; as of the years 1916, 1920, and 1932, the ratio of Japanese land ownership increased from 36.8 to 39.8 to 52.7%. The level of tenancy was similar to that of farmers in Japan itself; however, in Korea, the landowners were mostly Japanese, while the tenants were all Koreans. As often occurred in Japan itself, tenants had to pay over half their crop as rent, forcing many to send wives and daughters into factories or prostitution so they could pay taxes.By the 1930s the growth of the urban economy and the exodus of farmers to the cities had gradually weakened the hold of the landlords. With the growth of the wartime economy throughout the Second World War, the government recognized landlordism as an impediment to increased agricultural productivity, and took steps to increase control over the rural sector through the formation in Japan in 1943 of the Central Agricultural Association (中央農会, chūō nōkai), a compulsory organization under the wartime command economy.=== Anthropology and cultural heritage ===In 1925, the Japanese government established the Korean History Compilation Committee, and it was administered by the Governor-General of Korea and engaged in collecting Korean historical materials and compiling Korean history. According to the Doosan Encyclopedia, some mythology was incorporated. The committee said that Korea had once hosted a Japanese colony called Mimana, which has since been debated by academic scholarship.The Japanese government conducted excavations of archeological sites and preserved artifacts found there. The Japanese administration also relocated some artifacts; for instance, a stone monument (hanja: 棕蟬縣神祠碑), which was originally located in the Liaodong Peninsula, was taken out of its context and moved to Pyongyang.The National Palace Museum of Korea, originally built as the "Korean Imperial Museum" in 1908 to preserve the treasures in the Gyeongbokgung, was retained under the Japanese administration but renamed "Museum of the Yi Dynasty" in 1938.The Governor-General of Korea instituted a law in 1933 in order to preserve Korea's most important historical artifacts. The system established by this law, retained as the present-day National Treasures of South Korea and National Treasures of North Korea, was intended to counter the deleterious effects of the speed of economic development for Korean cultural heritage on Korean historical artifacts, including those not yet unearthed, because the same happened in Japan after the Meiji Restoration where many antiquities were destroyed for economic development (the first law to protect cultural properties in Japan was made on May 23, 1871, the Edict for the Preservation of Antiquities and Old Items, but this and other laws to protect national heritages in Japan could not be automatically applied to Korea due to the Japanese law 1911 Article 30 which required an imperial ordinance to apply Japanese laws in Korea). In Korea, the danger for destroying cultural properties increased due to modernization and industrialization such as developing the Gyeongbu Line, Gyeongui Line, Gyeongwon Line, and other roads and ports, which led to infrastructure improvement and greater production and trade resulting in a high GNP growth averaging 4.2% for 25 years between 1912 and 1937; and thus laws to protect cultural heritages were enacted in Korea based on the Japanese system to protect national heritages.Gyeongbokgung, now named Keifukukyū, the Korean royal palace, was demolished during the Japanese colonial period. In 1911, shortly after the annexation of Korea by Japan, ownership of land at the palace was transferred to the Japanese Governor-General of Korea. In 1915, to hold an exhibition, more than 90% of the buildings were torn down.Restoration of Gyeongbokgung has been undertaken since 1990. The Government-General Building was removed in 1996 and Heungnyemun (2001) and Gwanghwamun (2006–10) were reconstructed in their original locations and forms.=== Anti-Chinese riots of 1931 ===Due to a waterway construction permit, in the small town of Wanpaoshan in Manchuria near Changchun, "violent clashes" broke out between the local Chinese and Korean immigrants on 2 July 1931. The Chosun Ilbo, a major Korean newspaper, misreported that many Koreans had died in the clashes, sparking a Chinese exclusion movement in urban areas of the Korean Peninsula. The worst of the rioting occurred in Pyongyang on 5 July. Approximately 127 Chinese people were killed, 393 wounded, and a considerable number of properties were destroyed by Korean residents. Republic of China further alleged the Japanese authorities in Korea did not take adequate steps to protect the lives and property of the Chinese residents, and blamed the authorities for allowing inflammatory accounts to be published. As a result of this riot, the Minister of Foreign Affairs Kijūrō Shidehara, who insisted on Japanese, Chinese, and Korean harmony, lost his position.=== Order to change names ===Attempts were made to introduce the modern household registration system. This brought about the abolishment of the Korean caste system. In 1911, the proclamation "Matter Concerning the Changing of Korean Names" (朝鮮人ノ姓名改称ニ関スル件) was issued, barring ethnic Koreans from taking Japanese names and retroactively reverting the names of Koreans who had already registered under Japanese names back to the original Korean ones. By 1939, however, this position was reversed and Japan's focus had shifted towards cultural assimilation of the Korean people; Imperial Decree 19 and 20 on Korean Civil Affairs (Sōshi-kaimei) went into effect, whereby ethnic Koreans were forced to surrender their traditional use of clan-based Korean family name system, in favor for a new surname to be used in the family register. The surname could be of their own choosing, including their native clan name, but in practice many Koreans received a Japanese surname. There is controversy over whether or not the adoption of a Japanese surname was effectively mandatory, or merely strongly encouraged.== World War II ===== National Mobilization Law ======= Deportation of forced labor ====The combination of immigrants and forced laborers during World War II brought the total to over 2 million by the end of the war, according to estimates by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. In 1946, some 1,340,000 ethnic Koreans were repatriated to Korea, with 650,000 choosing to remain in Japan, where they now form the Zainichi Korean community. A 1982 survey by the Korean Youth Association showed that conscripted laborers account for 13 percent of first-generation Zainichi Koreans.From 1939, labor shortages as a result of conscription of Japanese males for the military efforts of World War II led to organized official recruitment of Koreans to work in mainland Japan, initially through civilian agents, and later directly, often involving elements of coercion. As the labor shortage increased, by 1942, the Japanese authorities extended the provisions of the National Mobilization Law to include the conscription of Korean workers for factories and mines on the Korean Peninsula, Manchukuo, and the involuntary relocation of workers to Japan itself as needed.Of the 5,400,000 Koreans conscripted, about 670,000 were taken to mainland Japan (including Karafuto Prefecture, present-day Sakhalin, now part of Russia) for civilian labor. Those who were brought to Japan were often forced to work under appalling and dangerous conditions. Apparently Koreans were better treated than laborers from other countries, but still their work hours, food and medical care were such that large numbers died. This is clear from the 60,000 Korean laborers that died in Japan out of the near 670,000 that were brought there in the years 1939 to 1945 (line 119a). The total number of deaths of Korean forced laborers in Korea and Manchuria is estimated to be between 270,000 and 810,000. The 43,000 ethnic Koreans in Karafuto, which had been occupied by the Soviet Union just prior to Japan's surrender, were refused repatriation to either mainland Japan or the Korean Peninsula, and were thus trapped in Sakhalin, stateless; they became the ancestors of the Sakhalin Koreans.Most Korean atomic-bomb victims in Japan had been drafted for work at military industrial factories in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the name of humanitarian assistance, Japan paid South Korea four billion yen (approx. thirty five million dollars) and built a welfare center for those suffering from the effects of the atomic bomb.==== Korean service in the Japanese military ====Japan did not draft ethnic Koreans into its military until 1944 when the tide of World War II turned against it. Until 1944, enlistment in the Imperial Japanese Army by ethnic Koreans was voluntary, and highly competitive. From a 14% acceptance rate in 1938, it dropped to a 2% acceptance rate in 1943 while the raw number of applicants increased from 3000 per annum to 300,000 in just five years during World War II.Korea produced seven generals and numerous field grade officers (Colonels, Lieutenant-Colonels and Majors) during 35 years of colonial governance by Japan, despite institutionalized discrimination.The first and the best-known general was Lieutenant General and Crown Prince Yi Un. The other six were graduates of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy. They were: Lieutenant General Jo Seonggeun; Major General Wang Yushik; Lieutenant General Viscount Yi Beyongmu; Major General Yi Heedu; Major General Kim Eungseon (also military aide and personal guard to Prince Yi Un); and Lieutenant General Hong Sa-ik, who was executed for war crimes committed while commanding the prison camps in the southern Philippines in 1944–1945.Other Japanese Army officers of South Korean origin moved onto successful careers in the post-colonial period. Examples include Park Chung-hee, who became president of South Korea, Chung Il-kwon (정일권,丁一權), prime minister from 1964 to 1970, and Paik Sun-yup, South Korea's youngest general, famous for his defense during the Battle of Pusan Perimeter during the Korean War. The first ten of the Chiefs of Army Staff of South Korea graduated from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy and none from the Korean Liberation Army.Officer cadets had been joining the Japanese Army since before the annexation by attending the Imperial Japanese Army Academy. Enlisted Soldier recruitment began as early as 1938, when the Japanese Kwantung Army in Manchuria began accepting pro-Japanese Korean volunteers into the army of Manchukuo, and formed the Gando Special Force. Koreans in this unit specialized in counter-insurgency operations against communist guerillas in the region of Jiandao. The size of the unit grew considerably at an annual rate of 700 men, and included such notable Koreans as General Paik Sun-yup, who served in the Korean War. Historian Philip Jowett noted that during the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, the Gando Special Force "earned a reputation for brutality and was reported to have laid waste to large areas which came under its rule."Starting in 1944, Japan started the conscription of Koreans into the armed forces. All Korean males were drafted to either join the Imperial Japanese Army, as of April 1944, or work in the military industrial sector, as of September 1944. Before 1944, 18,000 Koreans passed the examination for induction into the army. Koreans provided workers to mines and construction sites around Japan. The number of conscripted Koreans reached its peak in 1944 in preparation for war. From 1944, about 200,000 Korean males were inducted into the army.During World War II, American soldiers frequently encountered Korean soldiers within the ranks of the Imperial Japanese Army. Most notably was in the Battle of Tarawa, which was considered during that time to be one of the bloodiest battles in U.S. military history. A fifth of the Japanese garrison during this battle consisted of Korean laborers who were trained in combat roles. Like their Japanese counterparts, many of them were killed.The Japanese, however, did not always believe they could rely on Korean laborers to fight alongside them. In Prisoners of the Japanese, author Gaven Daws wrote, "[O]n Tinian there were five thousand Korean laborers and so as not to have hostiles at their back when the Americans invaded, the Japanese killed them."After the war, 148 Koreans were convicted of Class B and C Japanese war crimes, 23 of whom were sentenced to death (compared to 920 Japanese who were sentenced to death), including Korean prison guards who were particularly notorious for their brutality during the war. The figure is relatively high considering that ethnic Koreans made up a small percentage of the Japanese military. Judge Bert Röling, who represented the Netherlands at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, noted that "many of the commanders and guards in POW camps were Koreans – the Japanese apparently did not trust them as soldiers – and it is said that they were sometimes far more cruel than the Japanese." In his memoirs, Colonel Eugene C. Jacobs wrote that during the Bataan Death March, "the Korean guards were the most abusive. The Japs didn't trust them in battle, so used them as service troops; the Koreans were anxious to get blood on their bayonets; and then they thought they were veterans."Korean guards were sent to the remote jungles of Burma, where Lt. Col. William A. (Bill) Henderson wrote from his own experience that some of the guards overseeing the construction of the Burma Railway "were moronic and at times almost bestial in their treatment of prisoners. This applied particularly to Korean private soldiers, conscripted only for guard and sentry duties in many parts of the Japanese empire. Regrettably, they were appointed as guards for the prisoners throughout the camps of Burma and Siam." The highest-ranking Korean to be prosecuted after the war was Lieutenant General Hong Sa-ik, who was in command of all the Japanese prisoner-of-war camps in the Philippines.=== Comfort women ===During World War II, many ethnic Korean girls and women were forced by the Japanese military to become prostitutes on the pretext of being hired for a job such as a seamstress, and were forced to provide sexual service for Japanese soldiers by agencies or their families against their wishes. These women were euphemistically called "comfort women". The Governor-General of Korea cracked down on taking in ethnic Korean foster-daughters by Chinese.According to an interrogation report by U.S. Army in 1944, comfort women were in good physical health. They were able to have a periodic checkup once a week and to receive treatment in case of spreading disease to the Japanese soldiers, but not for their own health. However, a 1996 United Nations Report detailed that "large numbers of women were forced to submit to prolonged prostitution under conditions which were frequently indescribably traumatic". Documents which survived the war revealed "beyond doubt the extent to which the Japanese forces took direct responsibility for the comfort stations" and that the published practices were "in stark contrast with the brutality and cruelty of the practice. Chizuko Ueno at Kyoto University cautions against the claim that women were not forced as the fact that "no positive sources exist supporting claims that comfort women were forced labor" must be treated with doubt, as "it is well known that the great majority of potentially damaging official documents were destroyed in anticipation of the Allied occupation".The Asian Women's Fund claimed that during World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army recruited anywhere from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of women from occupied territories to be used as sex slaves. Yoshimi Yoshiaki asserted that possibly hundreds of thousands of girls and women, mainly from China and the Korean Peninsula but also Southeast Asian countries occupied by the Imperial Japanese Army, as well as Australia and the Netherlands, were forced to serve as comfort women. According to testimonies, young women were abducted from their homes in countries under Imperial Japanese rule. In many cases, women were lured with promises of work in factories or restaurants. In some cases propaganda advocated equity and the sponsorship of women in higher education. Other enticements were false advertising for nursing jobs at outposts or Japanese army bases; once recruited, they were incarcerated in comfort stations both inside their nations and abroad.From the early nineties onward, former Korean comfort women have continued to protest against the Japanese government for apparent historical negationism of crimes committed by the Imperial Japanese Army, and have sought compensation for their sufferings during the war. There has also been international support for compensation, such as from the European Union, the Netherlands, Canada and the Philippines. The United States passed House of Representatives House Resolution 121 on July 30, 2007, asking the Japanese government to redress the situation and to incorporate comfort women into school curriculum. Hirofumi Hayashi at the University of Manchester argues that the resolution has helped to counter the "arguments of ultrarightists flooding the mainstream mass media" and warned against the rationalization of the comfort women system.=== Religion and ideology ===Korean nationalist historiography, centered on minjok, an ethnically or racially defined Korean nation, emerged in the early twentieth century among Korean intellectuals who wanted to foster national consciousness to achieve Korean independence from Japanese domination. Its first proponent was journalist and independence activist Shin Chaeho (1880–1936). In his polemical New Reading of History (Doksa Sillon), which was published in 1908 three years after Korea became a Japanese protectorate, Shin proclaimed that Korean history was the history of the Korean minjok, a distinct race descended from the god Dangun that had once controlled not only the Korean peninsula but also large parts of Manchuria. Shin and other Korean intellectuals like Park Eun-sik (1859–1925) and Choe Nam-seon (1890–1957) continued to develop these themes in the 1910s and 1920s. They rejected two prior ways of representing the past: the Neo-Confucian historiography of Joseon Korea's scholar-bureaucrats, which they blamed for perpetuating a servile worldview centered around China, and Japanese colonial historiography, which portrayed Korea as historically dependent and culturally backward. The work of these prewar nationalist historians has shaped postwar historiography in both North and South Korea.Protestant Christian missionary efforts in Asia were quite successful in Korea. American Presbyterians and Methodists arrived in the 1880s and were well received. They served as medical and educational missionaries, establishing schools and hospitals in numerous cities. In the years when Korea was under Japanese control, some Koreans adopted Christianity as an expression of nationalism in opposition to the Japan's efforts to promote the Japanese language and the Shinto religion. In 1914 of 16 million Koreans, there were 86,000 Protestants and 79,000 Catholics. By 1934 the numbers were 168,000 and 147,000, respectively. Presbyterian missionaries were especially successful. Harmonizing with traditional practices became an issue. The Protestants developed a substitute for Confucian ancestral rites by merging Confucian-based and Christian death and funerary rituals.== Independence and division of Korea ==Following the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Soviet invasion of Manchuria, and the impending overrun of the Korean Peninsula by U.S. and Soviet forces, Japan surrendered to the Allied forces on 15 August 1945, ending 35 years of Japanese colonial rule.American forces under General John R. Hodge arrived at the southern part of the Korean Peninsula on 8 September 1945, while the Soviet Army and some Korean Communists had stationed themselves in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. U.S. Colonel Dean Rusk proposed to Chischakov, the Soviet military administrator of northern Korea, that Korea should be split at the 38th parallel. This proposal was made at an emergency meeting to determine postwar spheres of influence, which led to the division of Korea.After the liberation of Korea from Japanese rule, the "Name Restoration Order" was issued on 23 October 1946 by the United States Army Military Government in Korea south of the 38th parallel, enabling Koreans to restore their names if they wished. Many Koreans in Japan chose to retain their Japanese names, either to avoid discrimination, or later, to meet the requirements for naturalization as Japanese citizens.== Korean independence movement ==Upon Emperor Gojong's death, anti-Japanese rallies took place nationwide, most notably the March 1st Movement of 1919. A declaration of independence was read in Seoul. It is estimated that 2 million people took part in these rallies. The Japanese violently suppressed the protests: According to Korean records, 46,948 were arrested, 7,509 killed and 15,961 wounded; according to Japanese figures, 8,437 were arrested, 553 killed and 1,409 wounded. About 7,000 people were killed by Japanese police and soldiers during the 12 months of demonstrations.After suppression of the uprising, some aspects of Japanese rule considered most objectionable to Koreans were removed. The military police were replaced by a civilian force, and freedom of the press was permitted to a limited extent. Two of the three major Korean daily newspapers, the Tōa Nippō and the Chōsen Nippō, were established in 1920.Objection to Japanese rule over Korea continued, and the 1 March Movement was a catalyst for the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea by Korean émigrés in Shanghai on 13 April 1919. The modern South Korean government considers this Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea the de jure representation of the Korean people throughout the period of Japanese rule.The Japanese colonial rule of Korea after annexation was largely uncontested militarily by the smaller, poorly armed, and poorly trained Korean army. Many rebels, former soldiers, and other volunteers left the Korean Peninsula for Manchuria and Primorsky Krai in Russia. Koreans in Manchuria formed resistance groups and guerrilla fighters known as Dongnipgun (Independence Army), which traveled across the Korean-Chinese border, using guerrilla warfare tactics against Japanese forces. The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1932 and subsequent Pacification of Manchukuo deprived many of these groups of their bases of operation and supplies. Many were forced to either flee to China, or to join the Red Army-backed forces in eastern Russia. One of the guerrilla groups was led by the future leader of communist North Korea, Kim Il-sung, in Japanese-controlled Manchuria. Kim Il-Sung's time as a guerrilla leader was formative upon his political ideology once he came to power.Within Korea itself, anti-Japanese rallies continued on occasion. Most notably, the Kōshū Students Anti-Japanese Movement on 3 November 1929 led to the strengthening of Japanese military rule in 1931, after which freedom of the press and freedom of expression were curbed. Many witnesses, including Catholic priests, reported that Japanese authorities dealt with insurgency severely. When villagers were suspected of hiding rebels, entire village populations are said to have been herded into public buildings (especially churches) and massacred when the buildings were set on fire. In the village of Teigan, Suigen District, Keiki Prefecture (now Jeam-ri, Hwaseong, Gyeongggi Province) for example, a group of 29 people were gathered inside a church which was then set afire. Such events deepened the hostility of many Korean civilians towards the Japanese government.On 10 December 1941, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, under the presidency of Kim Gu, declared war on Japan and Germany. Kim Gu organized many of the exiled Korean resistance groups, forming the "Korean Liberation Army". On the other hand, Kim Il-sung led tens of thousands of Koreans who volunteered for the National Revolutionary Army and the People's Liberation Army. The communist-backed Korean Volunteer Army (KVA, 조선의용군, 朝鮮義勇軍) was established in Yenan, China, outside of the Provisional Government's control, from a core of 1,000 deserters from the Imperial Japanese Army. After the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation, the KVA entered Manchuria, where it recruited from the ethnic Korean population and eventually became the Korean People's Army of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.== Economy and exploitation ==Economic output in terms of agriculture, fishery, forestry and industry increased by tenfold from 1910 to 1945 as illustrated on the chart to the right. Princeton's Atul Kohli concluded that the economic development model the Japanese instituted played the crucial role in Korean economic development, a model that was maintained by the Koreans in the post-World War II era.Randall S. Jones wrote that "economic development during the colonial period can be said to have laid the foundation for future growth in several respects." According to Myung Soo Cha of Yeungnam University, "the South Korean developmental state, as symbolized by Park Chung Hee, a former officer of the Japanese Imperial army serving in wartime Manchuria, was closely modeled upon the colonial system of government. In short, South Korea grew on the shoulders of the colonial achievement, rather than emerging out of the ashes left by the Korean War, as is sometimes asserted."A 2017 study found that the gradual removal of trade barriers (almost fully completed by 1923) after Japan's annexation of Korea "increased population growth rates more in the regions close to the former border between Japan and Korea than in the other regions. Furthermore, after integration, the regions close to Korea that specialized in the fabric industry, whose products were the primary goods exported from Japan to Korea, experienced more population growth than other regions close to Korea did."There were some modernization efforts by the late 19th century prior to annexation. Seoul became the first city in East Asia to have electricity, trolley cars, water, telephone, and telegraph systems all at the same time, but Korea remained a largely backward agricultural economy around the start of the 20th century. "Japan's initial colonial policy was to increase agricultural production in Korea to meet Japan's growing need for rice. Japan also began to build large-scale industries in Korea in the 1930s as part of the empire-wide program of economic self-sufficiency and war preparation." In terms of exports, "Japanese industry as a whole gained little ... and this is certainly true for the most important manufacturing sector, cotton textiles. This export trade had little impact, positive or negative, on the welfare of Japanese consumer." Likewise in terms of the profitability of Japanese investors: colonial Korea made no significant impact.According to scholar Donald S. Macdonald, "for centuries most Koreans lived as subsistence farmers of rice and other grains and satisfied most of their basic needs through their own labor or through barter. The manufactures of traditional Korea – principally cloth, cooking and eating utensils, furniture, jewelry, and paper – were produced by artisans in a few population centers."During the early period of Japanese rule, the Japanese government attempted to completely integrate the Korean economy with Japan, and thus introduced many modern economic and social institutions and invested heavily in infrastructure, including schools, railroads and utilities. Most of these physical facilities remained in Korea after the Liberation. The Japanese government played an even more active role in developing Korea than it had played in developing the Japanese economy in the late nineteenth century. Many programs drafted in Korea in the 1920s and 1930s originated in policies drafted in Japan during the Meiji period (1868–1912). The Japanese government helped to mobilize resources for development and provided entrepreneurial leadership for these new enterprises. Colonial economic growth was initiated through powerful government efforts to expand the economic infrastructure, to increase investment in human capital through health and education and to raise productivity.However, under Japanese rule, many Korean resources were only used for Japan. Economist Suh Sang-chul points out that the nature of industrialization during the period was as an "imposed enclave", so the impact of colonialism was trivial. Another scholar, Song Byung-nak, states that the economic condition of average Koreans deteriorated during the period despite the economic growth. Most Koreans at the time could access only a primary school education under restriction by the Japanese, and this prevented the growth of an indigenous entrepreneurial class. A 1939 statistic shows that among the total capital recorded by factories, about 94 percent was Japanese-owned. While Koreans owned about 61 percent of small-scale firms that had 5 to 49 employees, about 92 percent of large-scale enterprises with more than 200 employees were Japanese-owned.Virtually all industries were owned either by Japan-based corporations or by Japanese corporations in Korea. As of 1942, indigenous capital constituted only 1.5 percent of the total capital invested in Korean industries. Korean entrepreneurs were charged interest rates 25 percent higher than their Japanese counterparts, so it was difficult for large Korean enterprises to emerge. More and more farmland was taken over by the Japanese, and an increasing proportion of Korean farmers either became sharecroppers or migrated to Japan or Manchuria as laborers. As greater quantities of Korean rice were exported to Japan, per capita consumption of rice among the Koreans declined; between 1932 and 1936, per capita consumption of rice declined to half the level consumed between 1912 and 1916. Although the government imported coarse grains from Manchuria to augment the Korean food supply, per capita consumption of food grains in 1944 was 35 percent below that of 1912 to 1916.The Japanese government created a system of colonial mercantilism, requiring construction of significant transportation infrastructure on the Korean Peninsula for the purpose of extracting and exploiting resources such as raw materials (timber), foodstuff (mostly rice and fish), and mineral resources (coal and iron ore). The Japanese developed port facilities and an extensive railway system which included a main trunk railway from the southern port city of Pusan through the capital of Seoul and north to the Chinese border. This infrastructure was intended not only to facilitate a colonial mercantilist economy, but was also viewed as a strategic necessity for the Japanese military to control Korea and to move large numbers of troops and materials to the Chinese border at short notice.From the late 1920s and into the 1930s, particularly during the tenure of Japanese Governor-General Kazushige Ugaki, concentrated efforts were made to build up the industrial base in Korea. This was especially true in the areas of heavy industry, such as chemical plants and steel mills, and munitions production. The Japanese military felt it would be beneficial to have production closer to the source of raw materials and closer to potential front lines for a future war with China.Lee Young-hoon, a professor at Seoul National University states that less than 10% of arable land actually came under Japanese control and rice was normally traded, not robbed. He also insists that Koreans' knowledge about the era under Japanese rule is mostly made up by later educators. Many of Lee's arguments, however, have been contested.According to Alleyne Ireland, a British author, he referred to condition of Korea under Japanese rule. As of 1926, he described on his book "The New Korea", "looking forward from 1910, one thing was clear where many things were obscure, namely that Japan, having decided to make Korea part of her Empire, would deem the permanence of her occupation to be a major element of her national policy, to be held intact, at whatever cost, against internal revolt or foreign intrigue. The Japanese refer with pride to their effective protection of life and property throughout a country but recently overrun by bandits, to the enormous increase during the past fifteen years in every branch of production, with its connotation of increased employment for Koreans, to the constantly mounting number of Koreans appointed to the government service are facts, that cannot be gainsaid. However, the Korean nationalists attribute to them a sinister significance."== Changes to Korean culture under Japanese rule ===== Newspaper censorship ===In 1907, the Japanese government passed the Newspaper Law which effectively prevented the publication of local papers. Only the Korean-language newspaper Daehan Maeil Shinbo (大韓毎日新報) continued its publication, because it was run by a foreigner named Ernest Bethell. For the first decade of colonial rule, therefore, there were no Korean-owned newspapers whatsoever, although books were steadily printed and there were several dozen Korean-owned magazines. In 1920 these laws were relaxed, and in 1932 Japan eliminated a significant double standard which had been making Korean publication significantly more difficult than Japanese publication. Even with these relaxed rules, however, the government still seized newspapers without warning: there are over a thousand recorded seizures between 1920 and 1939. Revocation of publishing rights was relatively rare, and only three magazines had their rights revoked over the entire colonial period. In 1940, as the Pacific War increased in intensity, Japan shut down all Korean language newspapers again.=== Education ===Following the annexation of Korea, the Japanese administration introduced a free public education system modeled after the Japanese school system with a pyramidal hierarchy of elementary, middle and high schools, culminating at the Keijō Imperial University in Keijō. As in Japan itself, education was viewed primarily as an instrument of "the Formation of the Imperial Citizen" (황민화; 皇民化; Kōminka) with a heavy emphasis on moral and political instruction. Japanese religious groups such as Protestant Christians willingly supported the Japanese authorities in their effort to assimilate Koreans through education.During colonial times, elementary schools were known as "Citizen Schools" (국민학교; 国民学校; kokumin gakkō) as in Japan, as a means of forming proper "Imperial Citizens" (황국민; 皇国民; kōkokumin) from early childhood. Elementary schools in South Korea today are known by the name chodeung hakgyo (초등학교; 初等學校) ("elementary school") as the term gungmin hakgyo/kokumin gakkō has recently become a politically incorrect term.During colonialism period, Japan established an equal educational system in Korea, but it strictly limited the rate of coed education. After the Korean Educational Ordinance was published in 1938, this situation has changed slightly. "Primary education consisted of a mandated four years of primary school (futsu gakkō). Secondary education included four years of middle school for boys (koto futsu gakkō) and three years for girls (joshi koto futsu gakko) or two to three years of vocational school (jitsugyo gakkō). 1915, the Japanese announced the Regulations for Technical Schools (senmon gakko kisoku), which legalized technical schools (senmon gakkō) as post-secondary educational institutions."Besides, the Korean modern educational institutions were excluded from the colonial system. 1911, Japanese government set The Regulations for Private Schools (Shiritsu gakko kisoku) and destroy these facilities which showed patriotic awakening.The public curriculum for most of the period was taught by Korean educators under a hybrid system focused on assimilating Koreans into the Japanese empire while emphasizing Korean cultural education. This focused on the history of the Japanese Empire as well as inculcating reverence for the Imperial House of Japan and instruction in the Imperial Rescript on Education.Integration of Korean students in Japanese language schools and Japanese students in Korean language schools was discouraged but steadily increased over time. While official policy promoted equality between ethnic Koreans and ethnic Japanese, in practice this was rarely the case. Korean history and language studies would be taught side by side with Japanese history and language studies until the early 1940s under a new education ordinance that saw wartime efforts increased and the hybrid system slowly weakened.One point of view is that, although the Japanese education system in Korea was detrimental towards Korea's cultural identity, its introduction of public education as universal was a step in the right direction to improve Korea's human capital. Towards the end of Japanese rule, Korea saw elementary school attendance at 38 percent. Children of elite families were able to advance to higher education, while others were able to attend technical schools, allowing for "the emergence of a small but important class of well-educated white collar and technical workers ... who possessed skills required to run a modern industrial economy." The Japanese education system ultimately produced hundreds of thousands of educated South Koreans who later became "the core of the postwar political and economic elite."Another point of view is that it was only after the end of Japanese rule with World War II that Korea saw true, democratic rise in public education as evidenced by the rise of adult literacy rate from 22 percent in 1945 to 87.6 percent by 1970 and 93% by the late 1980s. Though free public education was made available for elementary schools during Japanese rule, Korea as a country did not experience secondary-school enrollment rates comparable to those of Japan prior to the end of World War II.=== Japanese policies for the Korean language ===In the initial phase of Japanese rule, students were taught in Korean in public schools established by ethnic Korean officials who worked for the colonial government. While prior to this schools in Korea had used mostly Hanja, during this time Korean came to be written in a mixed Hanja–Korean script influenced by the Japanese writing system, where most lexical roots were written in Hanja and grammatical forms in Korean script. Korean textbooks from this era included excerpts from traditional Korean stories such as Heungbujeon/Kōfuden (흥부전/興夫伝).In 1921, government efforts were strengthened to promote Korean media and literature throughout Korea and also in Japan. The Japanese government also created incentives to educate ethnic Japanese students in the Korean language. As a response, the Korean Language Society was created by ethnic Koreans. In 1928, as the assimilation policy began to ramp up, the first Hangul Day (9 October) was celebrated to commemorate the Korean alphabet.The Japanese administrative policy shifted more aggressively towards cultural assimilation in 1938 (Naisen ittai) with a new government report advising reform to strengthen the war effort. This left less room for Korean language studies and by 1943 all Korean language courses had been phased out. Teaching and speaking of Korean was prohibited. Although the government report advised further, more radical reform, the 10-year plan would never fully go into effect.=== Removal and return of historical artifacts ===The Japanese rule of Korea also resulted in the relocation of tens of thousands of cultural artifacts to Japan. The issue over where these articles should be located began during the U.S. occupation of Japan. In 1965, as part of the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea, Japan returned roughly 1,400 artifacts to Korea, and considered the diplomatic matter to have been resolved. Korean artifacts are retained in the Tōkyō National Museum and in the hands of many private collectors.According to the South Korean government, there are 75,311 cultural artifacts that were taken from Korea. Japan has 34,369, the United States has 17,803, and France had several hundred, which were seized in the French campaign against Korea and loaned back to Korea in 2010 without an apology. In 2010, Prime Minister of Japan Naoto Kan expressed "deep remorse" for the removal of artifacts, and arranged an initial plan to return the Royal Protocols of the Joseon Dynasty and over 1,200 other books, which was carried out in 2011.=== Anthropology and religion ===Japan sent anthropologists to Korea who took photos of the traditional state of Korean villages, serving as evidence that Korea was "backwards" and needed to be modernized.As Japan established the puppet state of Manchukuo, Korea became more vital to the internal communications and defense of the Japanese empire against the Soviet Union. Japan decided in the 1930s to make the Koreans become more loyal to the Emperor by requiring Korean participation in the State Shinto devotions, and by weakening the influences of both Christianity and traditional religion.The primary building of Gyeongbokgung Palace was demolished and the Japanese General Government Building was built in its exact location. The Japanese colonial authorities destroyed 85 percent of all the buildings in Gyeongbokgung. Sungnyemun, the gate in Gyeongsong that was an iconic symbol of Korea, was altered by the addition of large, Shinto-style golden horns near the roofs (later removed by the South Korean government after independence).==== Christianity and Communism ====Protestant missionary efforts in Asia were nowhere more successful than in Korea. American Presbyterians and Methodists arrived in the 1880s and were well received. In the days Korea was under Japanese control, Christianity became in part an expression of nationalism in opposition to Japan's efforts to promote the Japanese language and the Shinto religion. In 1914, out of 16 million people, there were 86,000 Protestants and 79,000 Catholics; by 1934 the numbers were 168,000 and 147,000. Presbyterian missionaries were especially successful. Harmonizing with traditional practices became an issue. The Catholics tolerated Shinto rites. The Protestants developed a substitute for Confucian ancestral rites by merging Confucian-based and Christian death and funerary rituals.Missionaries, however, were alarmed at the rise in communist activity during the 1920s. Communist literature was effectively banned in Korea at this time, but it was sometimes smuggled into the country disguised as Christian literature, often addressed to missionaries to further avoid suspicion. Communist concepts, such as class struggle, and its partner nationalist movement were resonating well with some of the peasants and lower-class citizens of colonial-era Korea; this was worrying to some missionaries because of communism's atheist components. At one point, communist students in Keijō held an "anti-Sunday School conference" and loudly protested religion in front of churches. This protest renewed Japanese governmental interest in censorship of communist ideas and language.== Legacy ==Many Koreans became victims of Japanese brutality during the colonial period. Korean villagers hiding resistance fighters were dealt with harshly, often with summary execution, rape, forced labour, and looting. Starting on 1 March 1919, an anti-Japanese demonstration continued to spread, and as the Japanese national and military police could not contain the crowds, the army and even the navy were also called in. There were several reports of atrocities. In one instance, Japanese police in the village of Teigan, Suigen District, Keiki Prefecture (now Jeam-ri, Hwaseong, Gyeongggi Province) herded everyone into a church, locked it, and burned it to the ground. They also shot through the burning windows of the church to ensure that no one made it out alive. Many participants of the 1 March Movement were subjected to torture and execution.=== Result of the name changes ===Although officially voluntary, and initially resisted by the Japanese Colonial Government, 80% of Koreans voluntarily changed their name to Japanese in 1940. Many community leaders urged the adoption of Japanese names to make it easy for their children to succeed in society and overcome discrimination.A study conducted by the United States Library of Congress states that "the Korean culture was quashed, and Koreans were required to speak Japanese and take Japanese names". This name change policy, called sōshi-kaimei (창씨개명; 創氏改名), was part of Japan's assimilation efforts. This was heavily resisted by the Korean people. Those Koreans who retained their Korean names were not allowed to enroll at school, were refused service at government offices, and were excluded from the lists for food rations and other supplies. Facedwith such compulsion, many Koreans ended up complying with the Name Change Order. Such a radical policy was deemed to be symbolically significant in the war effort, binding the fate of Korea with that of the empire. A number of prominent ethnic Koreans working for the Japanese government, including General Kō Shiyoku/Hong Sa-ik, insisted on keeping their Korean names. Another ethnic Korean, Boku Shunkin/Park Chun-Geum (박춘금, 朴春琴), was elected as a member of the Lower House from the Tōkyō Third District in the general election in 1932 and served two terms without changing his Korean name, but has been registered as chinilpa by the current Republic of Korea government.=== Forced laborers and comfort women ===During World War II, about 450,000 Korean male laborers were involuntarily sent to Japan. Comfort women, who served in Japanese military brothels as a form of sexual slavery, came from all over the Japanese empire. Historical estimates range from 10,000 to 200,000, including an unknown number of Koreans. However, 200,000 is considered to be a conservative number by modern historians, and up to 500,000 comfort women are estimated to be taken. These women faced an average of 29 men and up to 40 men per day, according to one surviving comfort woman. However, of the 500,000, less than 50 are alive today. Comfort women were often recruited from rural locales with the promise of factory employment; business records, often from Korean subcontractees of Japanese companies, showed them falsely classified as nurses or secretaries. There is evidence that the Japanese government intentionally destroyed official records regarding comfort women.In 2002, South Korea started an investigation of Japanese collaborators. Part of the investigation was completed in 2006 and a list of names of individuals who profited from exploitation of fellow Koreans were posted. The collaborators not only benefited from exploiting their countrymen, but the children of these collaborators benefited further by acquiring higher education with the exploitation money they had amassed.The "Truth Commission on Forced Mobilization under the Japanese Imperialism Republic of Korea" investigated the received reports for damage from 86 people among the 148 Koreans who were accused of being the level B and C war criminals while serving as prison guards for the Japanese military during World War II. The commission, which was organized by the South Korean government, announced that they acknowledge 83 people among them as victims. The commission said that although the people reluctantly served as guards to avoid the draft, they took responsibility for mistreatment by the Japanese against prisoners of war. Lee Se-il, leader of the investigation, said that examination of the military prosecution reports for 15 Korean prison guards, obtained from The National Archives of the United Kingdom, confirmed that they were convicted without explicit evidence.=== Koreans in Unit 731 ===Koreans, along with many other Asians, were experimented on in Unit 731, a secret military medical experimentation unit in World War II. The victims who died in the camp included at least 25 victims from the former Soviet Union and Korea. General Shiro Ishii, the head of Unit 731, revealed during the Tōkyō War Crime Trials that 254 Koreans were killed in Unit 731. Some historians estimate up to 250,000 total people were subjected to human experiments. A Unit 731 veteran attested that most that were experimented on were Chinese, Koreans and Mongolians.=== Discrimination against Korean leprosy patients by Japan ===Colonial Korea was subject to the same Leprosy Prevention Laws of 1907 and 1931 as the Japanese home islands. These laws directly and indirectly permitted the quarantine of patients in sanitariums, where forced abortions and sterilization were common. The laws authorized punishment of patients "disturbing the peace", as most Japanese leprologists believed that vulnerability to the disease was inheritable. In Korea, many leprosy patients were also subjected to hard labor.The Japanese government compensated inpatients.=== Atomic bomb casualties ===Many Koreans were drafted for work at military industrial factories in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. According to the secretary-general of a group named Peace Project Network, "there were a total of 70,000 Korean victims in both cities". Japan paid South Korea 4 billion yen and built a welfare center in the name of humanitarian assistance, not as compensation to the victims.=== South Korean presidential investigation commission on pro-Japanese collaborators ===Collaborators of the Imperial Japanese Army were prosecuted in the postwar period as Chinilpa, or "friendly to Japanese". In 2006 South Korean president Roh Moo-hyun appointed an investigation commission into the issue of locating descendants of pro-Japanese collaborators from the times of the 1890s until the collapse of Japanese rule in 1945.In 2010, the commission concluded its five-volume report. As a result, the land property of 168 South Korean citizens has been confiscated by the government, these citizens being descendants of pro-Japanese collaborators.== List of governors-general of Korea ==Below is a list of governors-general of Korea under Japanese rule:Terauchi Masatake (1910–1916)Hasegawa Yoshimichi (1916–1919)Saitō Makoto (1919–1927, 1929–1931)Kazushige Ugaki (1927, 1931–1936)Yamanashi Hanzō (1927–1929)Jirō Minami (1936–1942)Kuniaki Koiso (1942–1944)Nobuyuki Abe (1944–1945)== In popular culture ==Madam Oh, 1965 South Korean filmSea of Blood, 1971 North Korean operaThe Flower Girl, 1972 North Korean filmFemme Fatale: Bae Jeong-ja, 1973 South Korean filmMulberry, 1986 South Korean filmModern Boy, 2008 South Korean filmCapital Scandal, 2008 South Korea TV dramaThe Good, the Bad, the Weird, 2008 South Korea filmMy Way, 2011 South Korean filmBridal Mask, 2012 South Korean TV dramaAssassination, 2015 South Korean filmThe Silenced, 2015 South Korean filmSpirits' Homecoming, 2016 South Korean filmThe Handmaiden, 2016 South Korean filmThe Last Princess, 2016 South Korean filmThe Age of Shadows, 2016 South Korean filmLove Lies, 2016 South Korean filmChicago Typewriter, 2017 South Korean TV showBattleship Island, 2017 South Korean filmAnarchist from Colony, 2017 South Korean filmMr. Sunshine, 2018 South Korean TV showPachinko, 2017 novel by Min Jin LeeThe Hymn of Death, 2018 South Korean TV showDifferent Dreams, 2019 South Korean TV showThe Battle: Roar to Victory, 2019 South Korean filmA Resistance, 2019 South Korean film== See also ==Japan–Korea disputesTaiwan under Japanese ruleHistory of Korea== References == This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website Further reading ==Brudnoy, David. "Japan's experiment in Korea." Monumenta Nipponica 25.1/2 (1970): 155–195. onlineEckert, Carter J. (1996), Offspring of Empire: The Koch'ang Kims and the Colonial Origins of Korean Capitalism, 1876–1945, Korean Studies of the Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies (Paperback ed.), Seattle: University of Washington Press, ISBN 978-0-295-97533-7, archived from the original on 30 July 2013Ireland, Alleyne (1926). The New Korea.Hildi, Kang (2001), Under the Black Umbrella: Voices from Colonial Korea, 1910–1945, Cornell University Press, ISBN 978-0-8014-7270-1McKenzie, F.A. (1920). Korea's Fight for Freedom. New York, Chicago [etc.] Fleming H. Revell company.Stucke, Walter (2011). The Direct and Indirect Contributions of Western Missionaries to Korean Nationalism During the Late Choson and Early Japanese Annexation Periods, 1884–1920.Uchida, Jun (2011). Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876–1945. Harvard East Asian Monographs. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-06253-5.Committee Against Government Apologies to Korea (30 July 2010), A New Look at the Annexation of Korea (PDF), Society the Dissemination of Historical Fact== External links ==Isabella Lucy Bird (1898), Korea and Her Neighbours: A Narrative of Travel, with an Account of the Recent Vicissitudes and Present Position of the CountryHorace Newton Allen (1908), Things Korean: A Collection of Sketches and Anecdotes, Missionary and DiplomaticToshiyuki Mizoguchi, "Consumer Prices and Real Wages in Taiwan and Korea under Japanese Rule" Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, 13(1): 40–56Toshiyuki Mizoguchi, "Economic Growth of Korea under the Japanese Occupation – Background of Industrialization of Korea 1911–1940" Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, 20(1): 1–19Toshiyuki Mizoguchi, "Foreign Trade in Taiwan and Korea under Japanese Rule" Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, 14(2): 37–53Kim, Young-Koo, The Validity of Some Coerced Treaties in the Early 20th Century: A Reconsideration of the Japanese Annexation of Korea in Legal PerspectiveMatsuki Kunitoshi, "Japan's Annexation of Korea" Society the Dissemination of Historical FactWalter Stucke (2011), The Direct and Indirect Contributions of Western Missionaries to Korean Nationalism During the Late Choson and Early Japanese Annexation Periods, 1884–1920"

[ "World War II"]

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"Which genus of moth in the world's seventh-largest country contains only one species? India is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world.In 2019, the Indian economy was the world's fifth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country.For further information on the types of business entities in this country and their abbreviations, see "Business entities in India".== Largest firms ==This list shows firms in the Fortune Global 500, which ranks firms by total revenues reported before 31 March 2020. Only the top ranking firms (if available) are included as a sample.== Notable firms ==This list includes notable companies with primary headquarters located in the country. The industry and sector follow the Industry Classification Benchmark taxonomy. Organizations which have ceased operations are included and noted as defunct.== See also ==Brand IndiaDigital IndiaIndia Inc.Look East policyMake in References == India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar and Indonesia.Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago.Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity. Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE.By 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, unfolding as the language of the Rigveda, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India. The Dravidian languages of India were supplanted in the northern and western regions.By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had emerged within Hinduism,and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, proclaiming social orders unlinked to heredity.Early political consolidations gave rise to the loose-knit Maurya and Gupta Empires based in the Ganges Basin.Their collective era was suffused with wide-ranging creativity, but also marked by the declining status of women, and the incorporation of untouchability into an organised system of belief. In South India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of Southeast Asia.In the early medieval era, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism put down roots on India's southern and western coasts.Muslim armies from Central Asia intermittently overran India's northern plains,eventually establishing the Delhi Sultanate, and drawing northern India into the cosmopolitan networks of medieval Islam.In the 15th century, the Vijayanagara Empire created a long-lasting composite Hindu culture in south India.In the Punjab, Sikhism emerged, rejecting institutionalised religion.The Mughal Empire, in 1526, ushered in two centuries of relative peace,leaving a legacy of luminous architecture.Gradually expanding rule of the British East India Company followed, turning India into a colonial economy, but also consolidating its sovereignty. British Crown rule began in 1858. The rights promised to Indians were granted slowly, but technological changes were introduced, and ideas of education, modernity and the public life took root.A pioneering and influential nationalist movement emerged, which was noted for nonviolent resistance and became the major factor in ending British rule. In 1947 the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two independent dominions, a Hindu-majority Dominion of India and a Muslim-majority Dominion of Pakistan, amid large-scale loss of life and an unprecedented migration.India has been a federal republic since 1950, governed in a democratic parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society. India's population grew from 361 million in 1951 to 1.211 billion in 2011.During the same time, its nominal per capita income increased from US$64 annually to US$1,498, and its literacy rate from 16.6% to 74%. From being a comparatively destitute country in 1951,India has become a fast-growing major economy and a hub for information technology services, with an expanding middle class. It has a space programme which includes several planned or completed extraterrestrial missions. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.India has substantially reduced its rate of poverty, though at the cost of increasing economic inequality.India is a nuclear-weapon state, which ranks high in military expenditure. It has disputes over Kashmir with its neighbours, Pakistan and China, unresolved since the mid-20th century.Among the socio-economic challenges India faces are gender inequality, child malnutrition,and rising levels of air pollution.India's land is megadiverse, with four biodiversity hotspots. Its forest cover comprises 21.7% of its area. India's wildlife, which has traditionally been viewed with tolerance in India's culture, is supported among these forests, and elsewhere, in protected habitats.== Etymology ==According to the Oxford English Dictionary (third edition 2009), the name "India" is derived from the Classical Latin India, a reference to South Asia and an uncertain region to its east; and in turn derived successively from: Hellenistic Greek India ( Ἰνδία); ancient Greek Indos ( Ἰνδός); Old Persian Hindush, an eastern province of the Achaemenid empire; and ultimately its cognate, the Sanskrit Sindhu, or "river," specifically the Indus River and, by implication, its well-settled southern basin. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ἰνδοί), which translates as "The people of the Indus".The term Bharat (Bhārat; pronounced [ˈbʱaːɾət] (listen)), mentioned in both Indian epic poetry and the Constitution of India, is used in its variations by many Indian languages. A modern rendering of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which applied originally to northern India, Bharat gained increased currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India.Hindustan ([ɦɪndʊˈstaːn] (listen)) is a Middle Persian name for India, introduced during the Mughal Empire and used widely since. Its meaning has varied, referring to a region encompassing present-day northern India and Pakistan or to India in its near entirety.== History ===== Ancient India ===By 55,000 years ago, the first modern humans, or Homo sapiens, had arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa, where they had earlier evolved. The earliest known modern human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, and storage of agricultural surplus appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan, Pakistan. These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilisation engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade.During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones. The Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, and historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain. Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests, warriors, and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labelling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions.In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas. The emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of its exemplar, Mahavira. Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle class; chronicling the life of the Buddha was central to the beginnings of recorded history in India. In an age of increasing urban wealth, both religions held up renunciation as an ideal, and both established long-lasting monastic traditions. Politically, by the 3rd century BCE, the kingdom of Magadha had annexed or reduced other states to emerge as the Mauryan Empire. The empire was once thought to have controlled most of the subcontinent except the far south, but its core regions are now thought to have been separated by large autonomous areas. The Mauryan kings are known as much for their empire-building and determined management of public life as for Ashoka's renunciation of militarism and far-flung advocacy of the Buddhist dhamma.The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that, between 200 BCE and 200 CE, the southern peninsula was ruled by the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas, dynasties that traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and South-East Asia. In North India, Hinduism asserted patriarchal control within the family, leading to increased subordination of women. By the 4th and 5th centuries, the Gupta Empire had created a complex system of administration and taxation in the greater Ganges Plain; this system became a model for later Indian kingdoms. Under the Guptas, a renewed Hinduism based on devotion, rather than the management of ritual, began to assert itself. This renewal was reflected in a flowering of sculpture and architecture, which found patrons among an urban elite. Classical Sanskrit literature flowered as well, and Indian science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made significant advances.=== Medieval India ===The Indian early medieval age, from 600 to 1200 CE, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity. When Harsha of Kannauj, who ruled much of the Indo-Gangetic Plain from 606 to 647 CE, attempted to expand southwards, he was defeated by the Chalukya ruler of the Deccan. When his successor attempted to expand eastwards, he was defeated by the Pala king of Bengal. When the Chalukyas attempted to expand southwards, they were defeated by the Pallavas from farther south, who in turn were opposed by the Pandyas and the Cholas from still farther south. No ruler of this period was able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond their core region. During this time, pastoral peoples, whose land had been cleared to make way for the growing agricultural economy, were accommodated within caste society, as were new non-traditional ruling classes. The caste system consequently began to show regional differences.In the 6th and 7th centuries, the first devotional hymns were created in the Tamil language. They were imitated all over India and led to both the resurgence of Hinduism and the development of all modern languages of the subcontinent. Indian royalty, big and small, and the temples they patronised drew citizens in great numbers to the capital cities, which became economic hubs as well. Temple towns of various sizes began to appear everywhere as India underwent another urbanisation. By the 8th and 9th centuries, the effects were felt in South-East Asia, as South Indian culture and political systems were exported to lands that became part of modern-day Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, and Java. Indian merchants, scholars, and sometimes armies were involved in this transmission; South-East Asians took the initiative as well, with many sojourning in Indian seminaries and translating Buddhist and Hindu texts into their languages.After the 10th century, Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans, using swift-horse cavalry and raising vast armies united by ethnicity and religion, repeatedly overran South Asia's north-western plains, leading eventually to the establishment of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate in 1206. The sultanate was to control much of North India and to make many forays into South India. Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs. By repeatedly repulsing Mongol raiders in the 13th century, the sultanate saved India from the devastation visited on West and Central Asia, setting the scene for centuries of migration of fleeing soldiers, learned men, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from that region into the subcontinent, thereby creating a syncretic Indo-Islamic culture in the north. The sultanate's raiding and weakening of the regional kingdoms of South India paved the way for the indigenous Vijayanagara Empire. Embracing a strong Shaivite tradition and building upon the military technology of the sultanate, the empire came to control much of peninsular India, and was to influence South Indian society for long afterwards.=== Early modern India ===In the early 16th century, northern India, then under mainly Muslim rulers, fell again to the superior mobility and firepower of a new generation of Central Asian warriors. The resulting Mughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule. Instead, it balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity, especially under Akbar, the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near-divine status. The Mughal state's economic policies, deriving most revenues from agriculture and mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency, caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets. The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion, resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture. Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. Expanding commerce during Mughal rule gave rise to new Indian commercial and political elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India. As the empire disintegrated, many among these elites were able to seek and control their own affairs.By the early 18th century, with the lines between commercial and political dominance being increasingly blurred, a number of European trading companies, including the English East India Company, had established coastal outposts. The East India Company's control of the seas, greater resources, and more advanced military training and technology led it to increasingly assert its military strength and caused it to become attractive to a portion of the Indian elite; these factors were crucial in allowing the company to gain control over the Bengal region by 1765 and sideline the other European companies. Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annexe or subdue most of India by the 1820s. India was then no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had, but was instead supplying the British Empire with raw materials. Many historians consider this to be the onset of India's colonial period. By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and having effectively been made an arm of British administration, the company began more consciously to enter non-economic arenas like education, social reform, and culture.=== Modern India ===Historians consider India's modern age to have begun sometime between 1848 and 1885. The appointment in 1848 of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company set the stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. Technological changes—among them, railways, canals, and the telegraph—were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe. However, disaffection with the company also grew during this time and set off the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule. Although the rebellion was suppressed by 1858, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company and the direct administration of India by the British government. Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest. In the decades following, public life gradually emerged all over India, leading eventually to the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885.The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks and many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets. There was an increase in the number of large-scale famines, and, despite the risks of infrastructure development borne by Indian taxpayers, little industrial employment was generated for Indians. There were also salutary effects: commercial cropping, especially in the newly canalled Punjab, led to increased food production for internal consumption. The railway network provided critical famine relief, notably reduced the cost of moving goods, and helped nascent Indian-owned industry.After World War I, in which approximately one million Indians served, a new period began. It was marked by British reforms but also repressive legislation, by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a nonviolent movement of non-co-operation, of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol. During the 1930s, slow legislative reform was enacted by the British; the Indian National Congress won victories in the resulting elections. The next decade was beset with crises: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress's final push for non-co-operation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism. All were capped by the advent of independence in 1947, but tempered by the partition of India into two states: India and Pakistan.Vital to India's self-image as an independent nation was its constitution, completed in 1950, which put in place a secular and democratic republic. It has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an active Supreme Court, and a largely independent press. Economic liberalisation, which began in the 1990s, has created a large urban middle class, transformed India into one of the world's fastest-growing economies, and increased its geopolitical clout. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture. Yet, India is also shaped by seemingly unyielding poverty, both rural and urban; by religious and caste-related violence; by Maoist-inspired Naxalite insurgencies; and by separatism in Jammu and Kashmir and in Northeast India. It has unresolved territorial disputes with China and with Pakistan. India's sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world's newer nations; however, in spite of its recent economic successes, freedom from want for its disadvantaged population remains a goal yet to be achieved.== Geography ==India accounts for the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying atop the Indian tectonic plate, a part of the Indo-Australian Plate. India's defining geological processes began 75 million years ago when the Indian Plate, then part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, began a north-eastward drift caused by seafloor spreading to its south-west, and later, south and south-east. Simultaneously, the vast Tethyan oceanic crust, to its northeast, began to subduct under the Eurasian Plate. These dual processes, driven by convection in the Earth's mantle, both created the Indian Ocean and caused the Indian continental crust eventually to under-thrust Eurasia and to uplift the Himalayas. Immediately south of the emerging Himalayas, plate movement created a vast trough that rapidly filled with river-borne sediment and now constitutes the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Cut off from the plain by the ancient Aravalli Range lies the Thar Desert.The original Indian Plate survives as peninsular India, the oldest and geologically most stable part of India. It extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India. These parallel chains run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east. To the south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the Deccan Plateau, is flanked on the west and east by coastal ranges known as the Western and Eastern Ghats; the plateau contains the country's oldest rock formations, some over one billion years old. Constituted in such fashion, India lies to the north of the equator between 6° 44′ and 35° 30′ north latitude and 68° 7′ and 97° 25′ east longitude.India's coastline measures 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi) in length; of this distance, 5,423 kilometres (3,400 mi) belong to peninsular India and 2,094 kilometres (1,300 mi) to the Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep island chains. According to the Indian naval hydrographic charts, the mainland coastline consists of the following: 43% sandy beaches; 11% rocky shores, including cliffs; and 46% mudflats or marshy shores.Major Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal. Important tributaries of the Ganges include the Yamuna and the Kosi; the latter's extremely low gradient, caused by long-term silt deposition, leads to severe floods and course changes. Major peninsular rivers, whose steeper gradients prevent their waters from flooding, include the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Kaveri, and the Krishna, which also drain into the Bay of Bengal; and the Narmada and the Tapti, which drain into the Arabian Sea. Coastal features include the marshy Rann of Kutch of western India and the alluvial Sundarbans delta of eastern India; the latter is shared with Bangladesh. India has two archipelagos: the Lakshadweep, coral atolls off India's south-western coast; and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a volcanic chain in the Andaman Sea.The Indian climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the economically and culturally pivotal summer and winter monsoons. The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian katabatic winds from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes. The Thar Desert plays a crucial role in attracting the moisture-laden south-west summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India's rainfall. Four major climatic groupings predominate in India: tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montane.Temperatures in India have risen by 0.7 °C (1.3 °F) between 1901 and 2018. Climate change in India is often thought to be the cause. The retreat of Himalayan glaciers has adversely affected the flow rate of the major Himalayan rivers, including the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. According to some current projections, the number and severity of droughts in India will have markedly increased by the end of the present century.== Biodiversity ==India is a megadiverse country, a term employed for 17 countries which display high biological diversity and contain many species exclusively indigenous, or endemic, to them. India is a habitat for 8.6% of all mammal species, 13.7% of bird species, 7.9% of reptile species, 6% of amphibian species, 12.2% of fish species, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species. Fully a third of Indian plant species are endemic. India also contains four of the world's 34 biodiversity hotspots, or regions that display significant habitat loss in the presence of high endemism.India's forest cover is 99,278 km2 (38,331 sq mi), which is 21.67% of the country's total land area. It can be subdivided further into broad categories of canopy density, or the proportion of the area of a forest covered by its tree canopy. Very dense forest, whose canopy density is greater than 70%, occupies 3.02% of India's land area. It predominates in the tropical moist forest of the Andaman Islands, the Western Ghats, and Northeast India. Moderately dense forest, whose canopy density is between 40% and 70%, occupies 9.39% of India's land area. It predominates in the temperate coniferous forest of the Himalayas, the moist deciduous sal forest of eastern India, and the dry deciduous teak forest of central and southern India. Open forest, whose canopy density is between 10% and 40%, occupies 9.26% of India's land area, and predominates in the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan Plateau and the western Gangetic plain.Among the Indian subcontinent's notable indigenous trees are the astringent Azadirachta indica, or neem, which is widely used in rural Indian herbal medicine, and the luxuriant Ficus religiosa, or peepul, which is displayed on the ancient seals of Mohenjo-daro, and under which the Buddha is recorded in the Pali canon to have sought enlightenment.Many Indian species have descended from those of Gondwana, the southern supercontinent from which India separated more than 100 million years ago. India's subsequent collision with Eurasia set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes later caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms. Still later, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes flanking the Himalayas. This had the effect of lowering endemism among India's mammals, which stands at 12.6%, contrasting with 45.8% among reptiles and 55.8% among amphibians. Notable endemics are the vulnerable hooded leaf monkey and the threatened Beddom's toad of the Western Ghats.India contains 172 IUCN-designated threatened animal species, or 2.9% of endangered forms. These include the endangered Bengal tiger and the Ganges river dolphin. Critically endangered species include: the gharial, a crocodilian; the great Indian bustard; and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which has become nearly extinct by having ingested the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle. The pervasive and ecologically devastating human encroachment of recent decades has critically endangered Indian wildlife. In response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was expanded substantially. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial wilderness; the Forest Conservation Act was enacted in 1980 and amendments added in 1988. India hosts more than five hundred wildlife sanctuaries and thirteen biosphere reserves, four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; twenty-five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.== Politics and government ===== Politics ===India is the world's most populous democracy. A parliamentary republic with a multi-party system, it has eight recognised national parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and more than 40 regional parties. The Congress is considered centre-left in Indian political culture, and the BJP right-wing. For most of the period between 1950—when India first became a republic—and the late 1980s, the Congress held a majority in the parliament. Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP, as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the creation of multi-party coalition governments at the centre.In the Republic of India's first three general elections, in 1951, 1957, and 1962, the Jawaharlal Nehru-led Congress won easy victories. On Nehru's death in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri briefly became prime minister; he was succeeded, after his own unexpected death in 1966, by Nehru's daughter Indira Gandhi, who went on to lead the Congress to election victories in 1967 and 1971. Following public discontent with the state of emergency she declared in 1975, the Congress was voted out of power in 1977; the then-new Janata Party, which had opposed the emergency, was voted in. Its government lasted just over two years. Voted back into power in 1980, the Congress saw a change in leadership in 1984, when Indira Gandhi was assassinated; she was succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi, who won an easy victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in 1989 when a National Front coalition, led by the newly formed Janata Dal in alliance with the Left Front, won the elections; that government too proved relatively short-lived, lasting just under two years. Elections were held again in 1991; no party won an absolute majority. The Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a minority government led by P. V. Narasimha Rao.A two-year period of political turmoil followed the general election of 1996. Several short-lived alliances shared power at the centre. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996; it was followed by two comparatively long-lasting United Front coalitions, which depended on external support. In 1998, the BJP was able to form a successful coalition, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the NDA became the first non-Congress, coalition government to complete a five-year term. Again in the 2004 Indian general elections, no party won an absolute majority, but the Congress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful coalition: the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). It had the support of left-leaning parties and MPs who opposed the BJP. The UPA returned to power in the 2009 general election with increased numbers, and it no longer required external support from India's communist parties. That year, Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1957 and 1962 to be re-elected to a consecutive five-year term. In the 2014 general election, the BJP became the first political party since 1984 to win a majority and govern without the support of other parties. The incumbent prime minister is Narendra Modi, a former chief minister of Gujarat. On 20 July 2017, Ram Nath Kovind was elected India's 14th president and took the oath of office on 25 July 2017.=== Government ===India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India—the country's supreme legal document. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy, in which "majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law". Federalism in India defines the power distribution between the union and the states. The Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1950, originally stated India to be a "sovereign, democratic republic;" this characterisation was amended in 1971 to "a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic". India's form of government, traditionally described as "quasi-federal" with a strong centre and weak states, has grown increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of political, economic, and social changes.The Government of India comprises three branches:Executive: The President of India is the ceremonial head of state, who is elected indirectly for a five-year term by an electoral college comprising members of national and state legislatures. The Prime Minister of India is the head of government and exercises most executive power. Appointed by the president, the prime minister is by convention supported by the party or political alliance having a majority of seats in the lower house of parliament. The executive of the Indian government consists of the president, the vice president, and the Union Council of Ministers—with the cabinet being its executive committee—headed by the prime minister. Any minister holding a portfolio must be a member of one of the houses of parliament. In the Indian parliamentary system, the executive is subordinate to the legislature; the prime minister and their council are directly responsible to the lower house of the parliament. Civil servants act as permanent executives and all decisions of the executive are implemented by them.Legislature: The legislature of India is the bicameral parliament. Operating under a Westminster-style parliamentary system, it comprises an upper house called the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and a lower house called the Lok Sabha (House of the People). The Rajya Sabha is a permanent body of 245 members who serve staggered six-year terms. Most are elected indirectly by the state and union territorial legislatures in numbers proportional to their state's share of the national population. All but two of the Lok Sabha's 545 members are elected directly by popular vote; they represent single-member constituencies for five-year terms. Two seats of parliament, reserved for Anglo-Indian in the article 331, have been scrapped.Judiciary: India has a three-tier unitary independent judiciary comprising the supreme court, headed by the Chief Justice of India, 25 high courts, and a large number of trial courts. The supreme court has original jurisdiction over cases involving fundamental rights and over disputes between states and the centre and has appellate jurisdiction over the high courts. It has the power to both strike down union or state laws which contravene the constitution, and invalidate any government action it deems unconstitutional.=== Administrative divisions ===India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories (listed below as 1–28 and A–H, respectively). All states, as well as the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments following the Westminster system of governance. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the central government through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis. There are over a quarter of a million local government bodies at city, town, block, district and village levels.== Foreign, economic and strategic relations ==In the 1950s, India strongly supported decolonisation in Africa and Asia and played a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement. After initially cordial relations with neighbouring China, India went to war with China in 1962, and was widely thought to have been humiliated. India has had tense relations with neighbouring Pakistan; the two nations have gone to war four times: in 1947, 1965, 1971, and 1999. Three of these wars were fought over the disputed territory of Kashmir, while the fourth, the 1971 war, followed from India's support for the independence of Bangladesh. In the late 1980s, the Indian military twice intervened abroad at the invitation of the host country: a peace-keeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990; and an armed intervention to prevent a 1988 coup d'état attempt in the Maldives. After the 1965 war with Pakistan, India began to pursue close military and economic ties with the Soviet Union; by the late 1960s, the Soviet Union was its largest arms supplier.Aside from ongoing its special relationship with Russia, India has wide-ranging defence relations with Israel and France. In recent years, it has played key roles in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the World Trade Organization. The nation has provided 100,000 military and police personnel to serve in 35 UN peacekeeping operations across four continents. It participates in the East Asia Summit, the G8+5, and other multilateral forums. India has close economic ties with countries in South America, Asia, and Africa; it pursues a "Look East" policy that seeks to strengthen partnerships with the ASEAN nations, Japan, and South Korea that revolve around many issues, but especially those involving economic investment and regional security.China's nuclear test of 1964, as well as its repeated threats to intervene in support of Pakistan in the 1965 war, convinced India to develop nuclear weapons. India conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1974 and carried out additional underground testing in 1998. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has signed neither the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty nor the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, considering both to be flawed and discriminatory. India maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy and is developing a nuclear triad capability as a part of its "Minimum Credible Deterrence" doctrine. It is developing a ballistic missile defence shield and, a fifth-generation fighter jet. Other indigenous military projects involve the design and implementation of Vikrant-class aircraft carriers and Arihant-class nuclear submarines.Since the end of the Cold War, India has increased its economic, strategic, and military co-operation with the United States and the European Union. In 2008, a civilian nuclear agreement was signed between India and the United States. Although India possessed nuclear weapons at the time and was not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, it received waivers from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Suppliers Group, ending earlier restrictions on India's nuclear technology and commerce. As a consequence, India became the sixth de facto nuclear weapons state. India subsequently signed co-operation agreements involving civilian nuclear energy with Russia, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada.The President of India is the supreme commander of the nation's armed forces; with 1.45 million active troops, they compose the world's second-largest military. It comprises the Indian Army, the Indian Navy, the Indian Air Force, and the Indian Coast Guard. The official Indian defence budget for 2011 was US$36.03 billion, or 1.83% of GDP. For the fiscal year spanning 2012–2013, US$40.44 billion was budgeted. According to a 2008 Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) report, India's annual military expenditure in terms of purchasing power stood at US$72.7 billion. In 2011, the annual defence budget increased by 11.6%, although this does not include funds that reach the military through other branches of government. As of 2012, India is the world's largest arms importer; between 2007 and 2011, it accounted for 10% of funds spent on international arms purchases. Much of the military expenditure was focused on defence against Pakistan and countering growing Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean. In May 2017, the Indian Space Research Organisation launched the South Asia Satellite, a gift from India to its neighbouring SAARC countries. In October 2018, India signed a US$5.43 billion (over ₹400 billion) agreement with Russia to procure four S-400 Triumf surface-to-air missile defence systems, Russia's most advanced long-range missile defence system.== Economy ==According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Indian economy in 2020 was nominally worth $2.7 trillion; it is the sixth-largest economy by market exchange rates, and is around $8.9 trillion, the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). With its average annual GDP growth rate of 5.8% over the past two decades, and reaching 6.1% during 2011–2012, India is one of the world's fastest-growing economies. However, the country ranks 139th in the world in nominal GDP per capita and 118th in GDP per capita at PPP. Until 1991, all Indian governments followed protectionist policies that were influenced by socialist economics. Widespread state intervention and regulation largely walled the economy off from the outside world. An acute balance of payments crisis in 1991 forced the nation to liberalise its economy; since then it has moved slowly towards a free-market system by emphasising both foreign trade and direct investment inflows. India has been a member of WTO since 1 January 1995.The 522-million-worker Indian labour force is the world's second-largest, as of 2017. The service sector makes up 55.6% of GDP, the industrial sector 26.3% and the agricultural sector 18.1%. India's foreign exchange remittances of US$70 billion in 2014, the largest in the world, were contributed to its economy by 25 million Indians working in foreign countries. Major agricultural products include: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes. Major industries include: textiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, and software. In 2006, the share of external trade in India's GDP stood at 24%, up from 6% in 1985. In 2008, India's share of world trade was 1.68%; In 2011, India was the world's tenth-largest importer and the nineteenth-largest exporter. Major exports include: petroleum products, textile goods, jewellery, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and manufactured leather goods. Major imports include: crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals. Between 2001 and 2011, the contribution of petrochemical and engineering goods to total exports grew from 14% to 42%. India was the world's second largest textile exporter after China in the 2013 calendar year.Averaging an economic growth rate of 7.5% for several years prior to 2007, India has more than doubled its hourly wage rates during the first decade of the 21st century. Some 431 million Indians have left poverty since 1985; India's middle classes are projected to number around 580 million by 2030. Though ranking 51st in global competitiveness, as of 2010, India ranks 17th in financial market sophistication, 24th in the banking sector, 44th in business sophistication, and 39th in innovation, ahead of several advanced economies. With seven of the world's top 15 information technology outsourcing companies based in India, as of 2009, the country is viewed as the second-most favourable outsourcing destination after the United States. India was ranked 48th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, it has increased its ranking considerably since 2015, where it was 81st. India's consumer market, the world's eleventh-largest, is expected to become fifth-largest by 2030.Driven by growth, India's nominal GDP per capita increased steadily from US$329 in 1991, when economic liberalisation began, to US$1,265 in 2010, to an estimated US$1,723 in 2016. It is expected to grow to US$2,191 by 2021. However, it has remained lower than those of other Asian developing countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and is expected to remain so in the near future.According to a 2011 PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) report, India's GDP at purchasing power parity could overtake that of the United States by 2045. During the next four decades, Indian GDP is expected to grow at an annualised average of 8%, making it potentially the world's fastest-growing major economy until 2050. The report highlights key growth factors: a young and rapidly growing working-age population; growth in the manufacturing sector because of rising education and engineering skill levels; and sustained growth of the consumer market driven by a rapidly growing middle-class. The World Bank cautions that, for India to achieve its economic potential, it must continue to focus on public sector reform, transport infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal of labour regulations, education, energy security, and public health and nutrition.According to the Worldwide Cost of Living Report 2017 released by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) which was created by comparing more than 400 individual prices across 160 products and services, four of the cheapest cities were in India: Bangalore (3rd), Mumbai (5th), Chennai (5th) and New Delhi (8th).=== Industries ===India's telecommunication industry is the second-largest in the world with over 1.2 billion subscribers. It contributes 6.5% to India's GDP. After the third quarter of 2017, India surpassed the US to become the second largest smartphone market in the world after China.The Indian automotive industry, the world's second-fastest growing, increased domestic sales by 26% during 2009–2010, and exports by 36% during 2008–2009. At the end of 2011, the Indian IT industry employed 2.8 million professionals, generated revenues close to US$100 billion equalling 7.5% of Indian GDP, and contributed 26% of India's merchandise exports.The pharmaceutical industry in India emerged as a global player. As of 2021, with 3000 pharmaceutical companies and 10,500 manufacturing units India is the world 3rd largest pharmaceutical producer, largest producer of generic medicines and supply upto 50%—60% of global vaccines demand, these all contribute upto US$24.44 billions in exports and Indias local pharmacutical market is estimated upto US$42 billion. India is among the top 12 biotech destinations in the world. The Indian biotech industry grew by 15.1% in 2012–2013, increasing its revenues from ₹204.4 billion (Indian rupees) to ₹235.24 billion (US$3.94 billion at June 2013 exchange rates).=== Energy ===India's capacity to generate electrical power is 300 gigawatts, of which 42 gigawatts is renewable. The country's usage of coal is a major cause of greenhouse gas emissions by India but its renewable energy is competing strongly. India emits about 7% of global greenhouse gas emissions. This equates to about 2.5 tons of carbon dioxide per person per year, which is half the world average. Increasing access to electricity and clean cooking with liquefied petroleum gas have been priorities for energy in India.=== Socio-economic challenges ===Despite economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face socio-economic challenges. In 2006, India contained the largest number of people living below the World Bank's international poverty line of US$1.25 per day. The proportion decreased from 60% in 1981 to 42% in 2005. Under the World Bank's later revised poverty line, it was 21% in 2011. 30.7% of India's children under the age of five are underweight. According to a Food and Agriculture Organization report in 2015, 15% of the population is undernourished. The Mid-Day Meal Scheme attempts to lower these rates.According to a 2016 Walk Free Foundation report there were an estimated 18.3 million people in India, or 1.4% of the population, living in the forms of modern slavery, such as bonded labour, child labour, human trafficking, and forced begging, among others. According to the 2011 census, there were 10.1 million child labourers in the country, a decline of 2.6 million from 12.6 million in 2001.Since 1991, economic inequality between India's states has consistently grown: the per-capita net state domestic product of the richest states in 2007 was 3.2 times that of the poorest. Corruption in India is perceived to have decreased. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, India ranked 78th out of 180 countries in 2018 with a score of 41 out of 100, an improvement from 85th in 2014.== Demographics, languages, and religion ==With 1,210,193,422 residents reported in the 2011 provisional census report, India is the world's second-most populous country. Its population grew by 17.64% from 2001 to 2011, compared to 21.54% growth in the previous decade (1991–2001). The human sex ratio, according to the 2011 census, is 940 females per 1,000 males. The median age was 28.7 as of 2020. The first post-colonial census, conducted in 1951, counted 361 million people. Medical advances made in the last 50 years as well as increased agricultural productivity brought about by the "Green Revolution" have caused India's population to grow rapidly.The average life expectancy in India is at 68 years—69.6 years for women, 67.3 years for men. There are around 50 physicians per 100,000 Indians. Migration from rural to urban areas has been an important dynamic in India's recent history. The number of people living in urban areas grew by 31.2% between 1991 and 2001. Yet, in 2001, over 70% still lived in rural areas. The level of urbanisation increased further from 27.81% in the 2001 Census to 31.16% in the 2011 Census. The slowing down of the overall population growth rate was due to the sharp decline in the growth rate in rural areas since 1991. According to the 2011 census, there are 53 million-plus urban agglomerations in India; among them Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad, in decreasing order by population. The literacy rate in 2011 was 74.04%: 65.46% among females and 82.14% among males. The rural-urban literacy gap, which was 21.2 percentage points in 2001, dropped to 16.1 percentage points in 2011. The improvement in the rural literacy rate is twice that of urban areas. Kerala is the most literate state with 93.91% literacy; while Bihar the least with 63.82%.India is home to two major language families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by 24% of the population). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan language families. India has no national language. Hindi, with the largest number of speakers, is the official language of the government. English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a "subsidiary official language"; it is important in education, especially as a medium of higher education. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular 22 "scheduled languages".The 2011 census reported the religion in India with the largest number of followers was Hinduism (79.80% of the population), followed by Islam (14.23%); the remaining were Christianity (2.30%), Sikhism (1.72%), Buddhism (0.70%), Jainism (0.36%) and others (0.9%). India has the third-largest Muslim population—the largest for a non-Muslim majority country.== Culture ==Indian cultural history spans more than 4,500 years. During the Vedic period (c. 1700 BCE – c. 500 BCE), the foundations of Hindu philosophy, mythology, theology and literature were laid, and many beliefs and practices which still exist today, such as dhárma, kárma, yóga, and mokṣa, were established. India is notable for its religious diversity, with Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity, and Jainism among the nation's major religions. The predominant religion, Hinduism, has been shaped by various historical schools of thought, including those of the Upanishads, the Yoga Sutras, the Bhakti movement, and by Buddhist philosophy.=== Visual art ===South Asia has an ancient tradition of art, which has exchanged influences with the parts of Eurasia. Seals from the third millennium BCE Indus Valley Civilization of Pakistan and northern India have been found, usually carved with animals, but a few with human figures. The "Pashupati" seal, excavated in Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, in 1928–29, is the best known. After this there is a long period with virtually nothing surviving. Almost all surviving ancient Indian art thereafter is in various forms of religious sculpture in durable materials, or coins. There was probably originally far more in wood, which is lost. In north India Mauryan art is the first imperial movement. In the first millennium CE, Buddhist art spread with Indian religions to Central, East and South-East Asia, the last also greatly influenced by Hindu art. Over the following centuries a distinctly Indian style of sculpting the human figure developed, with less interest in articulating precise anatomy than ancient Greek sculpture but showing smoothly-flowing forms expressing prana ("breath" or life-force). This is often complicated by the need to give figures multiple arms or heads, or represent different genders on the left and right of figures, as with the Ardhanarishvara form of Shiva and Parvati.Most of the earliest large sculpture is Buddhist, either excavated from Buddhist stupas such as Sanchi, Sarnath and Amaravati, or is rock-cut reliefs at sites such as Ajanta, Karla and Ellora. Hindu and Jain sites appear rather later. In spite of this complex mixture of religious traditions, generally, the prevailing artistic style at any time and place has been shared by the major religious groups, and sculptors probably usually served all communities. Gupta art, at its peak c. 300 CE – c. 500 CE, is often regarded as a classical period whose influence lingered for many centuries after; it saw a new dominance of Hindu sculpture, as at the Elephanta Caves. Across the north, this became rather stiff and formulaic after c. 800 CE, though rich with finely carved detail in the surrounds of statues. But in the South, under the Pallava and Chola dynasties, sculpture in both stone and bronze had a sustained period of great achievement; the large bronzes with Shiva as Nataraja have become an iconic symbol of India.Ancient painting has only survived at a few sites, of which the crowded scenes of court life in the Ajanta Caves are by far the most important, but it was evidently highly developed, and is mentioned as a courtly accomplishment in Gupta times. Painted manuscripts of religious texts survive from Eastern India about the 10th century onwards, most of the earliest being Buddhist and later Jain. No doubt the style of these was used in larger paintings. The Persian-derived Deccan painting, starting just before the Mughal miniature, between them give the first large body of secular painting, with an emphasis on portraits, and the recording of princely pleasures and wars. The style spread to Hindu courts, especially among the Rajputs, and developed a variety of styles, with the smaller courts often the most innovative, with figures such as Nihâl Chand and Nainsukh. As a market developed among European residents, it was supplied by Company painting by Indian artists with considerable Western influence. In the 19th century, cheap Kalighat paintings of gods and everyday life, done on paper, were urban folk art from Calcutta, which later saw the Bengal School of Art, reflecting the art colleges founded by the British, the first movement in modern Indian painting.=== Architecture and literature ===Much of Indian architecture, including the Taj Mahal, other works of Mughal architecture, and South Indian architecture, blends ancient local traditions with imported styles. Vernacular architecture is also regional in its flavours. Vastu shastra, literally "science of construction" or "architecture" and ascribed to Mamuni Mayan, explores how the laws of nature affect human dwellings; it employs precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect perceived cosmic constructs. As applied in Hindu temple architecture, it is influenced by the Shilpa Shastras, a series of foundational texts whose basic mythological form is the Vastu-Purusha mandala, a square that embodied the "absolute". The Taj Mahal, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by orders of Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, has been described in the UNESCO World Heritage List as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage". Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, developed by the British in the late 19th century, drew on Indo-Islamic architecture.The earliest literature in India, composed between 1500 BCE and 1200 CE, was in the Sanskrit language. Major works of Sanskrit literature include the Rigveda (c. 1500 BCE – c. 1200 BCE), the epics: Mahābhārata ( c. 400 BCE – c. 400 CE) and the Ramayana ( c. 300 BCE and later); Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Śakuntalā, and other dramas of Kālidāsa ( c. 5th century CE) and Mahākāvya poetry. In Tamil literature, the Sangam literature ( c. 600 BCE – c. 300 BCE) consisting of 2,381 poems, composed by 473 poets, is the earliest work. From the 14th to the 18th centuries, India's literary traditions went through a period of drastic change because of the emergence of devotional poets like Kabīr, Tulsīdās, and Guru Nānak. This period was characterised by a varied and wide spectrum of thought and expression; as a consequence, medieval Indian literary works differed significantly from classical traditions. In the 19th century, Indian writers took a new interest in social questions and psychological descriptions. In the 20th century, Indian literature was influenced by the works of the Bengali poet, author and philosopher Rabindranath Tagore, who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature.=== Performing arts and media ===Indian music ranges over various traditions and regional styles. Classical music encompasses two genres and their various folk offshoots: the northern Hindustani and southern Carnatic schools. Regionalised popular forms include filmi and folk music; the syncretic tradition of the bauls is a well-known form of the latter. Indian dance also features diverse folk and classical forms. Among the better-known folk dances are: the bhangra of Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the Jhumair and chhau of Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal, garba and dandiya of Gujarat, ghoomar of Rajasthan, and the lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniyattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of Odisha, and the sattriya of Assam.Theatre in India melds music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue. Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances or social and political events, Indian theatre includes: the bhavai of Gujarat, the jatra of West Bengal, the nautanki and ramlila of North India, tamasha of Maharashtra, burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu, and the yakshagana of Karnataka. India has a theatre training institute the National School of Drama (NSD) that is situated at New Delhi It is an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.The Indian film industry produces the world's most-watched cinema. Established regional cinematic traditions exist in the Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi, Odia, Tamil, and Telugu languages. The Hindi language film industry (Bollywood) is the largest sector representing 43% of box office revenue, followed by the South Indian Telugu and Tamil film industries which represent 36% combined.Television broadcasting began in India in 1959 as a state-run medium of communication and expanded slowly for more than two decades. The state monopoly on television broadcast ended in the 1990s. Since then, satellite channels have increasingly shaped the popular culture of Indian society. Today, television is the most penetrative media in India; industry estimates indicate that as of 2012 there are over 554 million TV consumers, 462 million with satellite or cable connections compared to other forms of mass media such as the press (350 million), radio (156 million) or internet (37 million).=== Society ===Traditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Indian caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian subcontinent. Social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as jātis, or "castes". India declared untouchability to be illegal in 1947 and has since enacted other anti-discriminatory laws and social welfare initiatives.Family values are important in the Indian tradition, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in India, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas. An overwhelming majority of Indians, with their consent, have their marriages arranged by their parents or other family elders. Marriage is thought to be for life, and the divorce rate is extremely low, with less than one in a thousand marriages ending in divorce. Child marriages are common, especially in rural areas; many women wed before reaching 18, which is their legal marriageable age. Female infanticide in India, and lately female foeticide, have created skewed gender ratios; the number of missing women in the country quadrupled from 15 million to 63 million in the 50-year period ending in 2014, faster than the population growth during the same period, and constituting 20 percent of India's female electorate. Accord to an Indian government study, an additional 21 million girls are unwanted and do not receive adequate care. Despite a government ban on sex-selective foeticide, the practice remains commonplace in India, the result of a preference for boys in a patriarchal society. The payment of dowry, although illegal, remains widespread across class lines. Deaths resulting from dowry, mostly from bride burning, are on the rise, despite stringent anti-dowry laws.Many Indian festivals are religious in origin. The best known include: Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Thai Pongal, Holi, Durga Puja, Eid ul-Fitr, Bakr-Id, Christmas, and Vaisakhi.=== Education ===In the 2011 census, about 73% of the population was literate, with 81% for men and 65% for women. This compares to 1981 when the respective rates were 41%, 53% and 29%. In 1951 the rates were 18%, 27% and 9%. In 1921 the rates 7%, 12% and 2%. In 1891 they were 5%, 9% and 1%, According to Latika Chaudhary, in 1911 there were under three primary schools for every ten villages. Statistically, more caste and religious diversity reduced private spending. Primary schools taught literacy, so local diversity limited its growth.Education system of India is the world's second largest higher education System. India had over 900 universities, 40,000 colleges and 1.5 million schools. In India's higher education system, a significant number of seats are reserved under affirmative action policies for the historically disadvantaged. In recent decades India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development.=== Clothing ===From ancient times until the advent of the modern, the most widely worn traditional dress in India was draped. For women it took the form of a sari, a single piece of cloth many yards long and with a width which spanned the lower body. The sari was traditionally wrapped around the lower body and around the shoulder. In its modern form, it is combined with an underskirt, or Indian petticoat, and tucked in the waist band for more secure fastening. It is also commonly worn with an Indian blouse, or choli, which serves as the primary upper-body garment, the sari's end—passing over the shoulder—serving to cover the midriff and obscure the upper body's contours. For men, a similar but shorter length of cloth, the dhoti, has served as a lower-body garment. Other forms of traditional apparel that involve no stitching are the chaddar (a shawl worn by both sexes during colder weather) and the pagri (a turban or a scarf worn around the head.The use of stitched clothes in India became widespread after Muslim rule was established first in the Delhi sultanate (ca 1300 CE) and then the Mughal Empire (ca 1525 CE). Among the garments that came to be worn in northern India during this time and are still commonly worn are: the shalwars and pyjamas, both forms of trousers, and the tunics kurta and kameez. In southern India, the traditional draped garments were to see much longer continuous use.Shalwars are atypically wide at the waist but narrow to a cuffed bottom. They are held up by a drawstring or elastic belt, which causes them to become pleated around the waist. The pants can be wide and baggy, or they can be cut quite narrow, on the bias, in which case they are called churidars. The kameez is a long shirt or tunic. The side seams are left open below the waist-line,), which gives the wearer greater freedom of movement. At first worn by Muslim women, the use of shalwar kameez gradually spread, making them a regional style, especially in the Punjab region. A kurta, which traces its roots to Central Asian nomadic tunics, has evolved stylistically in India as a garment for everyday wear as well as for formal occasions. It is traditionally made of cotton or silk; it is worn plain or with embroidered decoration, such as chikan; and it can be loose or tight in the torso, typically falling either just above or somewhere below the wearer's knees.In the last 50 years, fashions have changed a great deal in India. Increasingly, in urban northern India, the sari is no longer the apparel of everyday wear, though it continued to be used for formal occasions. The traditional shalwar kameez is rarely worn by younger women, who favour churidars or jeans. The kurtas worn by young men usually fall to the shins and are seldom plain. In white-collar office settings, ubiquitous air conditioning allows men to wear sports jackets year-round. For weddings and formal occasions, men in the middle- and upper classes often wear bandgala, or short Nehru jackets, with pants, with the groom and his groomsmen sporting sherwanis and churidars. The dhoti, once the universal garment of Hindu males, the wearing of which in the homespun and handwoven khadi allowed Gandhi to bring Indian nationalism to the millions,is seldom seen in the cities,—except with brocaded border in the liturgical vestments of Hindu priests.=== Cuisine ===Indian cuisine consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines. Given the range of diversity in soil type, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substantially from each other, using locally available spices, herbs, vegetables, and fruit. Indian foodways have been influenced by religion, in particular Hindu cultural choices and traditions. They have been also shaped by Islamic rule, particularly that of the Mughals, by the arrival of the Portuguese on India's southwestern shores, and by British rule. These three influences are reflected, respectively, in the dishes of pilaf and biryani; the vindaloo; and the tiffin and the Railway mutton curry. Earlier, the Columbian exchange had brought the potato, the tomato, maize, peanuts, cashew nuts, pineapples, guavas, and most notably, chilli peppers, to India. Each became staples of use. In turn, the spice trade between India and Europe was a catalyst for Europe's Age of Discovery.The cereals grown in India, their choice, times, and regions of planting, correspond strongly to the timing of India's monsoons, and the variation across regions in their associated rainfall. In general, the broad division of cereal zones in India, as determined by their dependence on rain, was firmly in place before the arrival of artificial irrigation. Rice, which requires a lot of water, has been grown traditionally in regions of high rainfall in the northeast and the western coast, wheat in regions of moderate rainfall, like India's northern plains, and millet in regions of low rainfall, such as on the Deccan Plateau and in Rajasthan.The foundation of a typical Indian meal is a cereal cooked in plain fashion, and complemented with flavourful savoury dishes. The latter includes lentils, pulses and vegetables spiced commonly with ginger and garlic, but also more discerningly with a combination of spices that may include coriander, cumin, turmeric, cinnamon, cardamon and others as informed by culinary conventions. In an actual meal, this mental representation takes the form of a platter, or thali, with a central place for the cooked cereal, peripheral ones, often in small bowls, for the flavourful accompaniments, and the simultaneous, rather than piecemeal, ingestion of the two in each act of eating, whether by actual mixing—for example of rice and lentils—or in the folding of one—such as bread—around the other, such as cooked vegetables.A notable feature of Indian food is the existence of a number of distinctive vegetarian cuisines, each a feature of the geographical and cultural histories of its adherents. The appearance of ahimsa, or the avoidance of violence toward all forms of life in many religious orders early in Indian history, especially Upanishadic Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, is thought to have been a notable factor in the prevalence of vegetarianism among a segment of India's Hindu population, especially in southern India, Gujarat, and the Hindi-speaking belt of north-central India, as well as among Jains. Among these groups, strong discomfort is felt at thoughts of eating meat, and contributes to the low proportional consumption of meat to overall diet in India. Unlike China, which has increased its per capita meat consumption substantially in its years of increased economic growth, in India the strong dietary traditions have contributed to dairy, rather than meat, becoming the preferred form of animal protein consumption accompanying higher economic growth.In the last millennium, the most significant import of cooking techniques into India occurred during the Mughal Empire. The cultivation of rice had spread much earlier from India to Central and West Asia; however, it was during Mughal rule that dishes, such as the pilaf, developed in the interim during the Abbasid caliphate, and cooking techniques such as the marinating of meat in yogurt, spread into northern India from regions to its northwest. To the simple yogurt marinade of Persia, onions, garlic, almonds, and spices began to be added in India. Rice grown to the southwest of the Mughal capital, Agra, which had become famous in the Islamic world for its fine grain, was partially cooked and layered alternately with the sauteed meat, the pot sealed tightly, and slow cooked according to another Persian cooking technique, to produce what has today become the Indian biryani, a feature of festive dining in many parts of India.In food served in restaurants in urban north India, and internationally, the diversity of Indian food has been partially concealed by the dominance of Punjabi cuisine. This was caused in large part by an entrepreneurial response among people from the Punjab region who had been displaced by the 1947 partition of India, and had arrived in India as refugees. The identification of Indian cuisine with the tandoori chicken—cooked in the tandoor oven, which had traditionally been used for baking bread in the rural Punjab and the Delhi region, especially among Muslims, but which is originally from Central Asia—dates to this period.=== Sports and recreation ===Cricket is the most popular sport in India. Major domestic competitions include the Indian Premier League, which is the most-watched cricket league in the world and ranks sixth among all sports leagues.Several traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as kabaddi, kho kho, pehlwani and gilli-danda. Some of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts, such as Kalarippayattu, musti yuddha, silambam, and marma adi, originated in India. Chess, commonly held to have originated in India as chaturaṅga, is regaining widespread popularity with the rise in the number of Indian grandmasters. Pachisi, from which parcheesi derives, was played on a giant marble court by Akbar.The improved results garnered by the Indian Davis Cup team and other Indian tennis players in the early 2010s have made tennis increasingly popular in the country. India has a comparatively strong presence in shooting sports, and has won several medals at the Olympics, the World Shooting Championships, and the Commonwealth Games. Other sports in which Indians have succeeded internationally include badminton (Saina Nehwal and P V Sindhu are two of the top-ranked female badminton players in the world), boxing, and wrestling. Football is popular in West Bengal, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and the north-eastern states.India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: the 1951 and 1982 Asian Games; the 1987, 1996, and 2011 Cricket World Cup tournaments; the 2003 Afro-Asian Games; the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy; the 2009 World Badminton Championships; the 2010 Hockey World Cup; the 2010 Commonwealth Games; and the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup. Major international sporting events held annually in India include the Maharashtra Open, the Mumbai Marathon, the Delhi Half Marathon, and the Indian Masters. The first Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix featured in late 2011 but has been discontinued from the F1 season calendar since 2014. India has traditionally been the dominant country at the South Asian Games. An example of this dominance is the basketball competition where the Indian team won three out of four tournaments to date.== See also ==Outline of India== Notes ==== References ==== Bibliography ==OverviewEtymologyHistoryGeographyBiodiversityPoliticsForeign relations and militaryEconomyDemographicsArtCulture== External links ==GovernmentOfficial website of Government of IndiaGovernment of India Web DirectoryGeneral informationIndia. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.India at CurlieIndia web resources provided by GovPubs at the University of Colorado Boulder LibrariesIndia from the BBC NewsIndian State district block village website Wikimedia Atlas of India Geographic data related to India at OpenStreetMapKey Development Forecasts for India from International Futures Nepita is a monotypic moth genus in the subfamily Arctiinae erected by Frederic Moore in 1860. Its only species, Nepita conferta, the footman moth, was first described by Francis Walker in 1854. It is found in India and Sri Lanka.== Description ==Palpi porrect (extending forward), extending beyond the frons, and fringed with hair below. Antennae roughly scaled. Tibia with long spurs. Forewings are broad and short. Veins 3 to 5 from close to angle of cell and vein 6 from below upper angle. Veins 7 to 9 stalked and vein 11 anastomosing with vein 12. Hindwings with stalked vein 4 and 5 and 6 and 7. From 8 from beyond middle of cell.Male antennae bipectinate with short branches. Head and thorax orange, where thorax with black spots. Abdomen black, orange below and at extremity. Forewings orange with some black marks at base. Antemedial and medial bands are curved and waved, which coalesce at median vein. There is a black spot on discocellulars. The post medial band is waved and excurved round end of cell. A series of submarginal spots and streaks present, often conjoined into a band. Margin and cilia are black. Hindwings have orange base, and a broad marginal black band. The spots and streaks differ in each region of the moth survives, where the limbata and ochracea forms have narrow bands on forewings. Forms conferta, aegrota, anila has broad bands on forewings. fusca from Sri Lanka is brown suffused. These difference gave earlier division of the species into many binomials.Larva purplish black and short, swollen in shape. Each somite thickly covered with long black hair tufts. First, seventh and anal somites possess dorsal orange marks. There is a slender line runs from the seventh to the anal somite.== Ecology ==They are often found in wet, moist habitats and larva mostly feed on mosses and lichen. The larva was recorded as a minor pest of brinjal. They were observed as hosts of Glyptapanteles species of parasitoid wasps. It is highly adaptable to domestic conditions, caterpillars are found along walls in rainy seasons.== References ==Savela, Markku (ed.). "Nepita Moore, [1860]". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved 21 January 2019. Indogrammodes is a genus of moths of the family Crambidae. It contains only one species, Indogrammodes pectinicornalis, which is found in India.== References == India is situated north of the equator between 8°4' north to 37°6' north latitude and 68°7' east to 97°25' east longitude. It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total area of 3,287,263 square kilometres (1,269,219 sq mi). India measures 3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south and 2,933 km (1,822 mi) from east to west. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km (9,445 mi) and a coastline of 7,516.6 km (4,671 mi).On the south, India projects into and is bounded by the Indian Ocean—in particular, by the Arabian Sea on the west, the Lakshadweep Sea to the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the east, and the Indian Ocean proper to the south. The Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar separate India from Sri Lanka to its immediate southeast, and the Maldives are some 125 kilometres (78 mi) to the south of India's Lakshadweep Islands across the Eight Degree Channel. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands, some 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) southeast of the mainland, share maritime borders with Myanmar, Thailand and Indonesia. Kanyakumari at 8°4′41″N and 77°55′230″E is the southernmost tip of the Indian mainland, while the southernmost point in India is Indira Point on Great Nicobar Island. The northernmost point which is under Indian administration is Indira Col, Siachen Glacier. India's territorial waters extend into the sea to a distance of 12 nautical miles (13.8 mi; 22.2 km) from the coast baseline. India has the 18th largest Exclusive Economic Zone of 2,305,143 km2 (890,021 sq mi).The northern frontiers of India are defined largely by the Himalayan mountain range, where the country borders China, Bhutan, and Nepal. Its western border with Pakistan lies in the Karakoram range, Punjab Plains, the Thar Desert and the Rann of Kutch salt marshes. In the far northeast, the Chin Hills and Kachin Hills, deeply forested mountainous regions, separate India from Burma. On the east, its border with Bangladesh is largely defined by the Khasi Hills and Mizo Hills, and the watershed region of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.The Ganges is the longest river originating in India. The Ganges–Brahmaputra system occupies most of northern, central, and eastern India, while the Deccan Plateau occupies most of southern India. Kangchenjunga, in the Indian state of Sikkim, is the highest point in India at 8,586 m (28,169 ft) and the world's third highest peak. The climate across India ranges from equatorial in the far south, to alpine and tundra in the upper regions of the Himalayas. Geologically, India lies on the Indian Plate, the northern part of the Indo-Australian Plate.== Geological development ==India is situated entirely on the Indian Plate, a major tectonic plate that was formed when it split off from the ancient continent Gondwanaland (ancient landmass, consisting of the southern part of the supercontinent of Pangea). The Indo-Australian plate is subdivided into the Indian and Australian plates. About 90 million years ago, during the late Cretaceous Period, the Indian Plate began moving north at about 15 cm/year (6 in/yr). About 50 to 55 million years ago, in the Eocene Epoch of the Cenozoic Era, the plate collided with Asia after covering a distance of 2,000 to 3,000 km (1,243 to 1,864 mi), having moved faster than any other known plate. In 2007, German geologists determined that the Indian Plate was able to move so quickly because it is only half as thick as the other plates which formerly constituted Gondwanaland. The collision with the Eurasian Plate along the modern border between India and Nepal formed the orogenic belt that created the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas. As of 2009, the Indian Plate is moving northeast at 5 cm/yr (2 in/yr), while the Eurasian Plate is moving north at only 2 cm/yr (0.8 in/yr). India is thus referred to as the "fastest continent". This is causing the Eurasian Plate to deform, and the Indian Plate to compress at a rate of 4 cm/yr (1.6 in/yr).== Political geography ==India is divided into 28 States (further subdivided into districts) and 8 union territories including the National capital territory (i.e., Delhi).India's borders run a total length of 15,200 km (9,400 mi).Its borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh were delineated according to the Radcliffe Line, which was created in 1947 during Partition of India. Its western border with Pakistan extends up to 3,323 km (2,065 mi), dividing the Punjab region and running along the boundaries of the Thar Desert and the Rann of Kutch. This border runs along the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Punjab. Both nations delineated a Line of Control (LoC) to serve as the informal boundary between the Indian and Pakistan-administered areas of Jammu and Kashmir. India claims the whole state of Jammu and Kashmir, which includes Pakistan-administered Kashmir and China-administered Aksai Chin, which, according to India are illegally occupied areas.India's border with Bangladesh runs 4,096.70 km (2,545.57 mi). West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram are the states which share the border with Bangladesh. Before 2015, there were 92 enclaves of Bangladesh on Indian soil and 106 enclaves of India were on Bangladeshi soil. These enclaves were eventually exchanged in order to simplify the border. After the exchange, India lost roughly 40 km2 (10,000 acres) to Bangladesh.The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is the effective border between India and the People's Republic of China. It traverses 4,057 km along the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. The border with Burma (Myanmar) extends up to 1,643 km (1,021 mi) along the southern borders of India's northeastern states viz. Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram. Located amidst the Himalayan range, India's border with Bhutan runs 699 km (434 mi). Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh are the states which share the border with Bhutan. The border with Nepal runs 1,751 km (1,088 mi) along the foothills of the Himalayas in northern India. Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim are the states which share the border with Nepal. The Siliguri Corridor, narrowed sharply by the borders of Bhutan, Nepal and Bangladesh, connects peninsular India with the northeastern states.== Physiographic regions ===== Cratons ===Cratons are a specific kind of continental crust made up of a top layer called platform and an older layer called basement. A shield is the part of a craton where basement rock crops out of the ground, and it is relatively the older and more stable section, unaffected by plate tectonics.The Indian Craton can be divided into five major cratons as such:Aravalli Craton (Marwar-Mewar Craton or Western Indian Craton): Covers Rajasthan as well as western and southern Haryana. It comprises Mewar Craton in the east and Marwar Craton in the west. It is limited by the Great Boundary Fault in the east, sandy Thar Desert in the Thar desert in the west, Indo-ganetic alluvium in the north, Son-Narmada-Tapti in the south. It mainly has quartzite, marble, pelite, greywacke and extinct volcanos exposed in Aravalli-Delhi Orogen. Malani Igneous Suite is the largest in India and third largest igneous suite in the world.Bundelkand Craton, covers 26,00 km2 in the Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh and forms the basis of the Malwa Plateau. It is limited by the Aravalli in the west, Narmada river and Satpura range in the south, and Indo-Gantetic alluvium in the north. It is similar to the Aravali Craton, which used to be a single craton before being divided into two with the evolution of Hindoli and Mahakoshal belts at the margins of two cratons.Dharwar Craton (Karnataka Craton), 3.4 - 2.6 Ga, granite-greenstone terrain covers the state of Karnataka and parts of eastern and southern Maharashtra state, and forms the basis of the southern end of the Deccan Plateau. In 1886 it was divided into two tectonic blocks, namely Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC) and Western Dharwar Craton (WDC).Singhbhum Craton, 4,000 km2 area which primarily covers Jharkhand as well as parts of Odisha, northern Andhra Pradesh, northern Telangana and eastern Maharashtra. It is limited by the Chhota Nagpur Plateau to the north, Eastern Ghats to the southeast, Bastar Craton to southwest and alluvium plain to the east.Bastar Craton (Bastar-Bhandara Craton), primarily covers Chhattisgarh and forms the basis of the Chhota Nagpur Plateau. It is a remnant of 3.4-3.0 Ga old TTG gneisses of five types. It is subdivided into Kotri-Dongagarh Orogen and the Rest of Bastar Craton. It is limited by three rifts, Godavari rift in southwest, Narmada rift in northwest and Mahanadi rift in northeast.=== Regions ===India can be divided into six physiographic regions. They are:Northern Mountains: HimalayasPeninsular Plateau: contains mountain ranges (Aravalli, Vindhayachal and Satpura ranges), ghats (Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats) and plateaues (Malwa Plateau, Chhota Nagpur Plateau, Southern Garanulite terrain, Deccan Plateau and Kutch Kathiawar plateau).Indo-Gangetic Plain or The Northern PlainsThar DesertCoastal Plains: Eastern Ghat folds and Western Ghats foldsIslands- The Andaman and Nicobar islands and the Lakshadweep islands.=== The Himalayas ===An arc of mountains consisting of the Himalayas, Hindu Kush, and Patkai ranges define the northern frontiers of the South Asia. These were formed by the ongoing tectonic plates collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. The mountains in these ranges include some of the world's tallest mountains which act as a colourful barrier to cold polar winds. They also facilitate the monsoon winds which in turn influence the climate in India. Rivers originating in these mountains flow through the fertile Indo–Gangetic plains. These mountains are recognised by biogeographers as the boundary between two of the Earth's great biogeographic realms: the temperate Palearctic realm that covers most of Eurasia, and the tropical and subtropical Indomalayan realm which includes the South Asia, Southeast Asia and Indonesia.The Himalayan range is the world's highest mountain range, with its tallest peak Mount Everest (8,848 metres [29,029 ft]) on the Nepal–China border. They form India's northeastern border, separating it from northeastern Asia. They are one of the world's youngest mountain ranges and extend almost uninterrupted for 2,500 km (1,600 mi), covering an area of 500,000 km2 (190,000 sq mi). The Himalayas extend from Jammu and Kashmir in the north to Arunachal Pradesh in the east. These states along with Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Sikkim lie mostly in the Himalayan region. Numerous Himalayan peaks rise over 7,000 m (23,000 ft) and the snow line ranges between 6,000 m (20,000 ft) in Sikkim to around 3,000 m (9,800 ft) in Kashmir. Kanchenjunga—on the Sikkim–Nepal border—is the highest point in the area administered by India. Most peaks in the Himalayas remain snowbound throughout the year. The Himalayas act as a barrier to the frigid katabatic winds flowing down from Central Asia. Thus, northern India is kept warm or only mildly cooled during winter; in summer, the same phenomenon makes India relatively hot.The Karakoram is situated in the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. It has more than sixty peaks above 7,000 m (23,000 ft), including K2, the second highest peak in the world 8,611 m (28,251 ft). K2 is just 237 m (778 ft) smaller than the 8,848 m (29,029 ft) Mount Everest. The range is about 500 km (310 mi) in length and the most heavily glaciated part of the world outside of the polar regions. The Siachen Glacier at 76 km (47 mi) and the Biafo Glacier at 67 km (42 mi) rank as the world's second and third-longest glaciers outside the polar regions. Just to the west of the northwest end of the Karakoram, lies the Hindu Raj range, beyond which is the Hindu Kush range. The southern boundary of the Karakoram is formed by the Gilgit, Indus and Shyok rivers, which separate the range from the northwestern end of the Himalayas.The Patkai, or Purvanchal, are situated near India's eastern border with Burma. They were created by the same tectonic processes which led to the formation of the Himalayas. The physical features of the Patkai mountains are conical peaks, steep slopes and deep valleys. The Patkai ranges are not as rugged or tall as the Himalayas. There are three hill ranges that come under the Patkai: the Patkai–Bum, the Garo–Khasi–Jaintia and the Lushai hills. The Garo–Khasi range lies in Meghalaya. Mawsynram, a village near Cherrapunji lying on the windward side of these hills, has the distinction of being the wettest place in the world, receiving the highest annual rainfall.=== The Peninsular Plateau ===The main features of Indian Craton are:Mountain ranges (clockwise from top-left)Aravali Range is the oldest mountain range in India, running across Rajasthan from northeast to southwest direction, extending approximately 800 km (500 mi). The northern end of the range continues as isolated hills and rocky ridges into Haryana, ending near Delhi. The highest peak in this range is Guru Shikhar at Mount Abu, rising to 1,722 m (5,650 ft), lying near the border with Gujarat. The Aravali Range is the eroded stub of an ancient fold mountain system. The range rose in a Precambrian event called the Aravali–Delhi orogen. The range joins two of the ancient segments that make up the Indian craton, the Marwar segment to the northwest of the range, and the Bundelkhand segment to the southeast.Vindhya range, lies north of Satpura range and east of Aravali range, runs across most of central India, extending 1,050 km (650 mi). The average elevation of these hills is from 300 to 600 m (980 to 1,970 ft) and rarely goes above 700 metres (2,300 ft). They are believed to have been formed by the wastes created by the weathering of the ancient Aravali mountains. Geographically, it separates Northern India from Southern India. The western end of the range lies in eastern Gujarat, near its border with Madhya Pradesh, and runs east and north, almost meeting the Ganges at Mirzapur. Satpura Range, lies south of Vindhya range and east of Aravali range, begins in eastern Gujarat near the Arabian Sea coast and runs east across Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. It extends 900 km (560 mi) with many peaks rising above 1,000 m (3,300 ft). It is triangular in shape, with its apex at Ratnapuri and the two sides being parallel to the Tapti and Narmada rivers. It runs parallel to the Vindhya Range, which lies to the north, and these two east–west ranges divide the Indo–Gangetic plain from the Deccan Plateau located north of River Narmada.Plateaus (clockwise from top-left)Malwa Plateau is spread across Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. The average elevation of the Malwa plateau is 500 metres, and the landscape generally slopes towards the north. Most of the region is drained by the Chambal River and its tributaries; the western part is drained by the upper reaches of the Mahi River.Chhota Nagpur Plateau is situated in eastern India, covering much of Jharkhand and adjacent parts of Odisha, Bihar and Chhattisgarh. Its total area is approximately 65,000 km2 (25,000 sq mi) and is made up of three smaller plateaus—the Ranchi, Hazaribagh, and Kodarma plateaus. The Ranchi plateau is the largest, with an average elevation of 700 m (2,300 ft). Much of the plateau is forested, covered by the Chhota Nagpur dry deciduous forests. Vast reserves of metal ores and coal have been found in the Chota Nagpur plateau. The Kathiawar peninsula in western Gujarat is bounded by the Gulf of Kutch and the Gulf of Khambat. The natural vegetation in most of the peninsula is xeric scrub, part of the Northwestern thorn scrub forests ecoregion.Southern Garanulite terrain: Covers South India especially Tamil Nadu excluding western and eastern ghats.Deccan Plateau, also called Deccan Trapps, is a large triangular plateau, bounded by the Vindhyas to the north and flanked by the Eastern and Western Ghats. The Deccan covers a total area of 1.9 million km2 (735,000-mile2). It is mostly flat, with elevations ranging from 300 to 600 m (980 to 1,970 ft). The average elevation of the plateau is 2,000 feet (610 m) above sea level. The surface slopes from 3,000 feet (910 m) in the west to 1,500 feet (460 m) in the east. It slopes gently from west to east and gives rise to several peninsular rivers such as the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri and the Mahanadi which drain into the Bay of Bengal. This region is mostly semi-arid as it lies on the leeward side of both Ghats. Much of the Deccan is covered by thorn scrub forest scattered with small regions of deciduous broadleaf forest. Climate in the Deccan ranges from hot summers to mild winters.Kutch Kathiawar plateau is located in Gujarat state.GhatsWestern Ghats or Sahyadri mountains run along the western edge of India's Deccan Plateau and separate it from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. The range runs approximately 1,600 km (990 mi) from south of the Tapti River near the Gujarat–Maharashtra border and across Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu to the southern tip of the Deccan peninsula. The average elevation is around 1,000 m (3,300 ft). Anai Mudi in the Anaimalai Hills 2,695 m (8,842 ft) in Kerala is the highest peak in the Western Ghats.Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains, which have been eroded and quadrisected by the four major rivers of southern India, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. These mountains extend from West Bengal to Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, along the coast and parallel to the Bay of Bengal. Though not as tall as the Western Ghats, some of its peaks are over 1,000 m (3,300 ft) in height. The Nilgiri hills in Tamil Nadu lies at the junction of the Eastern and Western Ghats. Arma Konda (1,690 m (5,540 ft)) in Andhra Pradesh is the tallest peak in Eastern Ghats.=== Indo-Gangetic plain ===The Indo-Gangetic plains, also known as the Great Plains are large alluvial plains dominated by three main rivers, the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra. They run parallel to the Himalayas, from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Assam in the east, and drain most of northern and eastern India. The plains encompass an area of 700,000 km2 (270,000 sq mi). The major rivers in this region are the Ganges, Indus, and Brahmaputra along with their main tributaries—Yamuna, Chambal, Gomti, Ghaghara, Kosi, Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab, and Tista—as well as the rivers of the Ganges Delta, such as the Meghna.The great plains are sometimes classified into four divisions:The Bhabar belt is adjacent to the foothills of the Himalayas and consists of boulders and pebbles which have been carried down by streams. As the porosity of this belt is very high, the streams flow underground. The Bhabar is generally narrow with its width varying between 6 to 15 km (3.7 to 9.3 mi).The Tarai belt lies south of the adjacent Bhabar region and is composed of newer alluvium. The underground streams reappear in this region. The region is excessively moist and thickly forested. It also receives heavy rainfall throughout the year and is populated with a variety of wildlife.The Bangar belt consists of older alluvium and forms the alluvial terrace of the flood plains. In the Gangetic plains, it has a low upland covered by laterite deposits.The Khadar belt lies in lowland areas after the Bangar belt. It is made up of fresh newer alluvium which is deposited by the rivers flowing down the plain.The Indo-Gangetic belt is the world's most extensive expanse of uninterrupted alluvium formed by the deposition of silt by the numerous rivers. The plains are flat making it conducive for irrigation through canals. The area is also rich in ground water sources. The plains are one of the world's most intensely farmed areas. The main crops grown are rice and wheat, which are grown in rotation. Other important crops grown in the region include maize, sugarcane and cotton. The Indo-Gangetic plains rank among the world's most densely populated areas.=== Thar Desert ===The Thar Desert (also known as the deserts) is by some calculations the world's seventh largest desert, by some others the tenth. It forms a significant portion of western India and covers an area of 200,000 to 238,700 km2 (77,200 to 92,200 sq mi). The desert continues into Pakistan as the Cholistan Desert. Most of the Thar Desert is situated in Rajasthan, covering 61% of its geographic area.About 10 percent of this region consists of sand dunes, and the remaining 90 percent consist of craggy rock forms, compacted salt-lake bottoms, and interdunal and fixed dune areas. Annual temperatures can range from 0 °C (32 °F) in the winter to over 50 °C (122 °F) during the summer. Most of the rainfall received in this region is associated with the short July–September southwest monsoon that brings 100 to 500 mm (3.9 to 19.7 in) of precipitation. Water is scarce and occurs at great depths, ranging from 30 to 120 metres (98 to 394 ft) below the ground level. Rainfall is precarious and erratic, ranging from below 120 mm (4.7 in) in the extreme west to 375 mm (14.8 in) eastward. The only river in this region is Luni. The soils of the arid region are generally sandy to sandy-loam in texture. The consistency and depth vary as per the topographical features. The low-lying loams are heavier may have a hard pan of clay, calcium carbonate or gypsum.In western India, the Kutch region in Gujarat and Koyna in Maharashtra are classified as a Zone IV region (high risk) for earthquakes. The Kutch city of Bhuj was the epicentre of the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, which claimed the lives of more than 1,337 people and injured 166,836 while destroying or damaging near a million homes. The 1993 Latur earthquake in Maharashtra killed 7,928 people and injured 30,000. Other areas have a moderate to low risk of an earthquake occurring.=== Coastal plains and ghats ===The Eastern Coastal Plain is a wide stretch of land lying between the Eastern Ghats and the oceanic boundary of India. It stretches from Tamil Nadu in the south to West Bengal in the east. The Mahanadi, Godavari, Kaveri, and Krishna rivers drain these plains. The temperature in the coastal regions often exceeds 30 °C (86 °F), and is coupled with high levels of humidity. The region receives both the northeast monsoon and southwest monsoon rains. The southwest monsoon splits into two branches, the Bay of Bengal branch and the Arabian Sea branch. The Bay of Bengal branch moves northwards crossing northeast India in early June. The Arabian Sea branch moves northwards and discharges much of its rain on the windward side of Western Ghats. Annual rainfall in this region averages between 1,000 and 3,000 mm (39 and 118 in). The width of the plains varies between 100 and 130 km (62 and 81 mi). The plains are divided into six regions—the Mahanadi delta, the southern Andhra Pradesh plain, the Krishna-Godavari deltas, the Kanyakumari coast, the Coromandel Coast, and sandy coastal.The Western Coastal Plain is a narrow strip of land sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, ranging from 50 to 100 km (31 to 62 mi) in width. It extends from Gujarat in the north and extends through Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, and Kerala. Numerous rivers and backwaters inundate the region. Mostly originating in the Western Ghats, the rivers are fast-flowing, usually perennial, and empty into estuaries. Major rivers flowing into the sea are the Tapti, Narmada, Mandovi and Zuari. Vegetation is mostly deciduous, but the Malabar Coast moist forests constitute a unique ecoregion. The Western Coastal Plain can be divided into two parts, the Konkan and the Malabar Coast.=== Islands ===The Lakshadweep and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are India's two major island formations and are classified as union territories.The Lakshadweep Islands lie 200 to 440 km (120 to 270 mi) off the coast of Kerala in the Arabian sea with an area of 32 km2 (12 sq mi). They consist of twelve atolls, three reefs, and five submerged banks, with a total of about 35 islands and islets.The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are located between 6° and 14° north latitude and 92° and 94° east longitude. They consist of 572 islands, lying in the Bay of Bengal near the Myanmar coast running in a north–south axis for approximately 910 km. They are located 1,255 km (780 mi) from Kolkata (Calcutta) and 193 km (120 mi) from Cape Negrais in Burma. The territory consists of two island groups, the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands consist of 572 islands which run in a north–south axis for around 910 km. The Andaman group has 325 islands which cover an area of 6,170 km2 (2,382 sq mi) while the Nicobar group has only 247 islands with an area of 1,765 km2 (681 sq mi). India's only active volcano, Barren Island is situated here. It last erupted in 2017. The Narcondum is a dormant volcano and there is a mud volcano at Baratang. Indira Point, India's southernmost land point, is situated in the Nicobar islands at 6°45’10″N and 93°49’36″E, and lies just 189 km (117 mi) from the Indonesian island of Sumatra, to the southeast. The highest point is Mount Thullier at 642 m (2,106 ft).Other significant islands in India include Diu, a former Portuguese colony; Majuli, a river island of the Brahmaputra; Elephanta in Bombay Harbour; and Sriharikota, a barrier island in Andhra Pradesh. Salsette Island is India's most populous island on which the city of Mumbai (Bombay) is located. Forty-two islands in the Gulf of Kutch constitute the Marine National Park.== Natural resources ===== Ecological resources ======= Water bodies ====India has around 14,500 km of inland navigable waterways. There are twelve rivers which are classified as major rivers, with the total catchment area exceeding 2,528,000 km2 (976,000 sq mi). All major rivers of India originate from one of the three main watersheds:The Himalaya and the Karakoram rangesVindhya and Satpura range in central IndiaSahyadri or Western Ghats in western IndiaThe Himalayan river networks are snow-fed and have a perennial supply throughout the year. The other two river systems are dependent on the monsoons and shrink into rivulets during the dry season. The Himalayan rivers that flow westward into Punjab are the Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej.The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghana system has the largest catchment area of about 1,600,000 km2 (620,000 sq mi). The Ganges Basin alone has a catchment of about 1,100,000 km2 (420,000 sq mi). The Ganges originates from the Gangotri Glacier in Uttarakhand. It flows southeast, draining into the Bay of Bengal. (The Yamuna and Gomti rivers also arise in the western Himalayas and join the Ganges in the plains. The Brahmaputra originates in Tibet, China, where it is known as the Yarlung Tsangpo River) (or "Tsangpo"). It enters India in the far-eastern state of Arunachal Pradesh, then flows west through Assam. The Brahmaputra merges with the Ganges in Bangladesh, where it is known as the Jamuna River.The Chambal, another tributary of the Ganges, via the Yamuna, originates from the Vindhya-Satpura watershed. The river flows eastward. Westward-flowing rivers from this watershed are the Narmada and Tapi, which drain into the Arabian Sea in Gujarat. The river network that flows from east to west constitutes 10% of the total outflow.(The Western Ghats are the source of all Deccan rivers, which include the through Godavari River, Krishna River and Kaveri River, all draining into the Bay of Bengal. These rivers constitute 20% of India's total outflow).The heavy southwest monsoon rains cause the Brahmaputra and other rivers to distend their banks, often flooding surrounding areas. Though they provide rice paddy farmers with a largely dependable source of natural irrigation and fertilisation, such floods have killed thousands of people and tend to cause displacements of people in such areas.Major gulfs include the Gulf of Cambay, Gulf of Kutch, and the Gulf of Mannar. Straits include the Palk Strait, which separates India from Sri Lanka; the Ten Degree Channel, which separates the Andamans from the Nicobar Islands; and the Eight Degree Channel, which separates the Laccadive and Amindivi Islands from the Minicoy Island to the south. Important capes include the Kanyakumari (formerly called Cape Comorin), the southern tip of mainland India; Indira Point, the southernmost point in India (on Great Nicobar Island); Rama's Bridge, and Point Calimere. The Arabian Sea lies to the west of India, the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean lie to the east and south, respectively. Smaller seas include the Laccadive Sea and the Andaman Sea. There are four coral reefs in India, located in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Gulf of Mannar, Lakshadweep, and the Gulf of Kutch. Important lakes include Sambhar Lake, the country's largest saltwater lake in Rajasthan, Vembanad Lake in Kerala, Kolleru Lake in Andhra Pradesh, Loktak Lake in Manipur, Dal Lake in Kashmir, Chilka Lake (lagoon lake) in Odisha, and Sasthamkotta Lake in Kerala.==== Wetlands ====India's wetland ecosystem is widely distributed from the cold and arid located in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, and those with the wet and humid climate of peninsular India. Most of the wetlands are directly or indirectly linked to river networks. The Indian government has identified a total of 71 wetlands for conservation and are part of sanctuaries and national parks. Mangrove forests are present all along the Indian coastline in sheltered estuaries, creeks, backwaters, salt marshes and mudflats. The mangrove area covers a total of 4,461 km2 (1,722 sq mi), which comprises 7% of the world's total mangrove cover. Prominent mangrove covers are located in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Sundarbans delta, the Gulf of Kutch and the deltas of the Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna rivers. Parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala also have large mangrove covers.The Sundarbans delta is home to the largest mangrove forest in the world. It lies at the mouth of the Ganges and spreads across areas of Bangladesh and West Bengal. The Sundarbans is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, but is identified separately as the Sundarbans (Bangladesh) and the Sundarbans National Park (India). The Sundarbans are intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests. The area is known for its diverse fauna, being home to a large variety of species of birds, spotted deer, crocodiles and snakes. Its most famous inhabitant is the Bengal tiger. It is estimated that there are now 400 Bengal tigers and about 30,000 spotted deer in the area.The Rann of Kutch is a marshy region located in northwestern Gujarat and the bordering Sindh province of Pakistan. It occupies a total area of 27,900 km2 (10,800 sq mi). The region was originally a part of the Arabian Sea. Geologic forces such as earthquakes resulted in the damming up of the region, turning it into a large saltwater lagoon. This area gradually filled with silt thus turning it into a seasonal salt marsh. During the monsoons, the area turn into a shallow marsh, often flooding to knee-depth. After the monsoons, the region turns dry and becomes parched.=== Economic resources ======= Renewable water resources ====India's total renewable water resources are estimated at 1,907.8 km3 a year. Its annual supply of usable and replenshable groundwater amounts to 350 billion cubic metres. Only 35% of groundwater resources are being utilised. About 44 million tonnes of cargo is moved annually through the country's major rivers and waterways. Groundwater supplies 40% of water in India's irrigation canals. 56% of the land is arable and used for agriculture. Black soils are moisture-retentive and are preferred for dry farming and growing cotton, linseed, etc. Forest soils are used for tea and coffee plantations. Red soils have a wide diffusion of iron content.==== Mineral oil ====Most of India's estimated 5.4 billion barrels (860,000,000 m3) in oil reserves are located in the Mumbai High, upper Assam, Cambay, the Krishna-Godavari and Cauvery basins. India possesses about seventeen trillion cubic feet of natural gas in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Odisha. Uranium is mined in Andhra Pradesh. India has 400 medium-to-high enthalpy thermal springs for producing geothermal energy in seven "provinces"—the Himalayas, Sohana, Cambay, the Narmada-Tapti delta, the Godavari delta and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (specifically the volcanic Barren Island.)==== Minerals and ores ====India is the world's biggest producer of mica blocks and mica splittings. India ranks second amongst the world's largest producers of barite and chromite. The Pleistocene system is rich in minerals. India is the third-largest coal producer in the world and ranks fourth in the production of iron ore. It is the fifth-largest producer of bauxite, second largest of crude steel as of February 2018 replacing Japan, the seventh-largest of manganese ore and the eighth-largest of aluminium. India has significant sources of titanium ore, diamonds and limestone. India possesses 24% of the world's known and economically viable thorium, which is mined along shores of Kerala. Gold had been mined in the now-defunct Kolar Gold Fields in Karnataka.== Climate ==Based on the Köppen system, India hosts six major climatic subtypes, ranging from arid desert in the west, alpine tundra and glaciers in the north, and humid tropical regions supporting rainforests in the southwest and the island territories. The nation has four seasons: winter (January–February), summer (March–May), a monsoon (rainy) season (June–September) and a post-monsoon period (October–December).The Himalayas act as a barrier to the frigid katabatic winds flowing down from Central Asia. Thus, northern India is kept warm or only mildly cooled during winter; in summer, the same phenomenon makes India relatively hot. Although the Tropic of Cancer—the boundary between the tropics and subtropics—passes through the middle of India, the whole country is considered to be tropical.Summer lasts between March and June in most parts of India. Temperatures can exceed 40 °C (104 °F) during the day. The coastal regions exceed 30 °C (86 °F) coupled with high levels of humidity. In the Thar desert area temperatures can exceed 45 °C (113 °F). The rain-bearing monsoon clouds are attracted to the low-pressure system created by the Thar Desert. The southwest monsoon splits into two arms, the Bay of Bengal arm and the Arabian Sea arm. The Bay of Bengal arm moves northwards crossing northeast India in early June. The Arabian Sea arm moves northwards and deposits much of its rain on the windward side of Western Ghats. Winters in peninsula India see mild to warm days and cool nights. Further north the temperature is cooler. Temperatures in some parts of the Indian plains sometimes fall below freezing. Most of northern India is plagued by fog during this season. The highest temperature recorded in India was 51 °C (124 °F) in Phalodi, Rajasthan. . And the lowest was −60 °C (−76 °F) in Dras, Jammu and Kashmir.== Geology ==India's geological features are classified based on their era of formation. The Precambrian formations of Cudappah and Vindhyan systems are spread out over the eastern and southern states. A small part of this period is spread over western and central India. The Paleozoic formations from the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian system are found in the Western Himalaya region in Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. The Mesozoic Deccan Traps formation is seen over most of the northern Deccan; they are believed to be the result of sub-aerial volcanic activity. The Trap soil is black in colour and conducive to agriculture. The Carboniferous system, Permian System and Triassic systems are seen in the western Himalayas. The Jurassic system is seen in the western Himalayas and Rajasthan.Tertiary imprints are seen in parts of Manipur, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and along the Himalayan belt. The Cretaceous system is seen in central India in the Vindhyas and part of the Indo-Gangetic plains. The Gondwana system is seen in the Narmada River area in the Vindhyas and Satpuras. The Eocene system is seen in the western Himalayas and Assam. Oligocene formations are seen in Kutch and Assam. The Pleistocene system is found over central India. The Andaman and Nicobar Island are thought to have been formed in this era by volcanoes. The Himalayas were formed by the convergence and deformation of the Indo-Australian and Eurasian Plates. Their continued convergence raises the height of the Himalayas by one centimetre each year.Soils in India can be classified into eight categories: alluvial, black, red, laterite, forest, arid and desert, saline and alkaline and peaty and organic soils. Alluvial soil constitute the largest soil group in India, constituting 80% of the total land surface. It is derived from the deposition of silt carried by rivers and are found in the Great Northern plains from Punjab to the Assam valley. Alluvial soil are generally fertile but they lack nitrogen and tend to be phosphoric. National Disaster Management Authority says that 60% of Indian landmass is prone to earthquakes and 8% susceptible to cyclone risks.Black soil are well developed in the Deccan lava region of Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh. These contain high percentage of clay and are moisture retentive. Red soils are found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka plateau, Andhra plateau, Chota Nagpur plateau and the Aravallis. These are deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and humus. Laterite soils are formed in tropical regions with heavy rainfall. Heavy rainfall results in leaching out all soluble material of top layer of soil. These are generally found in Western ghats, Eastern ghats and hilly areas of northeastern states that receive heavy rainfall. Forest soils occur on the slopes of mountains and hills in Himalayas, Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats. These generally consist of large amounts of dead leaves and other organic matter called humus.== See also ==Borders of IndiaClimate change in IndiaDisputed territories of IndiaList of extreme points of IndiaExclusive economic zone of IndiaList of disputed territories of IndiaOutline of India== References ==== Bibliography ==India Yearbook 2007. Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Govt. Of India. 2007. ISBN 978-81-230-1423-4.== Further reading == Eumacaria is a monotypic moth genus in the family Geometridae described by Packard in 1873. Its only species, Eumacaria madopata, the brown-bordered geometer moth, was first described by Achille Guenée in 1857. It is found in North America, where it has been recorded from British Columbia, northern Washington, southern Saskatchewan, from Maine to Florida, South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, Colorado and New Mexico. The habitat consists of orchards and shrublands. The species is listed as threatened in Connecticut.The wingspan is 20–25 mm. The wings are grey with fine antemedial, median and postmedial lines. The marginal third of the wings is brown, with a row of submarginal dark spots on the forewings. Adults are on wing from early June to early July in the north and from April to September in the south. There is one generation per year.The larvae feed on Prunus species (including Prunus pensylvanica and Prunus serotina) as well as Pyrus.== References ==== External links ==Pitkin, Brian & Jenkins, Paul. "Search results Family: Geometridae". Butterflies and Moths of the World. Natural History Museum, London. Nymphuliella is a monotypic moth genus of the family Crambidae described by William Harry Lange in 1956. It contains only one species, Nymphuliella daeckealis, known in the US as the china mark moth, described by F. Haimbach in 1915. It is found in the United States from New Jersey south to Florida and west to Colorado.The wingspan is 10–12 mm. The wings are blackish fuscous, with a white line on the forewings, running from the costa to beyond the middle. There is a pale transverse postmedian line on the hindwings. Adults are on wing from May to October.The larvae feed on the leaves of water lilies and water hyacinth. The species overwinters in the larval stage, with the larvae attached to underwater stems of the host plant.== References ==Natural History Museum Lepidoptera genus database Parectropis is a genus in the geometer moth family (Geometridae). A small Old World genus, it contains only a good dozen species altogether, though new ones are still being discovered. Only one species (P. similaria) is found in Europe; most others live in Asia though some occur in Africa.== Selected species ==Species of Parectropis include:Parectropis alticolaria Krüger, 2005Parectropis delosaria (Walker, [1863]) (formerly in Ectropis)Parectropis extersaria (Hübner, 1799) (sometimes in P. similaria)Parectropis fansipana Sato, 2006Parectropis nigrosparsa (Wileman & South, 1923)Parectropis paracyclophora Sato & M.Wang, 2006Parectropis pectinicornis Krüger, 2005Parectropis siamensisParectropis similaria (Hufnagel, 1767)Parectropis simplex (Warren, 1914) (formerly in Ectropis)Parectropis subflava (Bastelberger, 1909) (formerly in Ectropis)Parectropis 'Camdeboo Mountains'Parectropis 'Sterkstroom'== Footnotes ==== References ==Fauna Europaea (FE) (2011): Parectropis. Version 2.4, 2011-JAN-27. Retrieved 2011-APR-21.Krüger, M. (2005): New species of geometrid moths from Lesotho (Lepidoptera: Geometroidea: Geometridae). Annals of the Transvaal Museum 42: 19-45. HTML abstractPitkin, Brian & Jenkins, Paul (2004): Butterflies and Moths of the World, Generic Names and their Type-species – Parectropis. Version of 2004-NOV-05. Retrieved 2011-APR-21.Savela, Markku (2001): Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and some other life forms – Parectropis. Version of 2001-OCT-02. Retrieved 2011-APR-21. Yoshiyasua is a grass moth genus (family Crambidae) of subfamily Musotiminae. Some authors have placed it in the snout moth family (Pyralidae), where all grass moths were once also included, but this seems to be in error. The genus contains only one species, Yoshiyasua yasudai, which is found in Japan, where it has been recorded from the Ryukyu Islands.== Etymology ==The name refers to the genus' describer, entomologist Yutaka Yoshiyasu of Kyoto Prefectural University. The original name chosen by Yoshiyasu, Melanochroa, had to be changed because it properly refers to a genus of soldier flies (family Stratiomyidae, subfamily Stratiomyinae, tribe Prosopochrysini) described in 1886 already.== References ==Natural History Museum Lepidoptera genus database Eutrapela is a genus of moths in the family Geometridae. It contains only one species, Eutrapela clemataria, the curve-toothed geometer moth or purplish-brown looper, which is found in North America, where it has been recorded from Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Texas and north to Saskatchewan. The habitat consists of deciduous and mixed woodlands.The wingspan is 38–56 mm. The ground color of the wings is yellowish-tan with brownish-grey or brown mottling. The forewings have a fine, mostly straight postmedial line. The hindwing outer margin is scalloped. Adults are on wing from March to August in most of the range, but year round in the south. There are two generations per year.The larvae feed on the leaves of various trees, including ash, basswood, birch, elm, fir, maple, poplar and willow. Young larvae have a dark brown body. Older larvae have a greenish or tan to dark purplish-brown body.== References ==== External links ==Natural History Museum Lepidoptera genus database"

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